Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763

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Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763 1783 29 Colonial Products and Trade Structure of Colonial Society 1760s an optimistic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763


1
Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite
Protest to Popular Revolt, 17631783
2
Colonial Products and Trade
3
Structure of Colonial Society
  • 1760s an optimistic post-war period
  • Striking ethnic and racial diversity
  • 60 of population under twenty-one years old
  • Relatively high per-capita GDP

4
Breakdown of Political Trust
  • 1760George III ascends throne
  • Despite limited ability, wants to take more
    active role in government
  • Parliamentary sovereignty
  • English officials assume that Parliament must
    have ultimate authority
  • Colonists try to reserve internal colonial
    authority for their own legislatures
  • Americans not represented at all in Parliament
  • Colonists insist only colonial assemblies should
    represent Americans

5
Eroding the Bonds of Empire
  • Large, expensive debt and army left in America
    from Seven Years War
  • Colonists doubt the armys value
  • Pontiacs War
  • Exposes the British armys weakness
  • Colonists determined to settle trans-Appalachian
    West
  • Proclamation of 1763 bans settlement in
    trans-Appalachian West

6
Paying Off the National Debt
  • Prime Minister George Grenville attempts to
    reduce Englands war debt
  • Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act)
  • A series of other Acts will be passed that will
    lead to protest and all out war!!!!

7
(No Transcript)
8
Popular Protest
  • Sons of Liberty protest includes riots, mob
    violence, and boycotts
  • Sons of Liberty protest includes riots, mob
    violence, and boycotts
  • Boston Massacre
  • Boston Tea Party (response to the Coercive Acts)

9
Steps Toward Independence
  • Sept 1774First Continental Congress in response
    to Coercive Acts
  • Congress commends urging forcible resistance
  • Lexington and Concord (April 1775)
  • The Shot Heard Around the World

10
Beginning The World Over Again
  • British colonial governments collapse
  • Second Continental Congressaction and inaction
  • June 1775Organize the colonies for war (George
    Washington appointed commander in chief)
  • British action that makes compromise unlikely
  • British blockade colonists trade
  • January 1776Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Convinces ordinary colonists to sever ties with
    Britain
  • Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence
  • July 4Declaration of Independence issued
  • all men are created equal and king is the
    cause

11
Fighting for Independence
  • British confident of victory
  • Larger population, more resources
  • Naval supremacy
  • British underestimate Americans commitment to
    their political ideology
  • Continental army to be a fighting force and
    symbol of the republican cause
  • Does not go well for Americans for the first two
    years

12
The French Alliance
  • Effects of Saratoga (Oct 1777)
  • Convinces France that colonists are serious
    enough to become formal allies
  • British sue for peace to prevent Franco-American
    alliance but it is too late

13
The American Revolution, 17751781
14
Loyalist Strongholds
15
The Loyalist Dilemma
  • More than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at wars
    end
  • Loyalists share basic ideology with Patriots
  • Loyalists see rebellion as endangering life,
    liberty, and property
  • Loyalists treated poorly by both sides
  • British never fully trust Loyalists
  • Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some

16
Winning the Peace
  • American negotiators are John Jay, Ben Franklin,
    and John Adams
  • Peace Treaty of 1783
  • U.S. independence recognized
  • U.S. gets all territory east of Mississippi
    River, between Canada and Florida
  • U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic
  • U.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists
    collect debts

17
Preserving Independence
  • The American Revolution begins construction of
    new form of government
  • Question remains a government of the elite or a
    government of the people?
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