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Chapter 26 The Higher Invertebrates

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Title: Chapter 26 The Higher Invertebrates


1
Chapter 26 The Higher Invertebrates
2
Arthropods
Annelids
segmented body
mouth
coelom
This table represents a comparison of the major
invertebrate phyla and their important
evolutionary developments.
Mollusks
anus
head
false coelom
Roundworms
Flatworms
complete digestive system
unsegmented body
bilateral symmetry, cephalization
no coelom (no cavity between gut and body wall)
mouth
Cnidarians, comb jellies
radial symmetry, no cephalization
saclike gut
3
Sponges Success in Symmetry
  • No symmetry, tissues or organs
  • Reproduce sexually and asexually.
  • Spicules
  • Osculum
  • Colar cells
  • Filter feeders

4
Describe how a sponge goes through the process of
filter feeding
animation
5
Cnidarians
  • Radial symmetry
  • Tissues
  • Nematocysts
  • 3 Classes
  • Scyphozoans - Jellyfish
  • Anthozoans - Sea anemones, corals
  • Hydrozoans - Hydra

6
mesoglea-filled bell
outer epithelium (epidermis)
mesoglea
inner epithelium (gastrodermis)
mouth
tentacle
mouth
Oral lobe (armlike extension of mouth)
outer epithelium
mesoglea
inner epithelium
Fig. 26.8, p. 428
7
mouth
epidermis
mesoglea
tentacle
gastrodermis
interacting cells of nerve net
sheet of epidermal cells with contractile
properties
8
Variations On the Cnidarian Body Plan
  • Obelia
  • Both polyp and medusa body forms

9
Acoelomate Animals and the Simplest Organ Systems
  • Simple and complex organs
  • Organs
  • One or more kinds of tissues, arranged in a
    particular pattern proportions.
  • Organ system
  • When organs interacts with others improves
    performance of a task.
  • Flatworms
  • Turbellarians, flukes, tapeworms.

10
Phylum - Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  • Bilateral
  • Cephalized
  • Acoelomate
  • Most are hermaphroditic
  • 3 Classes
  • Turbellarians (planarians)
  • Trematodes (Flukes)
  • Cestoda (Tapeworms)

11
Organ Systems of a Planarian
Nervous System
  • Class Turbullaria

Digestive System
Reproductive System
12
Flukes
  • Trematoda
  • Parasitic
  • Sexual or asexual phases
  • At least two hosts

Life Cycle of Schistosoma japonicum
  1. Mates in human host
  2. Leave host feces hatch as ciliated larvae
  3. Ciliated larvae enter snail host
  4. Multiply asexually exit forked larvae
  5. Swim and wait for human skin contact
  6. Borrow thru skin migrate to intestine

13
Tapeworms
Life cycle of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm)
  • Cestoda
  • Parasitic
  • Scolex
  • Proglottids
  • Hermaphroditic
  1. Inverted scolex larvae muscle tissue
  2. Infected meat eaten
  3. Scolex emerges attaches to intestine
  4. Proglottids form
  5. Fertilized proglottids break off
  6. Cattle ingest eggs or proglottids

14
Ribbon Worms Nematoda
  • Like flatworms
  • Bilateral, acoelomate
  • Ciliated surface
  • Unlike flatworms
  • Circulatory system
  • Complete gut
  • Separate sexes

15
Roundworms
  • Nematoda
  • Pseudocoelomate
  • Bilateral
  • Cylindrical body
  • Cuticle
  • Complete digestive system
  • Male and female

16
Phylum - Rotifers
  • Bilateral
  • Cephalized
  • Crown of cilia
  • Pseudocoelomate
  • Mostly fresh water

Philodina roseola
17
Two Early Developmental Modes of Animals
  • Protostome Deuterostome
  • Differences
  • Cleavage
  • Spiral (diagonal)
  • Radial (parallel)
  • Coelom formation
  • Fate of blastopore
  • Protostome, mouth develops first then anus
  • Deuterostome, opposite digestive development

18
Two Major Divergences
  • Protostomes (lineage of coelomate)
  • Mollusks, annelids, arthropods
  • Spiral cleavage
  • First embryonic opening --gt mouth
  • Coelom arises from spaces in mesoderm
  • Deuterostomes
  • Echinoderms, chordates
  • Radial cleavage
  • First embryonic opening --gt anus
  • Coelom arises from outpouchings in gut wall

19
The Amazing Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca)
20
A Sampling of Molluscan Diversity
  • Mollusca
  • Soft body
  • Secrete Shell
  • Mantle
  • Tissue over visceral mass that secretes shell
  • Fleshy foot
  • Gills

21
Important molluscan characteristics
  • Second largest group of invertebrates.
  • Soft-bodied.
  • Bilateral symmetry.
  • Breathe through gills.
  • Most species have
  • A head
  • A foot
  • A visceral mass
  • Gut (complete)
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Reproductive organs
  • Some have eyes tentacles.
  • Most have a shell or a remnant.
  • Many have a radula for feeding.

22
Mollusk Groups
  • Gastropods
  • Snails, slugs nudibranchs
  • Chitons
  • Univalves
  • Bivalves
  • Clams, oysters, scallops mussels
  • Cephalopods
  • Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, nautilus

23
The Gastropods
  • Largest group of mollusks.
  • Crawl about on their foot.
  • Many have coiled shells.
  • Most show torsion a twisting realignment of
    body parts.
  • Secrete mucus to keep skin moist, reduce friction
    when crawling.
  • Scrape food (mainly algae) off substrates by
    using a file-like radula.
  • Often serve as intermediate hosts for parasitic
    worms.

24
The Gastropods
Torsion of the Viscera
Cilia near this region creates currents
that sweeps waste away.
mouth
excretory organ
anus
anus
gill
heart
digestive gland
mantle cavity (secretes the shell)
gill
stomach
heart
shell
stomach
radula
mantle
foot
mouth
radula (magnified)
25
The Chitons
  • Slow-moving or sedentary (sessile).
  • Most use a radula to scrape algae off surfaces
    (like Gastropods).
  • Have a large, broad muscular foot.
  • Foot allows chitons to cling to surfaces tightly.
  • Dorsal shell divided into eight plates.
  • Mantle acts like suction cup, helping chiton stay
    attached to substrate.

26
The Bivalves
  • Include clams, oysters, scallops mussels.
  • Bivalve means two shells.
  • Large foot specialized for burrowing.
  • Gills used for respiration and trapping food
    particles.
  • Water is drawn into mantle cavity through
    inhalant siphon, filtered through gills and
    expelled through exhalant siphon.
  • Some bivalves (like scallops) can swim by
    clapping their valves together.

retractor muscle
retractor muscle
mouth
water flows out through exhalant siphon
mantle
gill
palps
foot
water flows in through inhalant siphon
shell
Cilia on gills allow for suspension feeding by
creating a movement of water through siphons
27
The Cephalopods
  • Most highly developed brains of all invertebrates
    (eyes learning memory possible).
  • Beak-like crushing jaws.
  • Some have venomous bites.
  • Move swiftly via jet propulsion.
  • Only mollusks with closed circulatory systems.

digestive gland
esophagus
stomach
internal shell
kidney
brain
arm
jaw
mantle
reproductive organ
radula
accessory heart
ink sac
siphon
gill
(Speeds up circulation)
anus
heart
tentacle
Cephalopods have separate sexes!
28
The Annelids (Phylum Annelida)
Polychaetes
tentacles
eyes
parapods
29
The Annelids (Phylum Annelida)
  • Bodies divided into segments.
  • Bilateral symmetry.
  • Bristles on each body segment (except leeches).
    These can be retracted and provide traction for
    burrowing.
  • Feed upon decomposing organic material.
  • Thin cuticle allows gas exchange through skin.
  • Two muscle types, circular longitudinal.
  • Complete digestive tract, closed circulatory
    system, brain ventral nerve cord.
  • Excretory nephridia.

30
Earthworm cross-section
dorsal blood vessel
circular muscles
longitudinal muscles
intestine
Hydrostatic skeleton
coelom
typhlosole
intestinal cavity
seta (retracted)
  • How do earthworms move?
  • circular muscles
  • longitudinal muscles
  • hydrostatic skeleton
  • setae

cuticle
Thin flexible permits gas exchange
ventral blood vessel
nerve cord
nephridium
Regulates fluid balance
31
nephridiums thin loop reabsorbs some solutes,
relinquishes them to blood
bladderlike storage region of nephridium
blood vessels
body wall
funnel (coelomic fluid with waste enters here)
external pore (fluid containing wastes discharged
here)
Earthworm excretory system
32
Earthworm circulatory system
aortic arches (hearts)
blood vessels (ventral and dorsal)
33
Earthworm digestive system
pharynx
intestine
mouth
crop (storage)
gizzard (mashing)
esophagus
34
Earthworm nervous system
brain
nerve cord
ganglion
35
Parasitic Annelids
  • Leeches are one of the few annelids without
    bristles.
  • Have suckers at both ends of body to help with
    movement.
  • Have razor-sharp jaws used to make incision in
    hosts skin.
  • Secrete anticoagulant through mouth to prevent
    hosts blood from clotting.
  • Gut has many side branches for storing victims
    blood.
  • One feeding can last leech for one year.
  • Like all annelids, leeches have segmented bodies.

Before feeding
After feeding
36
The Incredibly Diverse Arthropods (Phylum
Arthropoda)
  • Over 1 million different species, to date.
    Largest group of animals.
  • New species discovered every week!
  • Probably evolved from the annelids.
  • Inhabit nearly every region of Earth.
  • Four major lineages
  • Trilobites (now extinct)
  • Chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, ticks)
  • Crustaceans (crabs, crayfish, shrimp)
  • Uniramians (insects, centipedes, millipedes).

Did you know that arthropods demonstrate the MOST
diversity
37
Arthropod evolutionary success is due to six
primary adaptations
  • A hardened exoskeleton.
  • Specialized segments.
  • Feeding
  • Sensing
  • Locomotion
  • Sperm transfer
  • Silk spinning
  • Jointed appendages (only arthropods modified for
    flight)
  • Specialized respiratory structures.
  • Gills
  • Tracheas (pores to tubes which allows for flight)
  • Efficient nervous system highly developed
    sensory organs (esp. site compound eye)
  • Division of labor in the life cycle.

38
Types of Metamorphosis
Growth and molting
egg
young
adult
Incomplete metamorphosis
egg
nymphs
adult
Complete metamorphosis
egg
larvae
adult
pupa
39
The exoskeleton a coat of armor!
  • Made of chitin protein, its light flexible.
  • Restricts water loss.
  • Provides support defense.
  • Allows internal muscle attachment, enabling
    greater strength for organisms.
  • Some disadvantages
  • Restricts size increases.
  • Must be shed (molted) periodically (see at left).
  • Restricts range of motion.

40
The Chelicerates
  • Except for horseshoe crabs, all are terrestrial.
  • Most are predators, some (ticks) are parasitic.
  • Several pairs of simple eyes.
  • Four pairs of walking legs.
  • Chelicerae (fangs) in spiders used to inject
    venom.
  • Pedipalps used for holding tasting food.
  • No antennae.
  • Spiders produce silken webs.
  • Book lungs for respiration.
  • Scorpions- tip of abdomen modified into stinger
    with venom gland.

41
eyes
digestive gland
heart
brain
Malpighian tubule
poison gland
anus
book lung
pedipalp
mouth
sperm receptacle
ovary
silk gland
spinners
chelicera (fangs inflict wounds inject venom)
42
Ticks
  • Ectoparasites of vertebrates.
  • Feed on blood.
  • Carry bacteria responsible for causing Rocky
    Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme Disease (shown
    below).

female
male
43
The Crustaceans
  • Shrimp, crayfish, crabs, lobsters pillbugs.
  • 16 to 20 body segments.
  • Head thorax fused into a cephalothorax.
  • Two pairs of antennae.
  • Compound eyes on stalks.
  • Three pairs of mouthparts.
  • Five pairs of walking legs.
  • First pair of walking legs modified into powerful
    chelipeds for defense.
  • Gills used for respiration.

44
antennae (two pairs)
one of two compound eyes
fused segments of cephalothorax
food-handling appendages (three pairs)
segments of abdomen
tail fin
swimmerets
first leg (cheliped)
five walking legs (five pairs total)
External crayfish anatomy
Note 2 pairs of antennae unique in arthropods
45
Millipedes
4 legs per body segment. Cylindrical body
shape. Feed on decaying plants. Secrete
foul-smelling chemical for defense.
Centipedes
2 legs per body segment. Flattened body
shape. Fast, aggressive carnivores. Have fangs
venom glands.
46
The Insects
  • Body divided into head, thorax, abdomen (thorax
    adapted for locomotion)
  • One pair of antennae.
  • Locomotion three pairs of walking legs, usually
    one pair of wings.
  • Compound and simple eyes.
  • Breathe through spiracles into tracheal tubes.
  • Malpighian tubules remove nitrogen wastes from
    blood (conserves water)
  • Nitrogen wastes combined with solid waste to
    conserve water.
  • Only winged invertebrates.
  • Aggressive competitors with man.

47
Insect feeding adaptations
Chewing (grasshopper)
Sipping or Siphoning (butterfly)
Sopping (housefly)
Piercing Sucking (mosquito)
48
Arthropods, esp. insects, owe their evotionary
success to
  • Hardened exoskeleton
  • Specialized segments with joined appendages
  • Efficient respiratory sensory structures.
  • Division of labor in their life cycles.

49
Insect Life Cycles Post Embryonic
a. Growth and molting
  • Embryo
  • Nymph
  • Larvae
  • Pupae
  • Adult
  • Note
  • Use different resources at different stages of
    development.
  • Winged most successful
  • Only invertebrate with wings

adult
young
egg
b. Incomplete metamorphosis
nymphs
egg
adult
c. Complete metamorphosis
adult
larvae
egg
50
  • Check out the diversity of the appendages among
    the following insects.
  • How does this diversity help insects in term of
    feeding and food supply?

51
The Puzzling Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata)
52
Echinoderm means spiny skinned
  • All contain calcium spines, spicules or plates in
    their body walls.
  • Radial bilateral symmetry.
  • No brain, but nervous system present.
  • Water vascular system with tube feet for
    locomotion.
  • Swallow prey whole or push stomach out of body
    onto prey, partially digesting it before
    swallowing it.

53
ossicle (stiffening, support structure)
upper stomach
gonad
anus
lower stomach
coelom
digestive gland
eyespot
the water-vascular system
sieve plate or madreporeite
tube feet
ampulla
Click to view water vascular system
ring canal
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