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American Revolution and the United States Constitution

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Title: American Revolution and the United States Constitution


1
American Revolution and the United States
Constitution
  • UNIT 2

2
Causes and Effects of the AM Rev
  • British lose colonies
  • US borders extend to FL in South, and Mississippi
    River in the West
  • First US govt Articles of Confederation
  • Inherent weaknesses of AOC lead to the creation
    of US Constitution
  • British tighten control over the colonies
  • Colonies protest British policies and taxes
  • Colonies create civilian militias
  • Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776

3
Albany Plan of Union
  • When
  • Where
  • Why
  • Who came
  • What happened

Who created this political cartoon? Was it
successful? Why or why not?
4
Influence of the Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment era in Europe during the 17th
    -18th centuries saw the development of new ideas
    about the rights of people and their relationship
    to their rulers.
  • John Locke was political philosopher whose ideas,
    more than any others, influenced the American
    belief in self-government.

5
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6
The Ideas of John Locke
  • Locke wrote about
  • NATURAL RIGHTS
  •    ex life, liberty, and property
  • that rulers cannot take these away AND must
    protect them as well
  •    Power comes from the people
  • A social contract exists between people and
    govt
  • Govts exist to protect people and their natural
    rights
  • In return, the people promise to obey the laws
    and rules
  • This creates ordered liberty.

7
Revolutionary Ideas of John Locke
  •   A government that fails to protect the
    peoples natural rights, it breaks the social
    contract
  • Then the people have the right to change it or
    overthrow it
  • Lockes ideas about the sovereignty and rights of
    the people were radical for the times
  • Most of the world was used to absolute rule by
    kings, emperors, and tribal chieftains.

NO MORE KINGS!
8
Pre-Revolutionary thinking
  • Thomas Paine was an English immigrant to America
    who produced a pamphlet that challenged the rule
    of the American colonies by the King of England.
  • Common Sense made more colonists support the idea
    of independence from England
  • Message Thinking people want Independence

Only Morons want to stay colonists!!
9
The Revolutionary Period
  • Anglo-French rivalry leading to conflict with the
    colonies
  • The rivalry in North America between England and
    France led to the French and Indian War
  • Ie The French Indians vs The British(thats
    US as colonies)

10
Treaty of Paris ends war 1763
  • French were driven out of Canada and their
    territories west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • Treaty of Paris ends French power in North America

11
The Road to Revolution
  • The Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited
    settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • New taxes on legal documents (the Stamp Act),
    tea and sugar, to pay costs incurred during the
    French and Indian War and for British troops to
    protect colonists.

12
British Acts Colonial Opposition
  • ISSUE /Cause for each?
  • Effect or Reaction from Colonists for each?
  • Proclamation 1763
  • Sugar Act
  • Currency Act
  • Stamp Act
  • Quartering Act
  • Townshend Acts
  • Tea Act 1773
  • Intolerable Acts (Coercive and Quebec Acts)

13
Sons of Liberty
14
Sons of LibertyModern
15
Daughters of Liberty
HOMESPUN
16
Stamp Act Congress 1765
  • 9 colonies sent representatives to say,
    (basically)
  • ONLY our colonial political representatives can
    TAX usnot British Parliament!!
  • Began NONIMPORTATION/BOYCOTT
  • Of all British goods

17
The Road to Revolution
  • Resistance to British rule in the colonies
    mounted, leading to war
  • The Boston Tea Party was staged.
  • The First Continental Congress was called, to
    which all of the colonies except Georgia sent
    representatives, the first time most of the
    colonies had acted together.
  • The Boston Massacre took place when British
    troops fired on anti-British demonstrators.
  • War began when the Minutemen in Massachusetts
    fought a brief skirmish with British troops at
    Lexington and Concord.

18
Differences among the Colonists
  • The colonists were divided into three main camps
    during the Revolution
  • Patriots
  • Believed in complete independence from England
  • Inspired by the ideas of Locke and Paine and the
    words of Virginian Patrick Henry
  • Provided the troops for the American Army, led by
    George Washington, also of Virginia

Give me liberty, or give me death!
19
The Declaration of Independence
  • The eventual draft of the Declaration of
    Independence, authored by Thomas Jefferson of
    Virginia, reflected the ideas of Locke and Paine

20
Road to Independence
  • Colonies as part of the MERCANTILIST economic
    system
  • Salutary Neglect
  • French and Indian War
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • ACTS, ACTS, and more ACTS
  • Colonial Boycotts
  • Boston Massacre
  • Lexington Concord, Bunker/Breeds Hill

21
The Declaration of Independence
  • In Congress, July 4, 1776
  • When in the course of human events it becomes
    necessary for one people to dissolve the
    political bands which have connected them with
    another and to assume among the powers of the
    earth, the separate and equal station to which
    the Laws of Nature and of Natures God entitle
    them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
    requires that they should declare the causes
    which impel them to the separation.

22
The Declaration of Independence
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
    all men are created equal, that they are endowed
    by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,
    that among these are
  • life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

23
The Declaration of Independence
  • That to secure these rights, governments are
    instituted among men, deriving their just powers
    from the consent of the governed
  • ..That whenever any form of government becomes
    destructive of these ends, it is the right of the
    people to alter or abolish it, and to institute
    new government

24
The Declaration of Independence
  • laying its foundation on such principles and
    organizing its powers in such form, as to them
    shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
    Happiness.
  • John Lockes ideas
  • Thomas Paines ideas

25
The Declaration of Independence
  • Jefferson then went on to detail many of the
    grievances against King George III
  • Paine had earlier described many of these
    offensesin Common Sense.

26
Differences among the Colonists
  • Loyalists (Tories)
  • Remained loyal to Britain, based on cultural and
    economic ties
  • Believed that taxation of the colonies was
    justified to pay for British troops to protect
    American settlers from Indian attacks
  • Neutrals
  • The many colonists who tried to stay as
    uninvolved in the war as possible

27
Factors leading to colonial victory
  • Diplomatic
  • Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance
    with France (SARATOGA turning point)
  • Military
  • George Washington, general of the American army,
    avoided any situation that threatened the
    destruction of his army, and his leadership kept
    the army together when defeat seemed inevitable.
  • Americans benefited from the presence of the
    French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown,
    which ended the war with an American victory.

28
The Articles of Confederation
  • Provided for a weak national government
  • Gave Congress no power to tax
  • No power to regulate commerce among the states
  • Provided for no common currency
  • Gave each state one vote regardless of size
  • Provided for no chief executive
  • Nor a judicial branch
  • No power to ENFORCE laws in the states!!

29
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30
The Articles of Confederation
  • Things that the Articles DID manage to do
  • Call the country The United States of America
    (has a nice ring to it)
  • Northwest Ordinance
  • Provided method for adopting new states and
    settling NW Territory
  • Outlawed slavery in the new territory
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Area west of Appalachian Mtns was divided into 6
    x 6 miles squares called townships and subdivided
    again into 1 sq. mile plots 1 set aside for
    education

31
Shays Rebellion, 1786-7
32
SHAYS REBELLION (Left) Rebellious Massachusetts
farmers close the courts to prevent confiscation
of their lands for unpaid back taxes. (Below)
The insurrection caused George Washington to
question if Americans were capable of governing
themselves.
33
Key leaders of the Constitutional Convention
  • George Washington, Chairman of the Convention,
    seldom participated in the debates, but lent his
    prestige to the proceedings
  • James Madison, Father of the Constitution,
    (Virginian) led the debate and kept records of
    what transpired at the Constitutional Convention.

34
VA Plan Favors BIG pop. states
  • The Virginia Plan
  • 3 Branches with the legislature that would
    chose people to serve in the executive and
    judicial branches.
  • Legislature Two houses (bicameral)
  • House of Reps elected by the people
  • Senate was elected by the state legislatures
  • Both houses to be represented proportionally by
    state population.
  • Other Powers
  • legislature would regulate interstate trade,
    strike down laws deemed unconstitutional and use
    armed forces to enforce laws.

35
NJ PLAN Favors small pop.states
  • 3 Branches (leg, exec, and jud)
  • legislature appoints people to serve in the
    executive branch and would have only one house
    (unicameral) and States would have EQUAL
    REPRESENTATION, (all states would have the same
    power)
  • executive branch selects the justices of the
    Supreme Court
  • Other Powers
  • The national government could levy taxes and
    import duties, regulate trade, and state laws
    would be subordinate to laws passed by the
    national legislature.

36
Compromises Made
  • 1. Connecticut Compromise (aka, The Great
    Compromise..took parts of both the VA and NJ
    Plans
  • 3 branches of govt (Thank you Montesquieu)
  • Bicameral legislature 1 house based on state
    population, the other house based on equal
    representation

37
Key issues of the Constitution
  • federal law is supreme law of the land
  • Balanced power between large and small states
  • Senate (equal rep as in NJ plan)
  • House of Reps (based on
  • population as in
  • VA plan)

Senate
House
38
House of Representatives
  • Representation was to be based on a states
    population
  • How to count slaves?
  • North wants slaves in South counted for taxation
    .South would pay more
  • South wants slaves counted for more members in
    the House (Southern influence would be stronger
    in federal govt)

39
House of Representatives
  • Compromise for every 5 slaves in the South, the
    govt would count 3 for both taxation purposes
    AND representation in the House
  • Known as the 3/5 Compromise
  • (The issue of slavery itself was not debated at
    this time.too touchy)

40
3 branches Divided Govt Power
LEGISLATIVE
JUDICIAL
EXECUTIVE
41
  • Each branch gets to check the other 2
    branches.which balances political power
  • Balance between the branches
  • Balance between populated and less populated
    states
  • Balance between people and government

42
Legislative Bicameral Balance
  • Outlined in Article I
  • Senate (where each state gets two senators)
  • House of Representatives (with membership based
    on population)
  • Override VETO by executive with ¾ vote

43
Executive Balance of Power
  • Outlined in Article II
  • President appoints justices to Supreme Court for
    lifetime terms
  • VETO power over legislative branch

44
Judicial Balance of Power
  • Outlined in Article III
  • Lifetime appointments
  • Can declare Laws passed by Congress
    UNCONSTITUTIONAL

45
Final draft done.but will it pass the public
approval test for ratification?
46
Federal Stuff to keep Straight
  • Federalism division of power between national
    and state govt
  • A Federalist
  • Before ratification, a Federalist was a supporter
    of the constitution as it was written at the
    convention (without a bill of rights)
  • AFTER ratification, a Federalist was a member of
    the political party of the same name
  • An ANTI-Federalist person who thought the
    constitution gave too much power to the central
    govt and not enough protection to the people

47
Federal Stuff to keep Straight
  • Finally, The Federalist Papers were a series of
    essays written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton,
    and James Madison explaining the benefits of the
    stronger central government created in the
    constitution.
  • written public relations campaign to get public
    support for ratification
  • 9 states were needed to ratify it

48
Federalist Position (pro-ratification)
  • strong national government (sharing some power
    with the states)
  • to facilitate interstate commerce
  • to manage foreign trade and relations
  • national defense
  • checks and balances already exist

49
Federalist position (pro-ratification)
  • They argued that a national Bill of Rights would
    be redundant
  • Constitution itself protected basic rights
  • most states already had bills of rights that
    clearly defined basic rights that the governments
    could not abolish

50
Anti-Federalist Position (anti-ratification)
  • Thought the consitution as written had WAY too
    much power and would take power away from states
  • Rich people will abuse power
  • national Bill of Rights was necessary
  • Anti-Feds had no alternative document to offer
    public

51
States and Ratification
  • Which states ratified first?
  • Why would VA and NY have to be on board even if
    9 states ratified without them?

http//teachingamericanhistory.org/ratification/ma
p/
52
States and Ratification
  • Then
  • MA takes some convincing.(promise the Bill of
    Rights)
  • MD
  • SC
  • NH
  • VA
  • NY
  • First
  • DE
  • PA
  • NJ
  • GA
  • CT

53
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54
Finally all the pillars in place!
  • NC and ..
  • .eventually and by a narrow margin,
  • Rhode Island comes on board
  • After Ratification, the payoff (The Bill of
    Rights) needs writing, revising, editing, and
    amending

55
Principles of the Bill of Right
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights (George MasonVA)
  • Reiterated the notion that basic human rights
    should not be violated by governments

56
Principles of the Bill of Rights
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas
    JeffersonVA)
  • Outlawed the established church that is, the
    practice of government support for one favored
    church

57
Principles of the Bill of Rights
  • James MadisonVA used TJs Va Declaration of
    Rights and the VA Statute for Religious Freedom
    when drafting the amendments that eventually
    became the United States Bill of Rights.

58
The Bill of Rights
  • 1. Freedom of speech, press, religion, petition,
    assembly
  • 2. Right to bear arms
  • 3. No troops in homes
  • 4. Unreasonable search seizure of property
  • 5. No self-incrimination, no double jeopardy,
    etc.
  • 6. Speedy trial by unbiased jury, legal counsel,
    witnesses must attend in presence of the accused
  • 7. Jury trials for civil cases over 20.00
  • 8. No excessive bail/cruel unusual punishments
  • 9. more rights than listed in constitution
  • 10. Powers not given to federal govt go to
    states/people

59
Nice layered slides on the Bill of Rights?
Extra Credit anyone???
60
The Legacy of the founding fathers lives on in
Virginia.
61
Washingtons Administration
  • 1789-1797
  • Sought advice from trusted, talented men who
    became his CABINET
  • T. Jefferson to Dept. of State
  • A. Hamilton to Dept. of Treasury
  • H. Knox as Postmaster Gen.
  • Hamiltons Financial Programled to..
  • Emergence of first political parties began with
    vision differences between Jefferson and
    Hamilton

62
Hamiltons Financial Program
  • PROS
  • Fund national debt at FACE value
  • Federal Govt assume the debts of ALL the states
  • Establish a national bank (Bank of the United
    States)
  • Spark economy with subsidies and tax incentives
  • Raise revenue with higher tariffs on imports
    and.
  • Taxes on Whiskey
  • CONS
  • Benefit would only go to speculators who bought
    debts at low prices
  • (Original buyers should get something from the
    deal
  • Taxes would fall heaviest on small farmers
  • The whole program is designed to make a small
    group of already rich men RICHERand it aint
    fair!

63
Political and Philosophical Differences lead to
Political Parties
Hamilton
Jefferson
64
Federalist Party platform
  • Strong central govt
  • Only wealthy, educated men should vote
  • LOOSE/ broad interpretation USCon.
  • National Bank
  • High tariffs whiskey tax
  • Alien Sedition Acts necessary
  • Opposed Fr. Rev
  • Support base manufacturers, business, coastal
    ports

Alexander Hamilton
65
Democratic-Republican Party platform
Thomas Jefferson
  • Stronger State/Indiv powers
  • All landowners should vote
  • STRICT/narrow interpretion of USCons.
  • National Bank idea stinks!
  • No or LOW tariffs
  • Alien Sedition Acts are WRONG!
  • Fr. Rev is GREAT!
  • Support base rural small farmers, big planters,
    French

66
Alexander Hamilton is on our 10 dollar bill!
67
Thomas Jefferson is on still on our money.
68
Foreign Affairs under Washington
  • French Revolution War in Europe USA is
    officially neutral
  • American ships traded with both sides
  • French West Indies were big
  • British retaliated with impressment and ship
    seizures

69
Foreign Affairs under Washington
  • Jays Treaty (prevents war with England)
  • Issues
  • England wont leave frontier posts (NW Terr) as
    per Paris Peace ending Rev War
  • Practice of Impressment (making sailors serve in
    British navy)
  • Terms
  • 2 yrs to get lost
  • Pay for ship seizures
  • Some trade with West Indies

70
Foreign Affairs under Washington
  • Pickneys Treaty (aka Treaty of Friendship,
    Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and the
    United States)
  • Settled our boundaries with Spanish territory
  • (we get to navigate the Miss. River)
  • Later, we buy FL from Spain in Adams-Onis Treaty

71
Washington Leaves Office
  • Farewell Address letter written to Americans
    refusing a 3rd term in office
  • Warnings
  • Political Parties and party politics stink
  • Sectionalism (N,S,E,W) is
  • BAD NEWS
  • Foreign Alliances should be avoided
  • (we cant have a moral country devoid of religion)

72
1796 Election
  • Federalist John Adams
  • becomes 2nd POTUS
  • X,Y,Z Affair with French
  • diplomats over bribes
  • A million for Defense,
  • not one cent for tribute
  • Presides over a Quasi-War with France

73
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
Govt sux!
Dude, watch your mouth!
  • Designed to make criticism (by Dem-Republicans)
  • of the government and getting citizenship
    TOUGHER
  • Alien
  • Naturalization Act, passed by Congress on June
    18. This act required that aliens be residents
    for 14 years instead of 5 years before they
    became eligible for U.S. citizenship.
  • Alien Act on June 25, authorizing the President
    to deport aliens "dangerous to the peace and
    safety of the United States" during peacetime.
  • Alien Enemies Act, was enacted by Congress on
    July 6. This act allowed the wartime arrest,
    imprisonment and deportation of any alien subject
    to an enemy power.

74
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
  • Sedition declared that any treasonable activity,
    including the publication of "any false,
    scandalous and malicious writing," was a high
    misdemeanor, punishable by fine and imprisonment

75
Is this Freedom of Speech?!!
76
VA and KY Resolutions
  • Said that the Alien and Sedition Acts were
    garbage and unconstitutional
  • Said, states and NULLIFY bogus govt laws
  • Authored by

77
Election of 1800
  • Dem-Republican Thomas Jefferson becomes 3rd POTUS
  • Important election because America showed the
    world political power could transfer peacefully
    from one party to anotherour democracy works

78
Jefferson as President
  • Dem-Rep Party takes over from the Federalists
  • Shows the world a peaceful transfer of political
    power (his election is also called The
    Revolution of 1800)
  • Jeffersons style in office is less formal than
    that of Washington and Adams

79
Jefferson as President
  • Jefferson's vision for government is
  • Small federal govt
  • Limits on federal power
  • STRICT CONSTRUCTIVISM (rigid interpretation of
    Article I of the US Constitution) ie follow the
    rules as they are written, (ENUMERATED)

80
Jefferson as President
  • Limits on Federal power
  • Attempted to IMPEACH Federalist judges
  • Repealed Act that gave the Midnight Judges
    offices
  • Lead to est. that IMPEACHMENT is to be used for
    CRIMINAL ACTS only! (not politics)
  • Lead John Marshall to use JUDICIAL REVIEW with
    the MARBURY v. MADISON case

81
Jefferson as President
  • Territorial Expansion Louisiana Purchase
  • 1803 US buys LA and French debts for 15 million
  • DOUBLES the size of the United States
  • Gives US control of the Mississippi River
  • Shows that Jefferson can use IMPLIED Federal
    Powers to make a purchase

82
Jefferson as President
  • Lewis Clark and the Corps of Discovery explore
    the new territory
  • Sacagewa was the female Shoshone guide who went
    with them

83
Jefferson as President
  • Politically The LA Purchase spooks the
    Federalistssome want to take New England OUT of
    the United States
  • Political fight turns deadly
  • Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton get into a
    serious argument, challenge each other to a duel
    and Hamilton DiesBurr leaves the country

84
Jefferson as President
  • Economic Policies
  • EMBARGO ACT OF 1807
  • Attempt to deal with shipping attacks and
    IMPRESSMENT of American soldiers by the British
  • Cuts off trade with Europe
  • Embargo hurts USA more than Britain or France
    (North killed shipping profits, even though some
    still had businesspassed the cost on to
    customers South hurt farmers)

85
Jefferson as President
  • EMBARGO people hate it, it hurts their
    MONEY....Jeffersons approval ratings go
    waaaaaaaaaaay down

86
WAR of 1812
  • Also called Mr. Madisons War
  • James Madison (Father of the Constitution, author
    of some Federalist Papers, is a
    Democratic-Republican elected to be 4th POTUS)
  • Madison declares war on British

87
WAR of 1812
  • Support in Congress comes from
  • WAR HAWKS
  • South and Western regions wanted war because
    trade restrictions hurt their people who relied
    on shipping farm products (Eastern coastal and
    Northern merchants could stay in business by
    passing increased costs on to farmers)
  • Westerners also blamed British for selling
    weapons to Indians (to discourage further
    Westward expansion)

88
Native Americans on the frontier
The Prophet Tenskwatawa
Tecumseh
89
WAR of 1812
  • Battle of Tippecanoe future president Wm. Henry
    Harrison is a hero of this bloody battle with
    Tecumsehs brother
  • Invasion of Canada failed (lack of soldiers)
  • Commodore Perry on Lake Erie

90
WAR of 1812
  • Washington, DC is burned (Ft. McHenry is where
    Francis Scott Key writes Star Spangled Banner)
  • US win battle on Lake Champlain

91
WAR of 1812
  • Hartford Convention Federalists dont like the
    war and meet to discuss seceding New England from
    the USA..
  • Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814
  • (Federalists are seen as traitors, fall from
    grace, and end as a political party)

92
WAR of 1812
  • Treaty of Ghent
  • Restores pre-war boundaries
  • Gave the USA prestige as a country that battled
    the British twice and won both
  • Gave the USA self-esteem and sense of growing
    patriotism.book calls it nationalism but
    beware of this definition compared to the
    nationalism that tears up Europe and continues to
    haunt the world

93
WAR of 1812
  • Treaty of Ghent does NOT
  • Address the issue of attacks on shipping
  • Address the issue of impressment
  • Address the issue of selling weapons to the
    Indians

94
WAR of 1812
  • Last Battle of the War of 1812, happened after
    the Treaty was signednews traveled much slower
    to New Orleans
  • Battle of New Orleans Great victory for the USA
    over the British..makes Andrew Jackson a war
    hero
  • Inspired a fun song by Johnny Horton..In 1814
    we took a little trip, along with Colonel Jackson
    down the mighty Mississip,..we took a little
    bacon and we took a little beans and we beat the
    bloody British at the town of New Orleans.

95
WAR of 1812
  • End of the war brings relief
  • National Pride
  • International ..OKyou are the USA
  • Thus begins the so-called
  • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

96
End Unit 2
  • Complete Unit Comps.use concrete evidence for
    your support
  • Review and memorize Vocabulary
  • Review homework in the order it was assigned
  • Review Bellwork Journal entries!!
  • Read previously NOT Read sections
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