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Presentaci

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Title: Presentaci n de PowerPoint Author: Humberto Salazar Last modified by: Humberto Salazar Created Date: 7/3/2002 8:35:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presentaci


1
WATER CHERENKOV DETECTOR ARRAY at the University
of Puebla to study cosmic rays H. Salazar , J.
Cotzomi, E. Moreno, T.Murrieta, B.Palma, E.Perez,
L. Villaseñor FCFM-UAP
2
EAS-BUAP Design and Preliminary Results of the
water Cherenkov array
Main goal Contribute to the study of inclined
showers and mass composition around the knee as
well as educational training. 111 tanks filled
with a layer of 12 cm high of liquid scintillator
and 1 m2 effective area, mounted in a rectangular
grid (40x100m2, 20m spacing). 3 Water Cherenkov
detectors 2 m2 effective area 1 Water Cherenkov
Detector (WCD), 10m2 effective area, 1.2m height.
3
EAS-UAP First Stage, scintillator detectors.
Full array and operational detectors in red .
All signals are collected in a central
acquisition station.
4
EAS-UAP Altitude 2200 m above sea level, 800 g
/cm2 Location 190 N and 900 W.
5
Energy range covered by the EAS-BUAP array 1014
to 1016 eV.
6
The primary energy spectrum extends over many
Orders of magnitude from GeV energies to 50
J. Power law spectrum with almost no
structure Change in the spectral index at about
4 PeV(Knee) Slight steepening around 400PeV
(second Knee) Flattening at the highest
energies around 10EeV (Ankle) GZK Cutoff The
origin of the Knee is still under discussion
7
Cosmic ray particles are most likely accelerated
in strong shock fronts of supernova remnants
(Fermi acceleration) Low Z(charge) particles are
more likely to escape from the galaxy as
compared to particles with high Z (gyromagnetic
radii) The first Knee is due to the
subsequent Cut-offs for all elements, starting
with the proton component Second Knee could mark
the end of the stable elements (Z92)
8
EAS TOP
9
  • Italy
  • Location 2005 m a.s.l.
  • (820 g/cm2)
  • 35 detector stations of scintillators
  • 10m2
  • Detector Array, MACRO
  • Observables Ne, muons
  • Status stopped

10
KASKADE
11
Germany Location 500 m a.s.l. (1020
g/cm²). 252 scintillator detectors Area 200 X
200 m² Detector Array, tunnel
GRANDE Observables Ne-Nu, hadrons,
muons Status running in set-up
12
Light-tight cylindrical container with inner
reflective walls filled with liquid scintillator
up to a height of 12 cm and one 5 PMT (EMI
9030A) facing down 70 cm above the surface of the
liquid..
The trigger requires the coincidence of gt4
signals in a rectangular sub-array with an area
of 29?29 m2. The measured trigger rate is 150
hour-1.
13
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14
Day/Night temperature effect on rates
15
Calibration histograms EAS-UAP Scintillation
detectors November 2004
16
Calibration histograms of the Water Cherenkov
detectors
17
Angular distribution inferred directly from the
relative arrival times of shower front in good
agreement with the literature
cosp?? sen ?
18
Angular distribution from Cherenkov detector
arrival times
A 4?R² cos(?) 2hR sen(?)
19
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20
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21
Example of lateral distribution of
electromagnetic particles from Scintillation
detectors
22
Two examples of LDF for both EM and VEM
23
Muon/EM separation in Water Cherenkov detectors
For details see Villasenor L. talk at Rich 2004
24
Discussion on composition
We have checked the stability and performed the
calibration of the detectors. We have measured
and analyzed the arrival direction of showers. We
determine the number of charged particles in each
detector using the single-particle charge
spectrum to obtain the LDF of (vertical) showers
and the water cherenkov detectors to obtain the
LDF in VEMs. The shower core is located by the
center of gravity and by fitting the measured
charged particle distribution to the NKG
function. Muon/Electromagnetic content
from S(VEM) NmVEM NemVEM/W1 S(Nt) Nm
W2Nem, with W1 24 and W2 2.4 But simulation
of the detection process is needed for fine
tuning of these weigths!
25
TOWARDS THE MOUNTAIN TEST ARRAY
RAMPA
ALT 4560 N 18 59 03.9 W 97 18 44.7
SUR
NORTE
ALT 4558 N 18 59 02.9 W 97 18 45.2
ALT 4558 N 18 59 04.6 W 97 18 45.4
CENTRO ALT 4557 N 18 59 03.7 W 97 18
45.5
CABAÑA
ARENA
ALT 4557 N 18 59 04 W 97 18 46.4
Thanks to INAOE- LMT for the site!
26
Construction in progress Hybrid Mountain Array
to determine mass composition
Cherenkov DETECTORS
fluorescence detector
Acknowledgements to students! Eduardo Moreno,
Jorge Cotzomi, Epifanio Lancho, Marcelino
Anguiano, Saul Aguilar, Guillermo Ontiveros,
Isabel Pedraza, Tirso Murrieta, Bianey Palma,
Gonzalo Perez
27
Acknowledgements This work was done with partial
support of the CONACY-G32739E And University of
Torino University of Puebla Fermilab Students Ed
uardo Moreno Barbosa Jorge Cotzomi
Paleta Epifanio Lancho Marcelino Anguiano Saul
Aguilar Guillermo Ontiveros Isabel Pedraza Tirso
Murrieta Bianey Palma Gonzalo Perez
28
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29
Scintillator detetctor vs Small Water CD
30
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31
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32
Infill array distribution of zenith angle
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