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The American Revolution

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Title: The American Revolution


1
The American Revolution
2
Outbreak (April, 1775)
  • Lexington
  • Concord

3
Common Sense
  • Thomas Paine wrote
  • Wrong for a continent to be subservient to an
    island
  • Wrong to be subservient to a king spilling their
    blood
  • Independence is the sensible choice

4
Declaration of Independence
  • Written chiefly by Thomas Jefferson
  • Adopted 7/4/1776
  • Based on John Lockes ideas

5
Declaration of Independence
  • Basic parts
  • Philosophy of Government
  • List of grievances
  • Conclusion

6
Declaration of Independence
  • Basic parts
  • Elevated the struggle into war for independence
  • Served as source of inspiration to others
    throughout the world
  • Inspired Americans to undertake movements for
    equality (long-term)

7
Brief Survey of the War
  • Battle of Bunker (Breeds!) Hill

8
Brief Survey of the War
  • American invasion of Canada (1775-1776)
  • British Success in the Middle States
    NY, PA (1776-1777)

9
Brief Survey of the War
  • KEY American Victory at Saratoga, NY (1777)

10
Brief Survey of the War
  • American Suffering at Valley Forge
    (1778-1779)

11
Brief Survey of the War
  • American victory in the Northwest Territory
    (1778-1779)

Fort Vincennes
12
Brief Survey of the War
  • War in the South (1778-1781)

Banastre Tarleton"
Battle of Camden
13
Brief Survey of the War
  • Yorktown Final
    American/French Victory
    (1781)

14
Reasons for American Victory
  • American fighting on their own soil,
    British/Hessians 3000 miles from home
  • Americans superior wilderness fighters
  • American leadership George Washington, George
    Rogers Clark,
    Nathanael Greene, John
    Paul Jones

15
Reasons for American Victory
  • British officers overconfident or incompetent
  • Foreign volunteers aided America Marquis de
    Lafayette, Baron de Kalb, Baron von Steuben,
    Count Pulaski, Thaddeus Kosciusko

16
Reasons for American Victory
  • Other nations join in, eventually leading
    to another world-wide conflict
    France, Spain, the
    Netherlands (armies and financial
    assistance)
  • English public opinion divided at home Edmund
    Burke, William Pitt defend the colonial cause

17
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Providing a government
  • Second Continental Congress acted as government
    for 13 states
  • Lacked power could only request money, men,
    cooperation
  • Had some success though

18
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Raising funds
  • States rarely gave money
  • Issued continentals (paper money)
  • Borrowed money from individuals and countries
  • Some wealthy individuals
    gave their support

19
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Maintaining an army
  • Usually numbered only several thousand
  • Short-term volunteers ? training issues
  • Inadequate supplies
  • Reinforced by local militias

20
Wartime Problems Facing the Colonists
  • Dealing with Tories
  • Civil War
  • 1/3 support war (Patriots)
  • 1/3 remain loyal to king (Loyalists or Tories)
  • 1/3 neutral, wait to decide
  • Many loyalists fled country,
    other helped British army
  • Loyalist lands confiscated, sold off
  • Patriot dominated legislatures revise state
    constitutions, increasing democracy

21
Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • Chief American negotiators
    Ben Franklin, John Jay, John Adams secure
    favorable treaty

22
Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • 13 states independent
  • Americans retain fishing rights off Nova Scotia
  • Loyalist property supposed to be restored,
    usually ignored

23
Political Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • Articles of Confederation loosely bound states
  • States adopt new constitutions with Bill(s) of
    Rights and democratic institutions

24
Economic Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • End of trade restrictions ?
    economic growth
  • End of trans-Appalachian migration restriction
  • Breakup of large estates ?
    more small-scale farmers
  • Large public debt inflation

25
Social Effects of the Revolution - USA
  • Separation of church state (most states)
  • Aristocracy weakened
  • Criminal codes (punishment) relaxed
  • Women kept economy going in wartime, but remained
    second class citizens
  • Slavery mostly ended in north,
    holds fast in south

26
Effects Outside the USA
  • French Revolution (started 1789) partly inspired
    by American Revolution
  • Spanish America revolts during Napoleonic Wars
    (1799-1815)
  • Britain
  • George IIIs efforts to increasing power
    discredited
  • Colonial policy changes ? gradual self-rule

27
Articles of Confederation
  • 13 sovereign states

28
AoC Weaknesses
  • Congress unable to enact laws
    requires 9 of 13 to pass vote and rarely more
    than 10 states present at any time
  • No chief executive to enforce laws
  • No central courts to mediate between states
  • Amendments to constitution required unanimous
    approval

29
AoC Weaknesses
  • 75 of congressional requests for funds from
    states ignored
  • Congress couldnt prevent states from issuing own
    currencies

30
Shays Rebellion (1786-1787)
  • Debtors revolt in Massachusetts
  • Congress cant raise its own army - only states
    can provide troops

31
AoC Weaknesses
  • Congress cant control interstate foreign
    commerce
  • NY vs. CT and NJ over taxes on goods
  • VA vs. MD over Potomac
  • Each state had treaties w/ foreign nations

32
AoC Weaknesses
  • Foreign Nations didnt respect US
  • British posts in Northwest Territory
  • British and Spanish prohibitions against American
    trade

33
AoC Achievements
  • Successfully ended the Revolution
  • Negotiated Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • States united in name
  • Provided for settling of new territories

34
Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Western lands to be surveyed,
    divided into townships w/ 36 miles2 (640
    acres each)
  • Sections to be sold

35
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • Northwest Territory ? 3 5 territories
  • Each would eventually become an equal state
  • Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin
  • Set procedures for self-rule/statehood
  • 5,000 male adults ? territorial legislature
  • 60,000 inhabitants ? statehood
  • Slavery prohibited
  • Bill of rights guaranteed basic civil liberties
  • Public education encouraged
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