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The Church

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Title: The Church


1
The Church
  • Sacrament of Salvation

2
The Church
  • Chapter 5

3
Chapter 5
  • The Four Marks of the Church One, Holy,
    Catholic, and Apostolic

4
Chapter Objectives
The student will be able to understand
  • The Church is One
  • The unity of the Church in the Mystical Body of
    Christ
  • Wounds to the unity of the Church
  • Neo-Platonism and the nature of Christ
  • Gnosticism, Arianism, Apollinarianism,
    Nestorianism, and Monophysitism
  • The Protestant Reformation
  • Ecumenism
  • The holiness of the Church
  • The Church is Catholic
  • The Church is Apostolic

5
Keys to Chapter 5
  • Christ founded only one Church, and he is the
    source of her unity.
  • The unity of the Church has been and continues
    to be wounded through apostasy, heresy, and
    schism.
  • We work and pray for the reunion of all
    Christians in the Catholic Church in which the
    true Church of Christ subsists.

6
Keys to Chapter 5
  • Though made up of sinful members, the Church is
    holy with the holiness of Christ.
  • The Church has a universal mission to fulfill.
  • The Churchs foundation is the Apostles and their
    teaching.

7
For Discussion
  • What are the four marks of the Catholic Church?
  • What does it mean that the Church is One?
  • How has the unity of the Church been wounded?
  • What ecumenical efforts are being made at
    present?
  • What does it mean that the Church is Holy?

8
For Discussion
  • What does it mean that the Church is Catholic?
  • What does it mean that the Church is Apostolic?
  • What is apostolic succession, and why is it
    important?
  • What is apostolic Tradition?

9
The First Mark One
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Church is One
  • The unity of the Church in the Mystical Body of
    Christ
  • Wounds to the unity of the Church

10
The First Mark One
Basic Questions
What does it mean to say the Church is One?
The Church is One, meaning there is only one
Church whose source of unity is the unity of God
himself.
11
The First Mark One
Basic Questions
How does the image of the Church as the Mystical
Body of Christ help us understand the unity of
the Church?
The unity of the Church can be seen in the unity
of faith, worship, and leadership of the Catholic
Church as the Mystical Body of Christ.
12
The First Mark One
Basic Questions
What has wounded the unity of the Church?
Wounds to the unity of the Church have occurred
over the centuries due to heresy, apostasy, and
schism.
13
Focus Question
What does it mean to say that the Church is both
a visible and an invisible community?
The one Church established by Christ is present
both on earth and in Heaven. On earth she is a
visible community. The Church in Purgatory and in
Heaven is invisible to us on earth. At the same
time, the spiritual riches, which the Church on
earth possesses, are also invisible. For example,
the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist is
invisible.
14
Focus Question
What are the four marks of the Church, both on
earth and in Heaven?
The Church is One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic.
15
Focus Question
What is an immediate, practical value of the four
marks?
They help distinguish the true pilgrim Church on
earth from any others that claim to be Christs
Church.
16
Focus Question
How do we know the Catholic Church possesses the
four marks of the Church?
Through faith and the historical record. Only
faith can recognize that the Church possesses
these marks because of her divine origin, but the
historical manifestations of these marks are
signs that clearly speak to human reason.
17
Focus Question
Where does the Church get the Four Marks, or
characteristics?
She receives them from God.
18
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question How is the unity of the Church
different from that of any other social group or
organization?
19
Focus Question
What do we mean when we say, The Church is
one?
The Church is unique and singular. Jesus has
instituted one Church and not multiple
churches. Extension One way of understanding
this is that Jesus Christ has not forged multiple
paths to salvation but only one way.
20
Focus Question
How many flocks did Christ intend to have?
He has just one flock as he is one shepherd.
21
Focus Question
What did Christ mean in saying, I am the way,
and the truth, and the life no one comes to the
Father, but by me?
He meant that he is the only way to salvation.
22
Focus Question
Why is one Church enough?
In establishing the Church on earth, Christ gives
all mankind the opportunity to be united to him,
the one Savior of the world, by becoming part of
his one Mystical Body.
23
Focus Question
What is the second meaning of the statement, The
Church is one?
The unity and solidarity of the Church.
24
Focus Question
What is perhaps the best image of the Church to
express the unity of the Church?
The Church as the Mystical Body of Christ.
25
Focus Question
How does the Mystical Body of Christ express the
unity of the Church?
In the Mystical Body of Christ, the many diverse
members of the Church are united to Jesus, our
head, to form the whole Christ, united and
animated by the Holy Spirit, the soul of the
Mystical Body.
26
Focus Question
What are the three visible ways or attributes of
the unity of the Mystical Body of Christ?
She has a unity of faith, worship, and
leadership.
27
Focus Question
What does it mean to say that the unity of the
Church will perdure?
The unity achieved at the beginning of the
Churchs life will never disappear.
28
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to summarize the
three unities of the Church.
Unity Explanation
Unity of Faith
Unity of Worship
Unity of Leadership
29
Focus Question
What were the two major problems that Pope St.
Leo the Great faced?
  • The once great Roman Empire was dividing and
    disintegrating.
  • The heresies of Pelagianism, Nestorianism,
    Monophysitism, and Manichaeism were gaining
    adherents.

30
Focus Question
How did the Tome of Leo affect the Council of
Chalcedon?
When those present heard the words of Pope St.
Leo the Greats letter, they readily assented to
his teaching and exclaimed, Peter has spoken
through Leo.
31
Focus Question
How did Pope St. Leo the Great save the city of
Rome from Attila the Hun?
He met the notorious barbarian outside the walls
of the city and persuaded Attila and his men to
leave Rome without a fight.
32
Focus Question
What was one division that arose in the Church at
the very beginning?
The first division was over the question of
whether Gentile converts had to be circumcised
and live according to the Mosaic Law in order to
become Christians.
33
Focus Question
How was this resolved?
The Council of Jerusalem, under the leadership of
St. Peter, gave the response to this question.
34
Focus Question
What happened to the unity of the Church in
subsequent centuries?
More serious dissensions appeared and large
communities became separated from full communion
with the Catholic Church.
35
Focus Question
What are the three types of ruptures that wound
the unity of Christs Body?
Heresy, apostasy, and schism.
36
Focus Question
What is apostasy?
Apostasy is the total rejection of the Christian
Faith by someone already baptized.
37
Focus Question
What is heresy?
Heresy is the deliberate and persistent
post-baptismal denial of a truth of the Faith
taught by the Church.
38
Focus Question
What is schism?
It is the post-baptismal refusal of unity with
the Pope or the refusal of communion with the
members of the Church.
39
Focus Question
Can a non-Christian be a heretic or schismatic or
be in a state of apostasy?
No. These are states that only a baptized member
of the Church can possess.
40
Focus Question
What are two major schisms that have occurred in
the history of the Church?
The first, with the Eastern Orthodox Churches,
took place in the eleventh century. The second
was with the various denominations that were
founded during the Protestant Reformation in the
sixteenth century.
41
Focus Question
How do Catholics today view the members born into
these schismatic communities?
Catholics view them as separated brethren who
often, through no fault of their own, remain
unaware of the truth of the Catholic Faith.
42
Focus Question
What are some elements of sanctification and
truth found within the separated Churches and
ecclesial communities of Eastern Orthodoxy and
Protestantism?
Sacred Scripture, some or all of the Seven
Sacraments, the theological virtues of faith,
hope, and charity, and the gifts of the Holy
Spirit.
43
Focus Question
What is the origin of the elements of the true
Faith, which our separated brethren possess?
These elements, which come from Christ and lead
back to him, belong by right to the Catholic
Church, the one Church founded by Christ, which
possesses them in their fullness.
44
Focus Question
How are the seeds of reunification present in the
elements of sanctification and truth that our
separated brethren possess?
The fact that some of these elements are present
to some degree within other communities is
evidence of those communities origins (i.e.,
they separated from the Catholic Church) and may
provide an avenue for their eventual return to
Catholic unity.
45
Early Christian Heresies
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Neo-Platonism and the nature of Christ
  • Gnosticism, Arianism, Apollinarianism,
    Nestorianism, and Monophysitism

46
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What error was Neo-Platonism prone to in regard
to the nature of Christ?
While Greek language and the philosophy of Plato
and Aristotle were invaluable for articulating
Catholic doctrine, the Neo-Platonic understanding
of the logos made Greek thought prone to
misunderstanding the nature of Jesus Christ.
47
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What is the heresy of Gnosticism?
Gnosticism claimed a secret knowledge of Christ.
48
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What is the heresy of Arianism?
Arianism denied the divinity of the Son of God.
49
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What is the heresy of Apollinarianism?
Apollinarianism denied that Christ had a human
mind and will.
50
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What is the heresy of Nestorianism?
Nestorianism claimed Christ was two persons, one
human and the other divine.
51
Early Christian Heresies
Basic Questions
What is the heresy of Monophysitism?
Monophysitism claimed Christ had only one nature.
52
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
prompt Compare and contrast the Christian and
Neo-Platonic ideas of the logos.
53
Graphic Organizer
Identify and briefly explain the five heresies
discussed in this lesson.
Heresy Brief Explanation Orthodox Catholic Teaching
Gnosticism
Arianism
Apollinarianism
Nestorianism
Monophysitism
54
Focus Question
Where do Catholic religious doctrines come
from?
They derive from the revealed truths contained in
the Deposit of Faith that Christ entrusted to his
Church and which are found in Sacred Scripture
and Sacred Tradition.
55
Focus Question
What did the first heresies concern?
The Person of Christ.
56
Focus Question
What does early Christianity owe to the Greek
language and the philosophies of Plato and
Aristotle?
The richness of the Greek language and the Greek
philosophical tradition were invaluable for
articulating and developing the Christian
message.
57
Focus Question
How did Neo-Platonists see God and the logos?
These non-Christian pagans held that there was a
Supreme Being, who created the world through
lesser beings, one of which was the logos.
58
Focus Question
How did St. John use the word Logos?
He used it to refer to God the Son.
59
Focus Question
Why would the Neo-Platonists likely misunderstand
the Person of Christ?
Their way of looking at their logos was as a
created being, inferior to God therefore, they
would tend to believe that Jesus could not be
truly divine.
60
Focus Question
What problem did the Neo-Platonists have with
creation in general?
They saw the created world as an obstacle to
contemplation and personal perfection and so
would not like the idea that Christ is true man.
61
Focus Question
What is the gnosis in Gnosticism?
Gnosis is knowledge, in this case a secret
knowledge, which is the basis of salvation.
62
Focus Question
What did the Gnostics believe about God?
The Gnostics taught that there were two gods the
creator god who propagated evil (the Old
Testament) and the unknowable divine being (the
New Testament).
63
Focus Question
What is the role of the logos in Gnosticism?
Christ, the logos, had been sent to give secret
knowledge to a select few so that they could
return to the unknowable divine being. This was
only possible if the individuals understood the
secret knowledge of the redeemers teaching and
practiced the appropriate Gnostic rituals.
64
Guided Exercise
Discuss the following question Why does denying
the divinity of Christ invariably lead to the
rejection of the doctrines of the Trinity and
the redemption?
65
Focus Question
Who was Arius?
He was a Catholic priest whose study of
neo-Platonism and familiarity with Gnosticism
led him to claim the Son of God was neither God
nor equal to the Father.
66
Focus Question
How did Arius see Jesus Christ?
Jesus was the supreme creation of God, but not
his eternally begotten Son, Second Person of the
Blessed Trinity. He denied the divinity of
Christ.
67
Focus Question
Gnosticism What Church doctrines regarding
Christs nature did Gnosticism reject?
It rejected both Christs human and divine
nature. It rejected Christs divine nature
because the logos was not God. It rejected
Christs human nature, because it would be
material and therefore evil.
68
Focus Question
Gnosticism What was Christs Body, according to
the Gnostics?
It was an apparition.
69
Focus Question
Gnosticism What are the two major errors of the
Gnostics?
The Gnostics denied the goodness of the created
world, the existence and supremacy of the one
true God, the clear meaning of the Old and New
Testament Scriptures, and the reality of Christs
human and divine nature, along with his
redemptive Passion, Death, and Resurrection.
70
Focus Question
Gnosticism How is the New Age movement
essentially Gnostic?
New Age promises a secret knowledge gained
through pagan or ritual ceremony, which can be
released through amulets, crystals, secret
incantations, fortunetelling, horoscopes, zodiac
signs, or tarot cards. With both Gnosticism and
New Age, salvation ultimately comes from within a
person, thus eliminating the need for a Redeemer.
71
Focus Question
Arianism How strong was the Arian heresy?
This heresy ravaged the Church in the east and
was adopted by many of the Visogothic tribes that
dominated central and northern Europe. It
seriously threatened the existence of orthodox
Christianity.
72
Focus Question
Arianism How did the Church defend traditional
Catholic teaching?
She reaffirmed the traditional belief in the
divinity of Jesus Christ, proclaiming that the
Son is consubstantial with the Father.
73
Focus Question
Arianism How was Arianism overcome?
Bishops from throughout the world, meeting in the
First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (AD 325),
solemnly defined the consubstantiality of God the
Father and God the Son. Extension Emperor
Constantine expelled Arian bishops from the Roman
Empire and restored deposed, faithful bishops to
their sees.
74
Focus Question
Arianism How has Arianism been revived in the
modern age?
It can be seen in the tendency among some to
stress Christs humanity at the expense of his
divinity. For example, some today see a
historical Jesus who was a wise teacher, but not
divine.
75
Focus Question
Arianism What are some Christian sects today
that deny the divinity of Christ?
The Jehovahs Witnesses and the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) view Christ
as the son of God, but not equal to or
consubstantial with the Father, making them
incompatible with the teachings of the Catholic
Church in regard to the divinity of Jesus Christ.
76
Focus Question
Nestorianism Who was Nestorius?
He was the Patriarch of Constantinople.
77
Focus Question
Nestorianism What did he teach about Christ?
He maintained that Christ was the unity of a
divine Person and a human person and thus a
person neither human nor divine but an admixture
of the two.
78
Focus Question
Nestorianism Why did Nestorius deny the title of
Theotokos (Bearer of God) to Mary?
He taught that the Blessed Virgin Mary was the
Mother of the human person Christ but not the
Mother of the divine Person of the Son of God.
79
Focus Question
Nestorianism What is wrong with Nestorianism?
Catholic belief is that Jesus Christ is one
divine Person with two natures, human and divine.
80
Focus Question
Nestorianism What is the Hypostatic Union?
It is a doctrine, formally accepted by the Church
at the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451),
that explained that Jesus Christ is one divine
Person who simultaneously possesses two natures,
one human and one divine, without any admixture
of the two.
81
Focus Question
Nestorianism Why is Mary understood as the
Mother of God?
Mothers are mothers not of natures but of
persons. She is the mother of the Person of Jesus
Christ, who is a divine Person.
82
Focus Question
Monophysitism What is the meaning of the word
monophysitism?
Monos is Greek, meaning single, and physis,
meaning nature thus, monophysitism is the
belief that Christ has only one nature.
83
Focus Question
Monophysitism What is the heresy of
Monophysitism?
Monophysitism claimed that there is only one
nature in Christnot two. It claimed that the
human nature of Christ was incorporated into
the Divine Nature in the same way that a drop of
vinegar might be absorbed into an ocean of water.
84
Focus Question
Monophysitism Which Pope basically defeated
Monophysitism?
Pope St. Leo the Greats Tome stated the orthodox
Catholic position, which was accepted at the
Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451).
85
Focus Question
Where does Apollinarianism get its name?
It is named for Apollinaris, the Bishop of
Laodicea in Syria who formulated it.
86
Focus Question
What is the Apollinarian heresy?
Apollinaris taught that although Jesus Christ is
true God and has a human body, he did not have a
human mind and will.
87
Focus Question
What was wrong with Apollinarianism?
If Christ did not have a human mind and will, he
was not fully human, and, therefore, human beings
could not have been redeemed by his Passion,
Death, and Resurrection. That which is not
assumed is not saved.
88
Protestantism and Ecumenism
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Protestant Reformation
  • Ecumenism

89
Protestantism and Ecumenism
Basic Questions
What was the Protestant Reformation?
The Protestant Reformation was an interrelated
series of schisms that took place from 1517 to
1648 over the teachings, worship, and structure
of the Church, resulting in Protestant
communities and over 30,000 separate
denominations today.
90
Protestantism and Ecumenism
Basic Questions
What is Ecumenism?
Ecumenism calls all Christians to unity through
sincere dialogue, prayer, and discernment.
91
Focus Question
What was the Protestant Reformation?
It was an interrelated series of schisms that
took place from 1517 to 1648.
92
Focus Question
What abuse did Martin Luther rightly criticize?
He criticized the sale of indulgences.
93
Focus Question
What did Martin Luther wrongly criticize?
He criticized the validity of indulgences.
94
Guided Exercise
  • Research online the differences between Catholics
    and Protestants using the following topics
  • What is Original Sin?
  • How are we saved?
  • What is the source of our knowledge about
    religion?
  • What is the role of Mary, the saints, and angels
    in our lives?
  • Who leads the Church on earth?
  • What are the Sacraments?

95
Focus Question
What was the result of the Protestant
independence from Rome?
These new Christian communities found that they
disagreed with one another. These new
denominations generally have been limited to
their country of origin or have continued to
splinter. Today, there are more than thirty
thousand different Protestant denominations
throughout the world.
96
Focus Question
Who are some of the great saints of the Catholic
Reformation?
God gave the world saints like Ignatius of
Loyola, Francis Xavier, John of the Cross, Teresa
of Avila, and Francis de Sales to assist the
pilgrim Church.
97
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question Based on Christs prayer, That they
may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I
am in you, may they also be one in us so that
the world may know that you have sent me, how
does Christian disunity harm the Churchs
evangelical efforts?
98
Focus Question
To which Christian body is the Catholic Church
the closest in terms of worship and belief?
She is closest to the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
99
Focus Question
How does the problem of leadership in
Protestantism compound ecumenical dialogue?
Each of the Protestant communities generally does
not have a hierarchy or teaching authority that
can officially speak for all the members of its
denomination.
100
Focus Question
What does the Church hope to gain from
interfaith dialogue with Jewish and Muslim
leaders and representatives of the Oriental
religions?
While unity is unlikely, the Church seeks common
ground and mutual respect.
101
Guided Exercise
Articulate the principles for engaging in
ecumenical work identified by the documents of
the Second Vatican Council.
102
Focus Question
What is ecumenism?
It is the task of working toward Christian unity.
103
Focus Question
According to CCC 816, why do Catholics engage in
ecumenical work?
Only the Catholic Church contains the fullness of
salvation, and all members of the People of God
should be incorporated into her.
104
The Second Mark Holy
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The holiness of the Church

105
The Second Mark Holy
Basic Questions
In what sense is the Church holy?
The Church, though made up of sinful members on
earth, is holy because of the holiness of Christ
her head. The Church on earth and each of her
members participate in a hidden way in Christs
holiness. The Church will be perfected at the end
of time in the glory of Heaven.
106
Focus Question
What is the origin of the holiness of the
Church?
The Church receives her holiness from Christ her
founder through the indwelling of the Holy
Spirit.
107
Focus Question
What are the means the Church possesses to
sanctify people?
She has the teachings of Christ, the Sacraments,
and the life of prayer.
108
Focus Question
How is the Church holy if her members are
sinners?
The Churchs holiness is not defiled by the
presence of sinners rather, her holiness can
transform sinners into saints.
109
Focus Question
Which members of the Church are absolutely
holy?
The Churchs members in Heaven have reached the
perfection of holiness.
110
Focus Question
According to CCC 827, how do members of the
Church become holy?
By entering into the life of the Church, which is
Jesus Christ.
111
Guided Exercise
Perform a paragraph shrink on the final
paragraph of this section, beginning, In 2000
through the two quotes from Pope Bl. John Paul
II (p. 160).
112
Focus Question
What is the effect of the sins of individual
members of the Church on people outside the
Church?
Our sins obscure the Churchs holiness in the
eyes of the world. Extension Because people
tend to notice others sins but are blind to
their own, critics may accuse the Church of
hypocrisy or failure.
113
Focus Question
What is the antidote to the sins of individual
members of the Church?
Everyone must seek and practice purification,
penance, and renewal.
114
Focus Question
In what sense is the Church the point of human
history?
From all eternity, God envisioned the Church as
the means to bring the human family back to
himself after the Fall. God used human history to
prepare humanity for the coming of Christ and his
Church.
115
Focus Question
What is Gods ultimate vision of the Church as
the people of God?
It is the eternal communion of the human family
with him in Heaven.
116
Focus Question
What three qualities does the Church possess
because of holiness?
The Church is immutable, meaning she will never
change in her essential aspects indefectible,
meaning she will never perish nor go astray and
perennial, meaning it will exist until the end of
time.
117
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question Based on the section, Participation
in the Holiness of Christ (p. 160), how does
the Church already share in Christs
Resurrection?
118
Focus Question
According to St. Paul, why is Christs
Resurrection of first importance for Christians?
If Christ did not rise from the dead, then our
faith is futile and we are still in a state of
sin.
119
Focus Question
How is Christs Resurrection different from the
resurrections Christ performed while on earth?
The persons Christ miraculously raised returned
to ordinary earthly life and later died. Christs
risen body possessed new properties, which
reflected the glory of his divinity, and was not
limited to time and space.
120
Focus Question
What will our resurrected bodies be like?
They will not be like Lazaruss body, which died
again, but like Christs, which is intended for
dwelling in Heaven.
121
Focus Question
When will the bodily resurrection take place?
At the end of history.
122
Guided Exercise
Write a bullet-point analysis of CCC 769 to
unpack its many ideas.
123
The Third and Fourth Marks Catholic and
Apostolic
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Church is Catholic
  • The Church is Apostolic

124
The Third and Fourth Marks Catholic and Apostolic
Basic Questions
What does it mean to say the Church is Catholic?
The Church is Catholic because she has a
universal authority to fulfill her universal
mission.
125
The Third and Fourth Marks Catholic and Apostolic
Basic Questions
What does it mean to say the Church is Apostolic?
The Church is Apostolic because it is built on
the teaching of the Apostles, whose authority she
possesses through apostolic succession.
126
Guided Exercise
Break down the paragraph beginning, From the
day of Pentecost (p. 162), into bullet points
to identify the various ways the Church is
universal.
127
Focus Question
What does the word catholic typically mean as
used today?
It is a denominational term, much like Baptist
or Lutheran, and refers to Catholics.
128
Focus Question
What does catholic actually mean?
The word catholic comes from the Greek word
katholikos, meaning universal, or pertaining
to the whole.
129
Focus Question
What are the two meanings of catholic as they
describe the nature of the Church?
  • The Church is catholic because
  • she is whole and complete and
  • she has received universal authority from Christ
    to fulfill her universal mission.

130
Focus Question
To what extent does each local Church possess the
presence of Christ?
Each possesses it fully.
131
Focus Question
How is the universality of the Church more than
international?
Through her unity with Christ, the Church
includes the faithful on earth, in Purgatory, and
in Heaven.
132
Focus Question
What is the diversity that exists within the
universality of the Church?
The Church possesses a rich diversity of external
expressions of faith and worship, according to
the culture in which she has taken root.
133
Focus Question
Why are there different Rites in the Church?
From the earliest years the Catholic Faith has
found expressions and ways of worship that are
distinctive to individual cultures.
134
Focus Question
What does every legitimate Rite of the Catholic
Church have in common?
Each shares the same Apostolic origin and
Sacraments.
135
Focus Question
How do the Rites differ?
Each Rite preserves its own linguistic, artistic,
architectural, spiritual, and cultural heritage.
136
Focus Question
What is the parallel between the Twelve Apostles
and the twelve ministers of Solomon?
Solomon appointed twelve ministers to assist him
in ruling his kingdom and Christ appointed Twelve
Apostles to assist him in ruling his kingdom.
137
Focus Question
What tasks did Christ give his Apostles the
authority to carry out?
He gave them his authority to teach, sanctify,
and govern his Church.
138
Focus Question
According to CCC 861, how did the Apostles pass
on their authority?
They appointed successors to carry on their work
and directed those men to appoint other proven
men to take over their ministry when they died.
139
Focus Question
How can one recognize the true Church of Christ
on earth?
The test is whether the church in question can be
shown to be led by shepherds who received their
mission and powers from the Apostles through an
uninterrupted chain of succession.
140
Focus Question
What reflects a bishops direct link with the
Apostles during installation?
The laying on of hands signifies this.
141
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to capture the
senses in which the Church is Apostolic.
Sense Meaning
Apostolic Foundation
Apostolic Faith
Apostolic Succession
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