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The Leadership Challenge: New Forms and Thinking in Leadership Development


The Leadership Challenge: New Forms and Thinking in Leadership Development Nicholas Clarke * University of Southampton Business School – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Leadership Challenge: New Forms and Thinking in Leadership Development

The Leadership Challenge New Forms and Thinking
in Leadership Development
Nicholas Clarke
University of Southampton Business School
Differences Between the Leadership we Have and
the Leadership we Need
  • Three Major Challenges
  • Capacity
  • Context
  • Crisis

  • 1997 US Fortune 500 survey 85 of organizations
    lacked quality and quantity of leadership talent.
  • ASTD (2012) Bridging the Skills Gap
  • Dept BIS (2012) 75 of organisations in England
    reported a deficit of leadership skills
  • PwC (2014) Report HR Directors in Ireland
    Shortage of Management Talent

What are we currently Doing?
  • Leadership Development Literature
  • Leadership Development Practice

Differences Between the Leadership we Have
and the Leadership we Need
  • (1) Significant limitations with the literature
    on Leadership Development

Leader Development Experience
Performance Management Aligning and developing
leader competencies and skills to enhance overall
capabilities in achieving individual and
organizational goals.
Whats wrong with the traditional model?
  • Argument Much of the writing on Leadership
    Development is largely unitarist and universalist
  • Yet
  • The notion of Leadership is contested and
    operates at different levels
  • Leadership is culturally informed
  • Resource-Based View of the Firm
  • Heroic leader idea of leadership

Differences Between the Leadership we Have
and the Leadership we Need
  • (2) What about Leadership Development Practice

Clarke Higgs (in press Human Resource
Management US)
  • How does the pattern of formal leadership
    training and development differ across
  • What factors account for the pattern of formal
    leadership training and development practices
    that can be found?
  • Multi-level perspective
  • Large organisations (gt5000 employees)
  • Significant budgets (gt250K)
  • 10 organisations (1) The Police service, (2)
    Health service, (3) Local government, (4) Higher
    education (5) Risk management, (6)
    Telecommunications (7) The Third Sector (8) The
    Anglican Ministry (9) Cultural Industries and
    (10) Social Care.

The Strategic Context 3 cases

Leadership Academy  
Risk management Although initially establishing itself as a dominant player in the marine industry, growth in other business sectors was forecast that would see a doubling of profit within four years to reach 1.5 billion. LTD was seen as a playing a chief role in driving through the new growth strategy. This needed a focus on the leadership skills needed to manage change and to improve performance of staff. Employing approximately 8,500 staff globally, the organization has examined all job grades to identify the leadership skills necessary for that level, and put staff through an assessment center to establish leadership skills and allocate training where skill deficits are identified.
Telecommunications The company strategy is to drive broad-band based consumer services and be the network provider of choice. The European Union (EU) has a significant influence on the policy and regulatory environment with EU legislation affecting areas such as fibre access, spectrum, net neutrality, and Green ICT. The European Commissions Digital Agenda initiative emphasizes ICT and telecoms as central to Europes economic growth and recovery. The LTD strategy is to equip leaders with the skills needed to implement projects, identify problems, and provide strategic solutions that align company and business unit goals.  
Health service The overarching strategic aim of the academy is to continuously improve the quality and safety of heath care in the United Kingdom. LTD delivery is directed toward working at every level of the health care system to develop the technical skills, leadership, capacity, knowledge and the will for change, that are seen as key to real and lasting improvement. The LTD strategy is chiefly concerned with enabling leadership to drive quality improvement and innovation.
  Risk Telecommunications Health
Strategic Focus 1. Individual Career Pathway 2. Organisational Performance 1. Organizational Performance/Transformation 2. Community Social Gain and Customer Relationship 1. Sector System Change 2. Community Health Gain
Major Products and Services 1. Training Programmes for (i) First line managers (ii) Middle managers (iii) Senior managers 2. Assessment Centres Training Programs for (a) Inspirational Leadership First/Second line managers (b) Vital Vision CEOs from across the public sector 1. Leadership Development through Quality Improvement in Health (OD) (18) 2. Training Programs 3. Fellowship Program
Training/Development Content Specified Responsive 1. Specified 2. Specified and responsive 1. Combination of specified emergent 2. Specified 3. Participant directed
Behavioural Framework Yes No No
Participation Criteria Mandatory 1. Mandatory 2. Voluntary/By invitation 1. Targeted and invited 2. Voluntary subject to interview and criteria
What Values underpin Leadership Training and Development 1. Personal integrity 2. Credibility 3. Passion for new 1. Trust (integrity) 2. Integrity (backbone) 3. Authenticity (sensing) 1. People can change 2. Passion for quality 3. Discovery
Leadership Transformational Transformational Complexity
(No Transcript)
  • There is some evidence that leadership
    development is contextual but this is
    determined by level of impact More nuanced ideas
    of adding value are less developed
  • Leadership development in some organisations
    remains underpinned by a heroic leadership model.
  • How leadership development can be used to address
    social responsibility issues remains as yet

What we need to do differently
  • Leadership Development- A New Agenda

What do we need to do differentlyCIPD (2012)
Next Generation HR
  • Balanced Between the Needs of Today and Tomorrow
  • A more focused role on integrity and
    trustworthiness and social contribution
  • How HR Keeps Organisations Agile and Adapting
  • Business Driven and Unique to the Context Drive
    Value Through Business Insight
  • 4.

Shared Leadership Development
Internal Team Context
  • What is Value for Leadership Development ?

  • Best HR Practices help almost every business

HR Practice Bottom 10 Top 10
No. of training hrs. for new employees 35 117
Percentage of employees receiving a performance appraisal 41 95
No. of employees per HR professional 254 140
Percentage hired based on a validated selection test 4 30
From Huselid et al., 2000, AMJ
Firm Brand This organisation is known for Leadership Brand Leaders here are known for
Walmart Always low prices Managing costs efficiently, getting things done on time
FedEx Doing whatever it takes Managing logistics, Meeting deadlines, solving problems quickly
Lexus Pursuing Perfection Managing quality processes for continuous improvement
Procter Gamble Brands you know and trust Developing consumer insights, product innovation
McKinsey CEOs trusted adviser Leading teams that deconstruct business problems and develop solutions
Boeing People working together for aerospace leadership Working as teams, possessing technical excellence
Apple Innovation and Design Creating new products that break industry norms
Bon Secours Health Good Help to those in need Business Skills with compassion and caring
PepsiCo Appealing to the younger generation Building the next generation of talent
  • HR architecture as a strategic asset
  • Goal of corporate strategy create sustained
    competitive advantage.
  • Goal of HR strategy maximize the contribution of
    HR towards that same goal.

HR FUNCTION HR professionals with strategic
competencies (delivery of HR services in a way
that supports the implementation of the firms
HR SYSTEM High-performance, strategically aligned
and integrated HR policies practices
EMPLOYEE BEHAVIORS Strategically focused
competencies, motivations, and associated
Level Summative Criteria Formative Criteria Example LTD Approaches
INDIVIDUAL Leader 1. Leader Knowledge, Skills and Behaviors (Cognitive Skills, Business Skills, Strategic Skills, Social Skills Emotional Skills 2. Leader Self-Awareness 3. Leader Effectiveness 1. Leader characteristics (Developmental Readiness, Opportunities and Motivation to Lead, Motivation to Perform) 2. Transfer climate 3. Job Developmental Challenge (Working across boundaries, Unfamiliar responsibilities, High level responsibility Creating change, Managing diversity Access to feedback) 1.. 360 degree feedback 2. Action learning 3. Coaching 4. Mentoring 5. Job assignments and projects 6. Self-development activities 7. Leadership training 8. Questionnaires and Surveys
INDIVIDUAL Follower 1. Follower Outcomes (Attitudes and Performance) 1. Follower Implicit Leadership Theories 1. Training for followers 2. Training for leaders and followers together. 3. Socialisation practices
LEADER-FOLLOWER 1. Leader-Follower Bonding Social Capital 1. Leader-Follower Relationship Quality (Affect, Contribution, Loyalty, Respect) Same as for Individual Leader and Individual Follower above
Level Summative Criteria Formative Criteria Example LTD Approaches
TEAM 1.Team Effectiveness (eg team climate, team dynamics) 2. Team Performance 3. Team Bonding Social Capital 1.Team Leadership Processes (Maintenance of team mental models, Monitoring the internal and external environment, Behavioral and performance expectations, Task-focused and Person-focused team behaviors). 2. Team Leader Behaviors (Relational leader behaviors, Citizenship behaviors, Social and Emotional behaviors) 1. Team training and development activities. 2. Team leader training and development 3. Transactive memory training 4. Team projects and assignments 5. Team building activities
ORGANIZATIONAL 1. Organizational Performance and Effectiveness (Efficiency, Human Capital and Adaptation to environment) 2. Organizational Bridging Social Capital 1. Leadership Culture 2. Indices of Connectivity (eg network collaboration, trust and growth) 1. Same as for Individual Leader above 2. Organizational Visioning exercises. 3. Organization Development 4. Strategic planning exercises 5. Change Management projects 6. Leader planning meetings
COMMUNITY 1. Community Social Capital 1. Integrative Leader Behaviors 2. Shared Leadership 3. Inter-organizational Learning Capability 1. Same as for Individual leader above. 2. Inter-organizational development activities (eg search conferences
  • How Do You Differentiate Your Leadership and the
    HRD processes that support it?