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The Perceiving Self: Psychophysiology and the Varieties of the New Psychology

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... and careers. Ethel Puffer Howes, 1922, Accepting the Universe p. 452. Denkpsychologie (Thought Psychology) ... this school Titchener hotly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Perceiving Self: Psychophysiology and the Varieties of the New Psychology


1
The Perceiving Self Psychophysiology and the
Varieties of the New Psychology
2
Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)
MYOGRAPHfrog curve
3
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Principles of
Physiological Psychology (1873-1874) 1879first
psychological laboratory set up Leipzig, Germany
4
Wundts Psychological Laboratory c. 1910
5
Perceiving the Inner World
  • Inner Perception formulated by the Austrian
    philosopher Franz Brentano, in Psychology from an
    Empirical Standpoint (1874). Indirect noticing
    of mental events, not active focusing on them,
    e.g. I attend to a sound.
  • Introspection or inner observation an active
    reflection on the contents of consciousness, e.g.
    I attend to way I hear the sound.

6
Horizontal Kymograph c. 1916
Brass Instruments Psychology, University of
Toronto
7
Hipp Chronoscope
8
Wundts Control Hammer
From Titcheners Photograph Album on
Psychological Instruments, 1895, courtesy Max
Planck
9
COLOR DISK ROTATORS
From Museum of the History of Psychological
Instrumentation Eduard Zimmerman Catalog (1903)
10
Tone or Stern Variator c. 1910
11
TACHISTOSCOPE c. 1930
Stoelting, C. H. 1930. Apparatus, Tests and
Supplies for Psychology, Psychometry,
Psychotechnology, Psychiatry, Neurology,
Anthropology, Phonetics, Physiology, and
Pharmacology, courtesy, MPIWG
12
Subject and Observer became standard terms by
end of 1900s.
From,Spindler Hoyer. 1908. Apparate für
psychologische Untersuchungen., Max Planck
Institute for the History of Science
13
Wilhelm Wundt Ethnic or Cultural Psychology on
Language, Myth and Custom 1910-1920 (ten volumes)
14
William James (1842-1910)
The Principles of Psychology (1890)
As professor of physiology at Harvard James
taught 1875 course The Relations between
Physiology And Psychology with laboratory
component
15
Harvard Psychological Laboratory, 1892 Harvard
University Archives
16
Psychological Laboratory Harvard,1893
Nichols, Herbert. 1893. The Psychological
Laboratory at Harvard. McClure's Magazine
399-409, courtesy MPIWG
17
Münsterbergs Laboratory, Harvard, c. 1915
From Roback, History of American Psychology, 1952
18
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Trained with William James Wundt Set up Johns
Hopkins Psychology Laboratory President of Clark
University, 1888 Helped form Child Study Movement
19
American Psychological Association founded 1892
20
Edward B. Titchener (1867-1927)
Trained with Wundt Psychologist at Cornell
University from 1892-1927 Structuralist
Advocated Introspection Examined the bits and
pieces of consciousness the sensations that one
could report on while attending to ones mental
state very carefully.
21
CORNELL PSYCHOLOGICAL LABORATORY, 1898 From
E.B.Titchener, A Psychological
Laboratory Mind, New Series, Vol. 7, no. 27,
(July, 1898) 311-331
22
Cornell Doctorates in Psychology supervised by
Titchener before 1900
  • Margaret Floy Washburn
  • (1871-1939)
  • 1896 Alice Julia Hamlin
  • Walter Bowers Pillsbury
  • Issac Madison Bentley
  • Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble
  • Stella Emily Sharp

23
From Rossiter, Doctorates for American Women,
1868-1907 History of Education Quarterly,
Summer, 1982, 222, p. 167
24
Titchener trained 22 women among his 56
graduate students from 1894-1927.
From E. Boring, Edward Bradford Titchener
1867-1927 American Journal of Psychology Vol
38, No. 4, Oct. 1927, p. 506.
25
Ethel Puffer Howes (1872-1950) Studied at
University of Berlin, and Freiburg Received Ph.D.
Radcliffe, 1902 Taught at Radcliffe, Wellesley,
Simmons Wrote Psychology of Beauty (1905) Her
marriage (1908) effectively ended her career.
June Etta Downey (1875-1932) Studied at
University Chicago Professor of Philosophy Head
of Philosophy/Psych. Dept At University of
Wyoming Wrote Creative Imagination (1929)
26
  • persistent vicious alternative, marriage or
    careerfull personal life versus the way of
    achievement.
  • Women are both inevitably impelled to, and
    interdicted from, marriage, children, and
    careers.
  • Ethel Puffer Howes, 1922, Accepting the
    Universe p. 452.

27
This method of patience, starving out, and
harassing to death is tried Nature must submit
to a regular siege, in which minute
advantages gained night and day by the forces
that hem her in must sum themselves at last into
her overthrow. There is little of the grand
style about these new prism, pendulum and
galvanometer philosophers. They mean business,
not chivalry. (James, North American Review ,
1875, p. 200). FunctionalismConsciousness as
serving a function in the evolutionary process
28
Denkpsychologie (Thought Psychology)
  • Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)
  • Founded Institute of Psychology in 1896
  • at University of Würzburg, Germany
  • Wundt rejected findings of this school
  • Titchener hotly debated findings

29
International Psychology Meetings
  • 1889 First international Congress of Psychology
    Paris
  • Topics hypnosis, and telepathic communication.
  • 1892 Congress of Experimental Psychology, London
  • Attendees Francis Galton, Cesare Lombroso,
    Pierre Janet, even Hermann Helmoltz
  • 1886 Congress of Experimental Psychology

30
World's Columbian Exposition Chicago, 1893
31
Wax specimens in the Harvard Psychological
Laboratory in Dane Hall, 1892 Harvard University
Exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition
(World's Fair) Chicago, 1893.
32
A Science of Education Psychological Pedagogy
  • G. Stanley Hall wrote The Contents of Childrens
    Minds 1883
  • Psychology introduced as a topic in 1891 National
    Education Association meeting
  • Hall spearheaded child study movement
  • at Clark University with local teachers
  • Use of surveys and questionnaires
  • New Journal Pedagogical Seminary 1891
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