Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c5ee6-ZDRjZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: you Last modified by: Martin, Teresa - WJHS Teacher Created Date: 6/12/2007 12:19:41 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:91
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: you112
Learn more at: http://www.jessamine.k12.ky.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity


1
Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Chapter 12

2
By the Numbers
  • About 50 of the human population depends on the
    seas for primary source of food.
  • About 90 of fish spawn in the worlds coral
    reefs, mangrove swamps, coastal wetlands or
    rivers
  • Coral reefs have the greatest biodiversity
  • About 1 of Earths surface is made of freshwater
    systems.

3
Major Causes of Species Loss in Marine Ecosystems
(HIPPCO)
  • Habitat destruction
  • Pollution
  • Erosion
  • Climate change
  • Invasive species caused over ½ of fish
    extinctions of last centuary in the US
  • Overfishing lower size of fish populations
    decreases marine keystone species
  • All are made worse by the growth of the human
    population

4
A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria
  • Loss of biodiversity and cichlids
  • Nile perch deliberately introduced
  • Frequent algal blooms
  • Nutrient runoff
  • Spills of untreated sewage
  • Less algae-eating cichlids

5
Reasons Why Protecting Aquatic Biodiversity is
Difficult
  1. Expanding human ecological footprint
  2. Most of the ocean area lies outside political
    jurisdiction of any one country
  3. Damage to oceans is not visible to most people
  4. Many view the ocean as an inexhaustible resource

6
Human Activities Are Destroying Habitats
  • Habitat loss and degradation
  • Marine only 4 of the worlds oceans are not
    affected by pollution
  • Coastal
  • Ocean floor fishing methods
  • Freshwater
  • Dams
  • Excessive water withdrawal

7
Invasive Species Are Degrading Biodiversity
  • Invasive species
  • Threaten native species
  • Disrupt and degrade whole ecosystems
  • Water hyacinth Lake Victoria (East Africa)
  • Asian swamp eel waterways of south Florida
  • Purple loosestrife indigenous to Europe
  • Treating with natural predatorsa weevil species
    and a leaf-eating beetle

Invasive water hyacinth
8
Repeated Invasions by Alien Species in the Great
Lakes
  • Collectively, worlds largest body of freshwater
  • Invaded by at least 162 nonnative species
  • Sea lamprey
  • Zebra mussel
  • Good and bad
  • Quagga mussel
  • Asian carp

Zebra Mussels Attached to a Water Current Meter
in Lake Michigan, U.S.
9
How Carp Have Muddied Some Waters
  • Lake Wingra, Wisconsin (U.S.) eutrophic,
    excessive nutrient inputs from run off with
    fertilizers from farms/lawns
  • Contains invasive species
  • Purple loosestrife and the common carp, which
    devour the algae
  • Removed carp from an area of the lake
  • This area appeared to recover

10
Population Growth and Pollution Can Reduce
Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Nitrates and phosphates mainly from fertilizers
    enter water
  • Leads to algal bloom and eventual eutrophication,
    fish die offs
  • Toxic pollutants from industrial and urban areas,
    plastic items

Hawaiian Monk Seal
11
Climate Change Is a Growing Threat
  • Global warming sea levels will rise and aquatic
    biodiversity is threatened
  • Coral reefs
  • Swamp some low-lying islands
  • Drown many highly productive coastal wetlands
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, and New York City

12
Overfishing and Extinction
  • Marine and freshwater fish
  • Threatened with extinction by human activities
    more than any other group of species
  • Commercial extinction industrialized fishing
    fleets can deplete marine life at a much faster
    rate. Can cause 80 in 10-15 years
  • Collapse of the cod fishery of the coast of
    Newfoundland and its domino effect leading to
    collapse of other species
  • By-catch non-target species that are caught and
    killed duringy commercial fishing practices
    (seals, dolphins).
  • 34 of marine, 71 of fresh water species face
    extinction within your life time.

13
900,000
800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
Fish landings (tons)
400,000
1992
300,000
200,000
100,000
0
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000
Year
Fig. 11-6, p. 254
14
Major Commercial Fishing Practices
  • Trawl fishing involves dragging a weighted,
    funnel-shaped net along ocean floor in order to
    catch shellfish, flounder most destructive of
    fishing practices.
  • Purse seine practice used to capture schooling
    fish (tuna) surrounds and encloses with a net.
  • Drift net uses hanging vertical nets in the
    water column with buoys to catch fish by gills.
  • Longline fishing involves putting out lines
    hung with thousands of baited hooks.

15
Industrial Fish Harvesting Methods are Vacuuming
the Seas
  • Trawl fishing shrimp scallops
  • Purse seine tuna mackarel
  • Longline fishing tuna, swordfish sharks
  • Drift net 1992 ban on using nets longer than
    2.5 km

16
Aquaculture
  • Deep sea aquaculture cage
  • Form of fish farming
  • These strains of fish are usually weaker than the
    wild form of the species. If weaker strains
    escape into the wild, could weaken wild
    population.

17
Protect and Sustain Marine Biodiversity
  • We can help to sustain marine biodiversity by
  • Using laws and incentives to protect species
  • Setting aside marine reserves to protect
    ecosystems
  • Using community-based coastal management
  • Page 261

18
Legislation
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered
    Species (CITES) 1973
  • Global Treaty on Migratory Species 1979
  • US Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972
  • US Endangered Species Act 1973
  • US Whale Conservation Protection Act 1976
  • International Convention on Biological Diversity
    1995

19
International Whaling Commission
  • Established by the International Convention for
    the Regulation of Whaling in 1946
  • Allows Eskimos to continue hunting whales
    (cultural reasons)
  • Japan, Norway and Iceland kill about 1300 whales
    per year for scientific purposes
  • Japan more than doubled whaling catch in 2005

20
Protecting Whales Success Story So Far
  • Cetaceans Toothed whales and baleen whales
  • 1946 International Whaling Commission (IWC)
    set annual quotas
  • 1970 U.S.
  • Stopped all commercial whaling
  • Banned all imports of whale products
  • 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling
  • Japan ,Norway, Iceland, Russia do not support the
    IWC ban

21
Economic Incentives Can Be Used to Sustain
Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Tourism example sea turtles, worth more to
    local communities alive than dead (WWF)
  • Economic rewards

22
Marine Sanctuaries Protect Ecosystems and Species
  • Offshore fishing extends to 370 kilometers
  • Exclusive economic zones-can take certain quotas
    of fish
  • High seas-beyond legal jurisdiction of any
    country
  • Law of the Sea Treaty worlds coastal nations
    have jurisdiction over 36 of the ocean surface
    and 90 of the worlds fish stocks
  • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) 4000 world wide,
    200 in US waters
  • In 2006, President George W. Bush created the
    worlds largest marine reserve in Hawaii.

23
Ecosystem approach to sustainability
  • Core zone
  • No human activity allowed
  • Less harmful activities allowed
  • E.g., recreational boating and shipping
  • Fully protected marine reserves work fast
  • Fish populations double
  • Fish size grows
  • Reproduction triples
  • Species diversity increase by almost one-fourth

24
Protecting Marine Biodiversity Individuals and
Communities Together
  • Integrated Coastal Management
  • Community-based group to prevent further
    degradation of the ocean
  • More that 100 such groups
  • seek reasonable short term trade offs that can
    lead to long term ecological and economic benefits

25
How Should We Manage and Sustain Marine Fisheries?
  • Sustaining marine fisheries will require
  • improved monitoring of fish populations,
  • cooperative fisheries management among
    communities and nations,
  • reduction of fishing subsidies,
  • careful consumer choices in seafood markets.

26
Estimating and Monitoring Fishery Populations is
the First Step
  • Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY) model to project
    the maximum number of fish that can be harvested
    from a fish stock without causing a population
    drop.
  • Optimum Sustained Yield (OSY) takes into
    account interactions with other species and
    provides more room for error.
  • Tragedy in the commons activity

27
Some Communities Cooperate to Regulate Fish
Harvests
  • Community management of the fisheries allotment
    and enforcement systems. Norways Lofoten fishery
    (cod)
  • Co-management of the fisheries with the
    government sets quotas for various species and
    divide the quotas among communities.

28
Government Subsidies Can Encourage
Overfishing-30-34 billion around the world
  • 2007 World Trade Organization, U.S.
  • Proposed a ban on fishing subsidies
  • Reduce illegal fishing on the high seas and in
    coastal waters
  • Close ports and markets to such fishers
  • Check authenticity of ship flags
  • Prosecution of offenders

29
Some Countries Use the Marketplace to Control
Overfishing
  • Individual transfer rights (ITRs)
  • Control access to fisheries
  • New Zealand and Iceland
  • Difficult to enforce
  • US 1995 to protect the halibut fishery
  • Problems with the ITR approach
  • transfer ownership of fisheries in publically
    owned waters to private owners
  • squeeze out small fishing companies

30
Consumer Choices Can Help to Sustain Fisheries
and Aquatic Biodiversity
  • 1997 Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), London
    20 nations
  • Certifies that fish caught using sustainable
    practices
  • Manage global fisheries more sustainably
  • Individuals
  • Organizations
  • Governments

31
How Should We Protect and Sustain Wetlands and
Beach Areas?
  • To maintain the ecological and economic services
    of wetlands, we must maximize
  • preservation of remaining wetlands and
  • restoration of degraded and destroyed wetlands.
  • Best long-range strategy to reduce beach erosion
  • Prevent development on beach areas or allow
    development only behind protective dunes

32
Coastal Wetlands
  1. Serve as buffers against storms
  2. Trap sediments and filter water
  3. Act as nurseries for fish, shellfish and birds
  4. More than half of the coastal wetlands have
    disappeared

33
Florida Everglades Largest Ever Wetlands
Restoration Project
  • River of Grass south Florida, U.S.
  • Since 1948 damaged
  • Drained
  • Diverted
  • Paved over
  • Nutrient pollution from agriculture
  • Invasive plant species
  • 1947 Everglades National Park unsuccessful
    protection project

34
Can We Restore the Florida Everglades?
  • 1970s political haggling
  • 1990 Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
    (CERP)
  • Restore the curving flow of most of the Kissimmee
    River
  • Remove canals and levees in strategic locations
  • Flood 240 sq. km farmland to create artificial
    marshes

35
Can We Restore the Florida Everglades?
  • Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)
    cont
  • Create reservoirs and underground water storage
    areas
  • Build new canals, reservoirs and efficient
    pumping systems
  • US Army Corps of Engineers federal agency
    responsible for undoing development (dredging
    canals, levees)in Everglades. Ironically, this
    same agency oversaw the development of the
    Everglades since the 1940s.
  • Plan isnt workingnot sure why.

36
The Worlds Largest Restoration Project
37
Managing River Basins Is Complex and
Controversial
  • 40 of the worlds rivers have been dammed or
    otherwise engineered
  • Columbia River U.S. and Canada
  • Dam system 119 dams , 19 of which are
    hydroelectric power plants
  • Pros electricity con salmon affected
  • Snake River Washington state, U.S.
  • Hydroelectric dams removed
  • Pro salmon saved con economy affected

38
Dams and Reservoirs
  1. May kill young salmon as they pass through
    turbines
  2. Slow downstream migration, exposing juvenile
    salmon to more predation
  3. May prevent upstream migration of mature salmon

39
Columbia River Rehabilitation and Restoration
  • Ecosystem rehabilitation and salmon restoration
    on the Columbia River includes
  • Building new hatcheries upstream of the dams
  • Putting 40,000 miles of stream off limits to
    hydropower development
  • Reducing runoff of silt from logging roads.

40
(No Transcript)
41
Natural Capital Ecological Services of Rivers
42
Protect Freshwater Ecosystems by Protecting
Watersheds
  • Freshwater ecosystems protected through
  • Laws
  • Economic incentives
  • Restoration efforts
  • National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act-reestablish
    protection of rivers
  • Sustainable management of freshwater fishes

43
Priorities for Protecting Biodiversity, Ecosystem
Services
  • 2002 Edward O. Wilson
  • Complete the mapping of the worlds terrestrial
    and aquatic biodiversity
  • Keep old-growth forests intact cease their
    logging
  • Identify and preserve hotspots and deteriorating
    ecosystem services that threaten life
  • Ecological restoration projects
  • Make conservation financially rewarding
About PowerShow.com