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Energy and Waste Chapters 15, 16, and 22 Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller

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Title: Energy and Waste Chapters 15, 16, and 22 Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller


1
Renewable Energy
2
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
3
Energy Efficiency
  • Increasing energy efficiency of common devices
    has economic and environmental advantages
  • Reducing oil imports
  • Prolonging fossil fuel supplies
  • Reducing pollution and environmental degradation
  • Saving money
  • Buys time to develop new technology
  • Creating jobs

4
Efficiency of Some Common Devices
  • Device Efficiency ()
  • Dry-cell flashlight battery 90
  • Home gas furnace 85
  • Storage battery 70
  • Home oil furnace 65
  • Small electric motor 62
  • Steam power plant 38
  • Diesel engine 38
  • High-intensity lamp 32
  • Automobile engine 25
  • Fluorescent lamp 22
  • Incandescent lamp 4

5
Energy Efficiency
percentage of energy input that does useful work
in an energy conversion system
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
6
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel
    efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the
    United States leveled off or declined
  • Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny
    fraction of car sales
  • Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales
    are expected to increase
  • Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be
    available within a few years
  • Electric scooters and electric bicycles are
    short-range transportation alternatives

7
Energy use of various types of transportation
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
8
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Superinsulated house is more expensive than a
    conventional house, but energy savings pay back
    the extra cost
  • Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of
    using an annually renewable agricultural residue,
    thus slowing deforestation

9
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Existing homes can be made more energy efficient
  • adding insulation
  • plugging leaks
  • installing energy-saving windows
  • wrapping water heaters
  • installing tankless models
  • buying energy-efficient appliances and lights

10
Natural Gas or Electricity
  • Water heater
  • Electricity is produced at power plant via gas or
    coal and transferred via wire to your home
  • Some energy is lost over the wire,

11
Water Heater
  • Tank
  • Water is heated 365/24/7
  • Because heat is lost through the flue and the
    walls of the storage tank (this is called standby
    heat loss), energy is consumed even when no hot
    water is being used.

12
Water Heater
  • Tankless
  • The energy consumption of these units is
    generally lower since standby losses from the
    storage tank are eliminated.
  • Demand water heaters with enough capacity to meet
    household needs are gas- or propane-fired.
  • http//www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topwater.htm

13
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
14
Solar Energy
  • Buildings can be heated
  • passive solar heating system
  • active solar heating system
  • Solar thermal systems are new technologies that
    collect and transform solar energy into heat that
    can be used directly or converted to electricity
  • Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly
    into electricity

15
Suitability of Solar Usage
best when more than 60 of daylight hours sunny
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
16
Solar Heating
Passive system Absorbs stores heat from the
sun directly within a structure
Active system Collectors absorb solar energy, a
pump supplies part of a buildings heating or
water heating needs.
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
17
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
18
Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW)
  • An open circuit hot water system heats the
    domestic water directly on the roof of the
    building
  • The water flows from the heat collector into the
    hot water tank to be used in the house
  • Integration of solar energy conservation in homes
    can reduce energy consumption by 75-90.
  • www.iea-shc.org

www.earlham.edu/parkero/Seminar/
SOLAR20AMERICA5B15D.ppt
19
Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells
Provides electricity for buildings
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
20
Inside the PV cell
  • PV cells are made from silicon alloys
  • PV module
  • 1cm by 10cm cells
  • 36 cells connected

www.earlham.edu/parkero/Seminar/
SOLAR20AMERICA5B15D.ppt
21
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
22
Solar Thermal Techniques
Solar Two
www.earlham.edu/parkero/Seminar/
SOLAR20AMERICA5B15D.ppt
23
Heliostats
  • Heliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the
    power tower
  • The reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its
    daily trajectory

www.earlham.edu/parkero/Seminar/
SOLAR20AMERICA5B15D.ppt
24
Power Tower
  • Sunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed
    receiver in power tower
  • Fluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the
    power block
  • Used to heat a steam generator

Solar One
www.earlham.edu/parkero/Seminar/
SOLAR20AMERICA5B15D.ppt
25
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
26
Solar-Hydrogen Revolution
  • Splitting water can produce H2 gas
  • If scientists and engineers can learn how to use
    forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply,
    they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen
    revolution
  • Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles
    and appliances

27
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28
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
29
History of Hydroelectric
  • B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels
    for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000
    years ago
  • 1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with
    establishment of Chief Engineer for the
    Continental Army
  • 1880 - Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light and
    Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo,
    belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair
    Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps.

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
30
History of Hydroelectric
  • By 1940 - 40 of electrical generation was
    hydropower
  • Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional capacity in
    the U.S. tripled almost tripled again between
    1940 and 1980
  • Currently - about 10 of U.S. electricity comes
    from hydropower.

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
31
www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
32
Turbine Technologies
  • Reaction
  • fully immersed in fluid
  • shape of blades produces rotation

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
hydroelectric/hydro.ppt
33
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
34
Tidal Power Plant
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
35
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
36
Rotary Windmill
www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
37
Vertical Blades
www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
38
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
39
Energy from Wind
  • Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by
    wind farms is expected to increase
  • Western Europe currently leads in the development
    of wind power
  • Land used for wind farms also can be used for
    ranching or crops and most profits stay in local
    communities
  • North Dakota

40
Optimization
  • Low Torque Rapid Speed
  • good for electrical generation
  • High Torque Slow Speed
  • good for pumping water
  • Small generator
  • low wind speeds
  • captures small amount of energy
  • Large generator
  • high wind speeds
  • may not turn at low speeds

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
41
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
42
Source American Wind Energy Association
www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt
43
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
44
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
45
Energy from Biomass
  • In the developing world, most people heat homes
    and cook by burning wood or charcoal
  • Plant materials and animal wastes also can be
    converted into biofuels,
  • Biogas
  • Liquid ethanol
  • Liquid methanol
  • Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators to
    produce electricity and heat

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
46
Types of Biomass Fuel
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
47
Biorefinery
  • Fuels
  • Ethanol
  • Renewable Diesel
  • Methanol
  • Hydrogen
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Products
  • Plastics
  • Foams
  • Solvents
  • Coatings
  • Chemical Intermediates
  • Phenolics
  • Adhesives
  • Fatty acids
  • Acetic Acid
  • Carbon black
  • Paints

Conversion Processes
  • Biomass
  • Feedstock
  • Trees
  • Forest Residues
  • Grasses
  • Agricultural Crops
  • Agricultural Residues
  • Animal Wastes
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation
  • Enzymatic Fermentation
  • - Gas/liquid Fermentation
  • - Thermochemical Processes
  • - Gasification/Pyrolysis
  • - Combustion
  • - Co-firing

www.sc.doe.gov/bes/besac/BESACGarman08-02-01.ppt
48
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
49
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
50
Geothermal Energy
  • Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings
    and to produce electricity
  • Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is
    removed faster than natural processes renew it,
    but the potential supply is vast

51
Technology
  • Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • shallow ground energy
  • Direct-Use
  • hot water can be piped to facilities
  • Power Plants
  • steam and hot water drive turbines
  • dry steam plants
  • flash steam plants
  • binary cycle plants

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
52
Dry Steam Power Plants
  • Hydrothermal fluids are primarily steam
  • Steam goes directly to turbine
  • No fossil fuels

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
53
Flash Steam Power Plant
  • Fluids above 200 degrees Celsius
  • Fluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure
  • Fluid rapidly vaporizes
  • Steam drives turbine

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
54
Binary Cycle Power Plant
  • Cooler water (below 200 degrees Celsius)
  • Hot thermal fluid and a second fluid pass through
    heat exchanger

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
55
Heat Mining
  • Last week the Massachusetts Institute of
    Technology released a study concluding that heat
    mining could generate enough energy by 2050 to
    replace the coal-fired and nuclear power plants
    that are likely to be retired over the next
    several decades.
  • Boston Globe Gareth Cook, Globe Staff    January
    29, 2007 _at_ http//www.boston.com/news/globe/health
    _science/articles/2007/01/29/the_power_of_rocks/

56
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  • At present the DHM project and drilling
    activities are financed by the Swiss Federal
    Office of Energy (SFOE), the canton of the city
    of Basel, the water and energy public utilities
    of Basel (IWB), a power company (Elektra Basel
    Land), and a private foundation (G.H. Endress)
    http//www.geothermie.de/iganews/no45/the_swiss_de
    ep_heat.htm

65
Benefits
  • Clean Energy
  • one sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas
  • very little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur
    compounds
  • Availability
  • 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
  • Homegrown
  • Renewable

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
66
Environmental Effects
  • Only emission is steam
  • Salts and dissolved minerals reinjected
  • Some sludge produced
  • Mineral extraction
  • Little Visual Impact
  • Small acreage, no fuel storage facilities

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
67
Location
  • Hot geothermal fluid
  • Low mineral and gas content
  • Shallow aquifers
  • Producing and reinjecting the fluid
  • Private land
  • Simplifies permit process
  • Proximity to transmission lines

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
68
www.eren.doe.gov/power/consumer/
rebasics_geothermal.html
69
Future
  • Only tiny fraction is currently used
  • Dry hot rock heated by molten magma
  • Drill into rock and circulate water

www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/
geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt
70
Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind
Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability
71
Suggestions to make the transition to a
more sustainable energy future.
www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter1415.ppt
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