The Rise of Visual Criminology: Categories, Approaches, and Testable Propositions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rise of Visual Criminology: Categories, Approaches, and Testable Propositions

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J. Wheeldon Norwich University D. Harris San Jose State University Today Why visualize? Who s visualizing? Categories and Approaches Problems Testable Propositions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Visual Criminology: Categories, Approaches, and Testable Propositions


1
The Rise of Visual Criminology Categories,
Approaches, and Testable Propositions
  • J. Wheeldon
  • Norwich University
  • D. Harris
  • San Jose State University

2
Today
  • Why visualize? Whos visualizing?
  • Categories and Approaches
  • Problems
  • Testable Propositions

3
Why Visualize?
  • Assumption use of and interest in visual means
    and methods growing in many disciplines (Umoquit,
    Tso, Burchett, Dobrow, 2012)
  • Recognition that people are spending an
    increasing amount of time staring at screens, and
    engaging visually with their phones, computers,
    and social media

4
ahem.
5
(No Transcript)
6
Whos Visualizing?
  • Criminologists including Burruss (2011), Heidt
    (2008), Lippens (2004), and Maltz (2009)?
  • New Directions in Visual Criminology panel at
    ASC
  • This work is based on previous work (Harris,
    2013 Wheeldon, 2011) and desire to better define
    and operationalize what we mean...

7
One take
  • Visual criminology
  • Techniques for the collection, presentation, and
    interrogation of data on crime and social control
    (Wheeldon Harris, 2013).

8
Existing categories
  • 1) exploring research methods through expanded
    uses of concept maps, mind maps, and other
    diagrammatic approaches in criminology (Wheeldon
    Ahlberg, 2012)
  • 2) describing data, telling stories, and
    presenting information using visual analytic
    approaches (Harris, 2013 Maltz, 2009) and
  • 3) demystifying theory, challenging research
    assumptions, and interrogating depictions of
    crime and social control (Lippens, 2012).

9
Learning Research Methods(Wheeldon Ahlberg,
2012)
How do the differences between concept maps and
mind maps underscore epistemological, assumptive,
and practical differences between quantitative
and qualitative research?
10
Existing categories
  • 1) exploring research methods through expanded
    uses of concept maps, mind maps, and other
    diagrammatic approaches in criminology (Wheeldon
    Ahlberg, 2012)
  • 2) describing data, telling stories, and
    presenting information using visual analytic
    approaches (Harris, 2013 Maltz, 2009) and
  • 3) demystifying theory, challenging research
    assumptions, and interrogating depictions of
    crime and social control (Lippens, 2012).

11
Describing Data In SF Crime doesnt Climb
(Wintrob Reinhardt, 2013)
12
Crime and Neighborhoods in DC
13
Describing Data Most Violent Police Beats in
Oakland CA 2011/2012 (Natesh Daniel, 2012)
14
Existing categories
  • 1) exploring research methods through expanded
    uses of concept maps, mind maps, and other
    diagrammatic approaches in criminology (Wheeldon
    Ahlberg, 2012)
  • 2) describing data, telling stories, and
    presenting information using visual analytic
    approaches (Harris, 2013 Maltz, 2009) and
  • 3) demystifying theory, challenging research
    assumptions, and interrogating depictions of
    crime and social control (Lippens, 2012).

15
Depictions of Crime and Criminals
16
Images of Crime/Criminals
Last Suppers (Green, 2012)
17
So What?
  • New Visual Approaches...
  • (1) can provide new ways to teach theory,
    methods, and critical debates in criminology
  • (2) offer novel approaches to data collection and
    analysis and
  • (3) create potential for the increased use of
    visual tools for practitioners within the
    criminal justice system.

18
Teaching Criminology Theory(Heidt Wheeldon,
Contract)
7 steps of criminological thinking
19
Visual Data Collection
20
Life History Plot (Harris, 2013)
  • Data Visualization technique
  • Official criminal history
  • Life history details (including marriage,
    divorce, employment, military, births/deaths,
    trauma/ accidents, hospital stays, and
    psychiatric observations) were collected

21
Life History Plot - Step 1
22
Life History Plot - Step 2
23
Life History Plot - Step 3
24
An Example from Incarcerated Individual
25
A Picture is Worth a Thousand P- values
26
Problems / Limitations
  • Images can confuse and fail to clarify
  • Visual learning not for everyone
  • No clear definition / conceptualization /
    testable propositions

27
Confusing not clarifying
28
NYTimes, April 29, 2007
29
Mapping not for everyone
  • Potential for maps contains inherent limitation
  • Maps and Visual approaches are weird / different
    / uncommon way for many to communicate - people
    may reject without proper training / explanation
    (Wheeldon, 2012)
  • While maps can assist to break out of the canned
    responses that can occur in interviews in
    Wheeldons work some senior CJ officials were
    skeptical / resistant to their use

30
Thinking about testable propositions
CATEGORY CHALLENGE PROPOSITION
Collection Not everyone is able to communicate or engage visually Visual data collection is as good as other forms of participant-led data collection techniques
Analysis Looking at the data first can amount to a fishing expedition (cheating) Preliminary analysis using visualization enables the identification of outliers that warrant exclusion or further study
Presentation Reducing criminology to a series of pictures simplifies complex issues / relationships / findings The presentation of criminological findings using visual approaches allows more people to access and understand research
31
Some Questions
  • 1. WHAT are the best uses of visual techniques
    for teaching and learning criminological
    concepts?
  • 2. WHERE are visual approaches most useful to
    supplement existing data collection methods and
    research designs
  • 3. WHEN do images oversimplify issues instead of
    expanding criminological thinking?
  • 4. WHY do images of crime and social control
    overwhelm more reasoned approaches to criminal
    justice?
  • 5. HOW can visual approaches expand partnerships
    and broaden collaborations?

32
Other Questions?
  • Johannes Wheeldon (jwheeldo_at_norwich.edu)
  • Danielle Harris (danielle.harris_at_sjsu.edu)
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