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More fun with aspect, modals, the future, adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects of English

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Lesson #7 More fun with aspect, modals, the future, adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects of English Reminder You should be reading through the book ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: More fun with aspect, modals, the future, adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects of English


1
Lesson 7
  • More fun with aspect, modals, the future,
    adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects
    of English

2
Reminder
  • You should be reading through the book (Chapter
    2) to get a good idea of some of the many ways
    native speakers of English use aspect. There is
    an excellent discussion starting on p. 9.

3
  • There are some other important points about
    aspect that you need to consider.

4
Adverbials
  • Adverbials are clause-level structures that
    modify verb phrases (and sometimes other
    structures). An adverbial can be
  • An adverb phrase
  • A noun phrase
  • A prepositional phrase
  • A clause

5
Adverb Phrases
  • An adverb phrase (one type of adverbial) is
    centered around an adverb.

6
Adverbs
  • Typical adverbs are single words that end in -ly
    and answer questions loosely formed with how
    and when.
  • Usually When does this happen? This usually
    happens
  • Thoroughly How did he do it? He did it
    thoroughly.

7
Some adverbs with -ly
  • accidentally angrily annually anxiously
    awkwardly badly blindly boastfully
    boldly bravely briefly brightly busily
    calmly carefully carelessly cautiously
    cheerfully clearly correctly
    courageously crossly cruelly daily
    defiantly deliberately doubtfully easily
    elegantly enormously enthusiastically
    equally eventually exactly faithfully
    fatally fiercely fondly foolishly
    fortunately frantically gently gladly
    gracefully greedily happily hastily
    honestly hourly hungrily innocently
    inquisitively irritably joyously justly
    kindly lazily loosely loudly madly merrily
    monthly mortally mysteriously nearly neatly
    nervously noisily obediently obnoxiously
    painfully perfectly politely poorly
    powerfully promptly punctually quickly
    quietly rapidly rarely really recently
    recklessly regularly reluctantly repeatedly
    rightfully roughly rudely sadly safely
    selfishly seriously shakily sharply
    shrilly shyly silently sleepily slowly
    smoothly softly solemnly speedily stealthily
    sternly successfully suddenly
    suspiciously swiftly tenderly tensely
    thoughtfully tightly truthfully unexpectedly
    victoriously violently vivaciously warmly
    weakly wearily wildly yearly

8
Other adverbs
  • Other adverbs dont end in -ly but do answer the
    how and when questions.
  • Examples soon, now, often, then, still, yet,
    always, never , well

9
Adverbs with Tenses and Aspects
  • Note that sometimes an adverb works well with one
    tense/aspect but not with another. Consider
    recently which works well with perfect and
    perfect progressive aspects and past tense
    progressive aspect, but not with present tense
    progressive.

10
Recently
  • I have seen that movie recently.
  • He has been exercising recently.
  • He was talking to his mother recently.
  • BUT NOT I am learning grammar recently.

11
Frequently, usually, often
  • These adverbs are often (though not always) used
    with present and past tense, simple aspects and
    rarely if ever with the progressive.
  • Examples My husband often stays up past
    midnight.
  • BUT NOT My husband is often staying up past
    midnight.

12
Prepositional Phrase Adverbials
  • Some prepositional phrase adverbials are
    frequently used with perfect/perfect progressive
    aspect.
  • Example
  • For XXX
  • Since XXX
  • By XXX

13
Examples
  • I have spoken Spanish since 1968.
  • I have spoken Spanish for 41 years.
  • By next year, I will have spoken Spanish for 42
    years.

14
Noun Phrase Adverbials
  • Noun phrase adverbials are adverbs formed from a
    noun phrase. These often answer the when
    question.
  • Examples Last week, tonight, today.

15
Time and Tense with Modals and Aspects
  • Review point there are only two tenses in
    English past and present.

16
The Future
  • So how do we talk about the future?

17
Modals and the Future
  • Modals are commonly used to help us talk about
    the future. But modals are tricky (ask any ESL
    learner). They arent clean. A person can
    use some present tense and past tense modals to
    talk about the future. So in clauses with modals
    in the verb phrases, adverbs take on special
    importance.

18
Will and Shall
  • Will and shall (less common) are two words we
    use to express the future time (note, I did NOT
    say tense).

19
  • Will can be used with verbs in many different
    aspects, but all expressing the future.
  • I will have a rum and coke at 7 p.m. tonight.
    (present tense, simple aspect).
  • I will be having a rum and coke at 7 p.m.
    tonight. (present tense, progressive aspect)
  • I will have had two rums and cokes by 7 p.m.
    (present tense, perfect aspect)
  • I will have been having my third rum and coke by
    715 p.m. (present tense, perfect progressive
    aspect).

20
  • Note also that past tense modals can express the
    future
  • I could have a rum and coke tonight. (past tense,
    simple aspect expresses the future)
  • And the present
  • I could be having a rum and coke (but Im here
    teaching English instead). (past tense,
    progressive aspect expresses the present that
    isnt real)
  • And the past!
  • I could have had a rum and coke (but instead I
    had a White Russian). (past tense, perfect
    aspect expresses a past that did not happen).
  • I could have been having a rum and coke (but
    instead there I was drinking milk). (past tense,
    perfect progressive aspect expresses a past
    that did not happen).

21
The Future . . . Continued
  • One more way to express the future is to use the
    present tense, progressive aspect with an adverb
    that clearly expresses time.
  • Examples
  • I am leaving for Madrid tomorrow.

22
The Statives
  • There is another class of verbs called statives.
    Statives are rarely used in the progressive (or
    perfect progressive) aspect.
  • Statives are often verbs that express cognition,
    desire, and sense.

23
A few examples
  • Be Now I am a little tired. (not I am being a
    little tired).
  • Believe I believe God exists. (not I am
    believing God exists).
  • Belong It belongs to me. (not It is belonging
    to me).
  • Exist God exists. (not God is existing).
  • Forget I forget her name. (not I am
    forgetting her name).
  • Hate I hate this show. (not I am hating this
    show).
  • Have (meaning to possess) She has a beautiful
    family. (not She is having a beautiful
    family).
  • Smell Now I smel it. (not Now I am smelling
    it.)

24
Switch Hitters
  • Some verbs can have a stative and a non-stative
    use, depending on the meaning.
  • Example I have a dog. (possess -- stative)
  • I am having a good time. (experience -- not
    stative)

25
Statives in ESL
  • Statives are hard to learn -- and so learners
    dictionaries often mark the entries with not
    usually in the progressive if the verb is a
    stative.
  • Check out http//www.ldoce.com

26
Dialects and Aspect
  • Some dialects of English use aspects differently
    than North American Standard does.
  • In Indian English (a major dialect spoken by at
    least 100 million people), verbs that we in North
    America make statives are regularly used in the
    progressive.

27
Sample
  • (From a recent call to my bank)
  • Phone rep Are you understanding my explanation?
  • Me Not really.
  • Phone rep I am not having a better explanation.
    I will get my manager. He may be knowing
    another way.

28
Final Exercise
  • Consider these errors and decide what the problem
    is and what you would tell the student
  • It is ten years since our wedding day.
  • I am believing him despite his flawed character.
    (Student is from the Punjab region of India).
  • I went to Europe now.
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