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How Physics comes to Sing in mathematical tune

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Title: How Physics comes to Sing in mathematical tune


1
How Physics comes to Sing in mathematical tune
  • ? ? ?
  • ?????

2014 ? 10 ? 8? ???????
2
??
  • 2005 ???????????????????(APS News)? 2000 ? 3
    ??,???lt?????gt???,
  • ???????????????????
  • 2009 ??????? 50 ?????,??????
  • ?????????????,???,? 100 ??
  • ????????????????????
  • ????,?????????????????
  • ?????????????????????,
  • ???????,???????,??????
  • ??????????? ???
  • ?????by Jeans, James H., Sir
  • RayleighJeans law B?(T) ?-4 for
    black-body radiation
  • (valid at large ?)

3
  • 2008 ????????????,???????
  • R.G. Newton, From Clockwork to Crapshoot
  • a history of
    physics,
  • Harvard University Press,
  • Cambridge, Mass. 2007
  • ?? 630 ?? 500
  • ????????
  • Tel (02)2256-2025
  • Encyclopedia Brittanica
  • Wikipedia

4
?????????????????
  • European Physical Journal H
  • EPJ H addresses the history of physics
  • primarily from the perspective of physics and
  • physicists .
  • Genoa U. ??????????

5
What is history ?
  • Encyclopedia
    Brittanica -
  • History, the discipline that studies the
    chronological record of events,
  • based on
  • 1. a critical examination of source
  • materials and usually
  • 2. presenting an explanation of their causes.
  • ?????????????,???????
  • ???????????

6
Babylon (2300 - 330 BC)
7
????????
  • ?? 1811 ??? Claudius James Rich ??
  • ??? German Quintal Society ? 1899 ?? Kaldewey
    ????????????,??1917 ???????? 1958 ????????????
    Ishtar Gate, Processional Way ???
  • 2003 ????????????????????

German empire (1871-1918)
8
Model of the main procession street
(Aj-ibur-shapu) towards Ishtar Gate ( 1100 BC)
9
Ishtar Gate
  • Ishtar Gate ? 1930 ?
  • ?????
  • Pergamon Museum ??

10
Processional Way(1100BC)
11
Hanging Gardens of Babylon ???? ( 800 600 BC
)
12
????? (2000 - 1600 BC) (???????)
  • ????
  • ????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ????????

13
??2
???????
14
???????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??????????????
  • ????????

15
????? (700 - 30 BC)
16
Thales ??? (Miletus) 624 BC 548/545 BC
  • ???????????? Miletus
  • ???? Seven Wise Men ??
  • ??
  • ??????,?????????????????????
  • ????? May 28, 585 BC ?????,?? Lydia ? Alyattes ??
    Media ? Cyaxares ??????????
  • ?????,????????

17
Pythagoras ????? (Samos, Asia Minor) 580/572
BC500/490 BC
  • ????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???????? 12986 ?????(?????) ???????
  • ???????????

18
????????????,??? ????,???? (??)
  • ????????? ?????

19
Plato ??? (Athens or Aegina, Greece) 428/427 BC
348/347 BC
  • 40 ? (387 BC) ??????? Academy,
  • ??????????
  • Academy ????? Let no one enter
  • here who is ignorant of geometry
  • ??????????????????,
  • ???????????????????????,?
  • ??????????
  • ??????? (fire)?? (air)?? (water)??
  • (earth) ??? (ether) ,5 ?????,?????
  • ??/? ?/? ?/?

19
20
  • Platonic Solids
  • Plato ? Timaeus (/ta?mi??s/ )
  • ??????????
  • ?-???? (tetrahedron)
  • ?-???? (octahedron)
  • ?-????? (icosahedron)
  • ?-??? (cube)
  • ??-????? (dodecahedron)
  • ??????? (pentagon)
  • ???????(?????)
  • ??????????????,????????
  • ?????,???????????????

21
Aristotle ????? 384 BC 322 BC
  • Aristotle ?????????????
  • ?????????????????,?
  • ????????????????,??
  • ?????? 19 ???????
  • ?? (Dante) ????
  • The master of those who know

22
  • ?? Plato ??????
  • ???????????????
  • Scientific knowledge must be built up out
    of demonstrations
  • ????
  • ?????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ?????,?????????????????????????,????????????
  • ??????????????????,???????

23
????????
  • ??????????????,???????(??????????)
  • ??????????
  • ???????
  • ???????????? (???????)

24
The Hellenistic Age ????? 336 BC 30 BC
  • ????? 323 ???,??????????? ??? ????? ????
  • 146 BC ?????????
  • 30 BC ??????????,????????

25
??????????
  • Archimedes (290/280 BC212/211 BC)
  • ??????
  • Eratosthenes (276 BC194 BC)
  • ??????
  • Euclid (330 BC275 BC) ??????

26
Eratosthenes ??????
  • ????
  • ????

27
Eratosthenes ??????
  • ?? 7.2 ?,?? 1/50
  • ?????????
  • AB ????? 5,000 stadia
  • ???? 250,000 stadia
  • 1 stadia 500-600 ft
  • 24000 - 29000 miles
  • ???? 24900 miles

Lecture3
28
Roma (753BC 476AD)
  • 476 ???????????
  • ?????
  • Hero(n) of Alexandria , Alexandria, Egypt
    (10-70 AD) ?????????????
  • ?????????,???????????
  • ????????,
  • ??? Fermat ??????????????
  • Ptolemy (Egyptian, 100-170 AD) ??
  • Almagest (?????)

29
http//csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/rerograde/
aristotle.html
30
Ptolemy ????
31
??? (? 500 1500 AD)
  • ????? (476 AD) ?,????????????????????
  • ??????(Dark Ages)???????
  • 1054 ??????,??????????(????,Roman Catholic
    Church),????????? (Greek Orthodox Church)
  • 1453 ???? (?????) ????????

32
The Contribution of Islamic World
  • ???????,?????????????????
  • ?????????,????????

33
????? 11-14 th ?????
  • ????????????
  • ?????? (????) ?????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????????
  • ??? ???

34
14 ??????????????????????,????????????,???????????
  • ?????????,? 14 ????????????
  • 1330s, Merton College of Oxford??????
  • ??? ?? ???????
  • ???????
  • Merton acceleration theorem

35
Jean Buridan , Béthune, France (1300-1358)
  • ?? Aristotle ????????????????
  • ???
  • ??????????,?????????
  • impetus(??)
  • impetus ???? ??????
  • ???????? impetus ??,??????impetus ?????

36
?? impetus momentum
(??) ?? ?? X ??
Lecture 8-9
36
37
???? (Renaissance) 14-16??
  • ????
  • ??Dante (??), Boccacio (???),
  • Petrarch (????)
  • ??Leonardo da Vinci,
  • Michelangelo, Raphael
  • ??Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo

38
Johannes Kepler, Weil, Württemberg Dec. 27, 1571
Nov. 15, 1630
  • 1594 ???? Graz ????????,
  • ???????????
  • ????? Platonic solid ????????
  • ????,???????????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????? MaestlinI wanted to become a
    theologian for a long time I was restless. Now,
    however, behold how through my effort god is
    being celebrated in astronomy

39
Keplers cosmo model in 1596
Icosahedron 12, ?
Icosahedron 20, ?
tetrahedron 4, ?
Octahedron 8, ?
cube6
6, 4, 12, 20, 8
40
Tycho Brahe, Knudstrup,Scania,Denmark (Dec.14,1546
Oct.24,1601)
  • ????????,??????? 777 ???????????????,?
  • 1572 ???????,?
  • ? ???????????
  • ??????
  • ?? Kepler ??????
  • ???????????
  • ? ??????

41
Tycho ?????
??
??
??
In this depiction of the Tychonic system, the
objects on blue orbits (the moon and the sun)
rotate around the earth. The objects on orange
orbits (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn) rotate around the sun. Around all is a
sphere of fixed stars
42
Johannes Kepler, Weil, Württemberg Dec. 27, 1571
Nov. 15, 1630
  • ??????
  • ????????
  • ?????,??
  • ?????

1630 ?? Regensburg ??????????????? I
used to measure the heavens, now I shall measure
the shadows of the earth. Although my soul was
from heaven, the shadow of my body lies here.
43
Galileo Galilei (???) Pisa, Italy Feb. 15, 1564
Jan. 8, 1642
44
??????
  • ??????????????????
  • ???????
  • ?????????????
  • ?????,????????
  • ????
  • ????? 4 ?????????????

???? ???? ????
45
famous quote
  • Philosophy is written in this grand book, the
    universe, which stands continually open to our
    gaze. But the book cannot be understood unless
    one first learns to comprehend the language and
    need the letters in which it is composed. It is
    written in the language of mathematics, and its
    characters are triangles, circles, and other
    geometric figures without which it is humanly
    impossible to understand a single word of it.

46
Sir Isaac Newton, Lincolnshire, England December
25, 1642 March 20, 1727
1689 portrait (47)
1702 portrait (60)
47
1712 portrait (70)
Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey
48
??? (anni mirabiles 1664-66)
  • 1665 ?,????????
  • ??,??????? ,????????
  • ???,?????????
  • ?????? ? Archimedesmethod of
  • exhaustion and infinitesimals of Fermat ???
  • ????
  • ????????????????????
  • ????????

49
???(anni mirabiles 1664-66)
  • by thinking on it continually

50
Principia ? 1687 ? 7 ? 5 ? ??
????????? ??????????????,????????? ????????
???
???????
51
  • The Royal Society ? 1660 ? 11 ? 28 ??? (King
    Charles II )
  • The French Academy of Sciences 1666 ? 12 ? 22
    ??? (Louis XIV)

52
  • Daniel Bernoulli, Holland (1700 1782)
  • Euler, Switzerland (1707 1783)
  • dAlembert, France (1717 1783)
  • Lagrange, Italy (1736 1813)
  • Laplace, France (1749 1827)
  • Legendre, France (1752 1833)

53
  • Fourier, France (1768 1830)
  • Hamilton, Ireland (1805 1865)
  • Gauss, Germany (1777 1855)
  • Cauchy, France (1789 1857)
  • Galois, France (1811 1832)
  • Riemann, Germany (1826 1866)

54
??/??
  • Johann/Daniel Bernoulli ??????????????????????
    (????),Johann ?? Daniel ??,?? Hydraulica ????
  • Euler ? 1766 ?? Catherine the Great ??,? St.
    Petersburg ?????????????????????????
    (???????????????)
  • Lagrange ??(??)? Sardinia ???????,?????????????
    ?Lagrange ??? If I had been rich, I probably
    would not have devoted myself to mathematics
  • Laplace ??????,???????? Lagrange ? Legendre
    ????????????????

55
??/??
  • Hamilton ??????????????,???????????,? Wordsworth
    ? Coleridge ????
  • Gauss ?????????????????,?? 8 ?????????????????(??
    ??? 1 ?? 100,Gauss ?????????,?????????????????,?
    ??????????????????????????????,???????,???????????
    ??????????????
  • Galois ?? Ecole Normale Superieure
    ??????????,?????,???????????????lt????????gt,?? 21
    ??

56
Maxwell ?????
  • 1831 ? Faraday ??
  • ??????,????
  • ????
  • 1860 ??,Maxwell ????????????????????????????????
    ,Maxwell ??????????????,???????????????

57
Boltzmanns formular for entropy
  • 1875 ?
  • Lugwig Eduard Boltzmann
  • ??
  • ??????????????
  • Boltzmann ????????

58
Einstein
  • ?????
  • ????? Lorentz ???,
  • ????????
  • ?????
  • ?? Riemann ??
  • Politics is for the present, but
  • an equation is for eternity

59
????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ?????

60
Dirac ???
  • ?????????????,
  • ??????????????
  • ???
  • Dirac ???????????????????,????????????
  • Physical laws should have mathematical
    beauty.

61
??????????
  • ???
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??
  • ?????
  • ????
  • Differential forms, Homology, Cohomology,
    Cohomology,
  • Fiber bundles, Characteristic classes, Index
    theorems,
  • K-theory, Noncommutative geometry
  • ..

62
?? ????

63
Compliment ??
  • ????? Alexander Pope ?????????,??????????
  • ???????????? ??,?????!??????
  • Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night God
    said "Let Newton be" and all was light.
  • Pope is the third most frequently quoted writer
    in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after
    Shakespeare and Tennyson.
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