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American Revolution

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Title: American Revolution


1
American Revolution
2
Roots of Revolution
  • England Controls the 13 colonies of the U.S.
  • England taxes colonies until it is unbearable
  • Americans form new idea of government called
    republicanism

3
Seeds of Revolution
  • American unhappy with English rule
  • Mercantilism export more than imported
  • English control of currency
  • Preservation of Civil liberties, liberties being
    taken away

4
Albany Plan of Union
  • First attempt at unifying the colonies
  • Proposed by Benjamin Franklin
  • Intercolonial governmental system
  • Proposed tax collection system to help defense
    new colonies
  • Unsucessful

5
Roots of Revolution
  • Americans want a more local government
  • England levies more taxes on the U.S.
  • Stamp Act required colonists to purchase
    special stamped paper for all legal documents

6
Stamp Act Congress
  • October 1765 meeting of delegates from the
    American Colonies that discussed and acted upon
    the recently passed Stamp Act.
  • Adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances
  • wrote letters or petitions to the King and both
    houses of Parliament.

7
Protest, Protest, Protest
  • Boston Massacre (1770) On a snowy night,
    American protesters hit British soldiers with
    snowballs. One of the British soldiers fired into
    an angry mob, killing five. Local agitators,
    especially Samuel Adams, used the event to stir
    up popular resistance.
  • Boston Tea Party (1773) Tea Acts are passed,
    causing the Sons of Liberty dressed up like
    Indians and dumped all the tea into the Boston
    harbor.

8
New British Action
  • Declaratory Act
  • Declared Britains right to legislate for and/or
    tax its unrepresented colonies
  • What reaction does this get?
  • Committees of Correspondence committees of
    colonists that met to urge resistance to Britain

9
Protests and More Tax
  • Samuel Adams leads protests of the Stamp Act.
    Sons of Liberty organization is born.
  • Britain does not stop.
  • Passes Townshend Acts, which put indirect taxes
    on imports such as gas, lead, paint, and paper.
    Most important of all a 3 cent tax on tea

10
Boycott, Boycott, Boycott
  • Refusal to use, buy, or deal with any goods from
    Great Britain
  • Colonists Boycott.Who hurts?
  • No Taxation without Representation
  • Tensions riseIs revolution coming???

11
More Acts from Britain
  • Intolerable Acts (1774) - a series of laws passed
    by the British Parliament in response to the
    unrest in the thirteen American colonies,
    particularly in Boston, after incidents such as
    the Boston Tea Party.
  • One law closed Boston Harbor, one was a
    Quartering act
  • Britain can now declare Martial Law in any part
    of U.S.
  • What might reaction to this be????

12
First Continental Congress
  • Goals were to
  • 1) Make a list of Grievances with Britain
  • 2) Develop strategy to deal with grievances

13
The British Are Coming
  • Minutemen (civilian soldiers) organized to fight
    Britain
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord took place
    April 19, 1775
  • First fighting of the American Revolution 13
    colonies calling up militias and set out for
    Boston
  • Battle of Bunker Hill followed on June 17, 1775.
    By late spring 1776, with George Washington as
    commander, the Americans forced the British to
    evacuate Boston. The patriots were in control
    everywhere in the 13 states and the states were
    ready to declare independence.

14
Second Continental Congress
  • Continental Army is created
  • Olive Branch Petition sent to Britain Last
    attempt at peace without Bloodshed
  • Who were the Patriots?

15
Patriots
  • The revolutionaries, known as Patriots, Whigs,
    Congress Men or Americans, included a full range
    of social and economic classes, but a unanimity
    regarding the need to defend the rights of
    Americans.
  • George Washington, John Adams, James Madison,
    John Jay, Ben Franklin, Patrick Henry, and Thomas
    Jefferson were among them.

16
Loyalists
  • 20 to 30 of the colonists remained loyal to the
    British Crown these became known as Loyalists
    (or 'Tories', or 'King's men').
  • Native Americans were loyalist

17
INDEPENDENCE ????
  • COMMON SENSE - pamphlet published by Thomas
    Paine, attacking King George III.
  • The time has come for colonists to proclaim an
    independent republic.
  • First document to call for American Independence

18
DECLARING INDEPENDENCE
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Declaration of Independence
  • July 2, 1776 colonies declared free
  • July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence is
    adopted
  • We are given unalienable rights by God according
    to the Declaration of Independence, what are
    these rights?

19
Whos side to be on
  • America
  • Fighting at home, Washingtons leadership, had a
    reason to fight
  • Untrained, ill-equipped soldiers, food and ammo
    shortage, Navy is inferior, no central government
    to enforce wartime policy
  • Britain
  • Strong, well-trained army and navy, strong
    central government and funds, support of colonial
    loyalists and Native Americans
  • Far from home, unfamiliar terrain, weak military
    leadership, sympathy of British politicians for
    the American cause

20
Major Battles of the Revolution
  • British Gain New York ( Summer, 1776)
  • Battle of Trenton, New Jersey (December 25,
    1776)Americans win
  • Philadelphia (Spring 1777) - British take the
    cityWhy is this important?

21
War is RagingTurning Point is Coming
  • Saratoga Americans defeat British, France
    enters war, Britain changes war strategy (keep
    troops, ammo, and supplies close)
  • France agrees not to make peace with Britain
    until Britain makes peace with U.S.
  • Why are these turning points in the Revolution?

22
Life During the War
  • Inflation rises
  • Congress has trouble supplying the army
  • Profiteering begins (selling scarce goods at a
    profit)
  • Men go to fight, women take on male jobs (as well
    as household work)
  • Did women and slaves fight in the American
    Revolution?

23
War Raging
  • War moves south
  • British capture Savannah
  • Battles fought in NC
  • Guilford Courthouse, the British win but it is a
    major turning point because of the British loss
    of life
  • Americans making their move

24
War Winds down
  • Yorktown
  • Washington and the Americans defeat Cornwallis
    and the British
  • War is over
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