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Building Capacity: The Work of School Boards ASBSD School Board Institute-2008 Dr. Timothy M Mitchell

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Title: Building Capacity: The Work of School Boards ASBSD School Board Institute-2008 Dr. Timothy M Mitchell


1
Building Capacity The Work of School
Boards ASBSD School Board Institute-2008
Dr. Timothy M Mitchell
2
Contact Information
  • tim.mitchell_at_k12.sd.us
  • http//tm026.k12.sd.us

3
McREL's Taxonomy
  • Consider these four types of knowledge when you
    are planning professional development
  • Declarative-What do they need to learn?
  • Procedural-How will they apply it?
    Experiential-Do they know why its important?
  • Contextual-When will they use it?

4
McREL's Taxonomy
  • Declarative knowledge- participants will leave
    with new knowledge about new research concerning
    capacity building associated with increased
    student achievement.
  • Procedural knowledge- participants will be
    introduced processes that help foster capacity
    building that is associated with increased
    student achievement.

5
McREL's Taxonomy
  • Experiential knowledge- participants will
    understand why it is important to emphasize
    capacity building practices associated with
    increased student achievement.
  • Contextual knowledge- participants will be asked
    to implement capacity building practices
    associated with increased student achievement
    during the 2008-09 school year.

6
New Research
  • South Dakota Public School Superintendents
    Perception of Innovation

7
Purpose of Study
  • To examine public school district
    superintendents perceptions of individual
    innovativeness, organizational innovativeness,
    and innovation behaviors.

8
Purpose of Study
  • Specific characteristics of public school
    district superintendents and public school
    districts were analyzed

9
Superintendent Characteristics
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Years experience
  • Educational level
  • Professional development practices
  • Professional organizational membership

10
School District Characteristics
  • Enrollment
  • Financial resources
  • Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Status
  • Professional development capacity
  • Average years of teaching experience
  • Percentage of teaching staff with advanced degrees

11
Population
  • All public school district superintendents
    serving public school districts in South Dakota
    during the 2007-2008 school year were the
    population for this study. The total number of
    public school district superintendents
    participating in this study was 165. The Response
    Rate was 83 (137).

12
Method
  • The study utilized a researcher developed survey
    instrument that was based on the work of
    McCroskey (2006) Communication Research Measures
    Individual Innovativeness and Organizational
    Innovativeness.

13
Research Base
  • The process of adopting new innovations has been
    studied for over 30 years, and one of the most
    popular adoption models is described by Dr.
    Everett Rogers in his book Diffusion of
    Innovations (2003).

14
Research Base
  • He first published the theory of diffusion of
    innovation in 1962. Since that time, he has
    updated and changed his theory and has published
    the most recent edition (5th Edition) in 2003.
    Diffusion is the process by which an innovation
    is communicated through certain channels over
    time among members of a social system.

15
Definitions
  • Individual Innovativeness The degree to which
    an individual is relatively earlier in adopting
    new ideas than the other members of a system
    (Rogers, 2003).
  • (Handout)

16
Definitions
  • Organizational Innovativeness The degree to
    which an organization is relatively earlier in
    adopting new ideas than another organization
    (Rogers, 2003).
  • (Handout)

17
Definitions
  • Innovation Behaviors (Perceived Attributes)
    Most of the variance in the rate of adoption is
    explained by five behaviors relative advantage,
    compatibility, complexity, trialability, and
    observability (Rogers, 2003).

18
Adopter Categories
  • The individuals in a social system do not all
    adopt an innovation at the same time. It has
    become useful and efficient to describe each
    individual adopter in a system in terms of his or
    her time of adoption. Adopter categories are used
    as the classification systems for members of a
    system on the basis of their innovativeness. Each
    adopter category consists of individuals with a
    similar degree of innovativeness.

19
Adopter Categories
  • The first category of adopters is innovators
    (2.5). These are the risk-takers and pioneers
    who lead the way. The second group is known as
    the early adopters (13.5). They climb on board
    the train early and help spread the word about
    the innovation to others.

20
Adopter Categories
  • The third and fourth groups are the early
    majority and late majority. Each constitutes 34
    of the potential adopting population. The
    innovators and early adopters convince the early
    majority. The late majority waits to make sure
    that adoption is in their best interests.

21
Adopter Categories
  • The final group is the laggards (16). These are
    the individuals who are highly skeptical and
    resist adopting until absolutely necessary. In
    many cases, they never adopt the innovation.

22
Conclusions
  • Most South Dakota public school district
    superintendents perceive themselves as highly
    innovative on an individual innovativeness
    survey.

23
Conclusions
  • The largest adopter category of South Dakota
    public school district superintendents is early
    majority and according to Rogers (2003) they tend
    to have a high degree of opinion leadership, are
    respected by their peers, and they are the
    individual to check with before adopting a new
    idea.

24
Conclusions
  • They also perceive their public school district
    to be innovative yet rate the public school
    district lower on an organizational
    innovativeness survey than they rate themselves.

25
Conclusions
  • The largest adopter category of South Dakota
    public school district superintendents is early
    majority and according to Rogers (2003) they have
    a high degree of opinion leadership, are
    respected by other public school districts, and
    are the public school district to check with
    before adopting a new idea.

26
Conclusions
  • They also perceive their school boards as
    exhibiting innovative behaviors on a regular
    basis in a variety of situations.

27
Conclusions
  • The public school characteristics along with
    public school district superintendent
    characteristics do not significantly predict
    whether a public school district superintendent
    is innovative, the school district is innovative
    or that the school board will exhibit innovation
    behaviors.

28
Conclusions
  • Some of the public school district and public
    school district superintendents characteristics
    did have greater predictive ability than others.

29
Conclusions
  • There exists a strong positive relationship
    between innovative public school district
    superintendents and innovative public school
    districts. Respondents in this study perceive
    leadership capacity is needed for a public school
    district to be innovative and organizational
    capacity is needed for a public school district
    superintendent to be innovative.

30
Conclusions
  • Public school districts exhibit more innovation
    behaviors if they have greater financial
    resources and a larger percentage of teachers
    with advanced degrees.

31
Conclusions
  • Public school district superintendents that
    perceive themselves as innovative are found in
    public school districts with
  • larger enrollments
  • greater financial resources
  • greater professional development capacity
    teachers with more years of teaching experience
    are more likely to be female

32
Conclusions
  • These public school district superintendents
    have a higher educational degree level and more
    professional organization memberships.

33
Recommendations for Practice
  • This study has shown that leadership is critical
    in innovative public school districts and that
    resources are needed by public school districts
    to develop leadership and organizational capacity
    to sustain innovation. Policy makers should note
    that investment in building capacity in
    leadership and organizational capacity is a
    critical factor in fostering innovation.

34
Recommendations for Practice
  • Public school district superintendents need to
    consider the importance of building their own
    leadership capacity through professional
    development, securing advanced degrees, and
    establishing intra-personal networks through
    memberships in professional organizations.

35
Recommendations for Practice
  • This study indicates that funding is critical in
    innovative public school districts and resources
    are needed to sustain the teaching staff, to
    provide professional development activities to
    build leadership capacity, and to provide
    professional development activities to build
    organizational capacity.

36
Recommendations for Practice
  • This study indicates that the size of the public
    school district, the amount of available fiscal
    resources, the investment in professional
    development activities, and the experience level
    of teachers can be factors in promoting
    innovation in public school districts. Policy
    makers and public school districts need to pay
    extra attention to these factors and be prepared
    to invest resources in these areas as they try to
    promote innovation in public school districts.

37
Recommendations for Practice
  • This study indicates that public school district
    superintendents with higher educational degrees
    and a greater involvement in professional
    organizations perceive themselves as more
    innovative. Public school districts, policy
    makers, and federal agencies need to invest in
    life-long learning for public school district
    superintendents and provide the resources to join
    professional organizations.

38
Balanced Leadership-Six Areas of Superintendent
Responsibilities
  1. Collaborative goal-setting process
  2. Non-negotiable goals for achievement and
    instruction
  3. Board alignment with and support of district
    goals
  4. Use of resources to support the goals for
    achievement and instruction
  5. Monitoring goals for achievement and instruction
  6. Defined autonomy Superintendent relationship
    with schools

39
Use of Resources
  • Developing a Master Plan to coordinate
    professional development activities of the
    district so that all directly relate to district
    goals
  • Providing professional development for board
    members

40
Steps to Making Professional Development Work
  1. Gather and analyze the data and identify gaps in
    student learning
  2. Set student learning goals and align school
    improvement efforts with those goals
  3. Define instructional strategies that address
    learning goals.
  4. Identify what staff need to know and be able to
    do in order to implement new strategies
  5. Define professional development initiatives and
    develop an action plan
  6. Create professional development evaluation plan

41
Step 5-Initatives Action Plan
  • Instructional Leadership
  • Personal Professional Growth Plans
  • Preservice/Inservice/Days Built into Calendar
  • Summer Retreats Workshops
  • After school Workshops
  • Tuition Reimbursement Program
  • Masters Degree Program
  • National Board Certified Teachers
  • National Convention Attendance
  • Early Release/Late Start
  • Faculty Meetings

42
Theme
  • Building Capacity Focused on Results
  • Michael Fullan-2008 AASA NCE

43
Building Capacity
  • Fullan (2006) defined capacity building as an
    action based and powerful policy or strategy that
    increases the collective efficacy of a group to
    improve student learning through new knowledge,
    enhanced resources, and greater motivation on the
    part of people working individually and together.

44
Building Capacity
  • Schools improve when purpose and effort unite.
    One key is leadership that recognizes its most
    vital function to keep everyones eyes on the
    prize of improved student learning
  • Mike Schmoker

45
Building Capacity
  • To create conditions for you to succeed by
    helping you find meaning, increased skill
    development and personal satisfaction in making
    contributions that simultaneously fulfill your
    own goals and the goals of the organization

46
Building Capacity
  • If a job is satisfying, then the result will be
    commitment to the organization
  • The average person learns under proper conditions
    not only to accept but to seek responsibility
  • Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be
    used to solve work problems by a large number of
    employees

47
Building Capacity
  • What it takes to keep good people
  • According to a survey by the American Management
    Association, here are the four most cited
    incentives
  • Sending employees to conferences and seminars
  • Tuition Reimbursement
  • Skills Training
  • Pay for Performance

48
Building Capacity
  • Use of methods based upon research
  • To train and develop each worker
  • Cooperation to ensure methods are implemented
  • To divide the work evenly

49
Learning is the Work
  • Educational change depends on what teachers do
    and thinkit is as simple and complex as that
  • Fullan

50
Learning is the Work
  • Good is the enemy of great, and that is one of
    the key reasons why we have so little that
    becomes great
  • Jim Collins

51
Learning is the Work
  • Accenture Tiger Woods ad
  • relentless consistency 50 willingness to
    change, 50

52
Learning is the Work
  • The best way to improve a school or district is
    by developing the people within it

53
Recommendations for Follow-Up
  • The Six Secrets of Change What the Best
    Leaders Do to Help Their Organizations Survive
    and Thrive-M. Fullan
  • Love your employees
  • Connect peers with purpose
  • Capacity building prevails
  • Learning is the work
  • Transparency rules
  • Systems learn

54
Thank you!
  • Questions and comments
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