B R _ main - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: B R _ main


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B R _ main
Listening and Answering the Questions
History of English
Winston Churchill
Julius Caesar
Viking
Norman
William Caxton
Otto Jespersen
Renaissance
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B R _ History of English
History of English
The root of English
The development of Modern English
20th Century English
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B R _ Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill
Chronology of Winston Churchill
A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
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B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 1
Listen and Answer the Questions
Directions Listen to the recording two or three
times and then think over the following
questions.
1. What is the passage about?
English is a great language, but it is also a
crazy language.
2. Can you give one or two examples to illustrate
the messiness of the English language?
Yes. For example, the meaning of your house
burns up is the same as that of your house
burns down, or you fill in a form is the same
as you fill out a form.
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B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 2
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages
mentioned in the recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained
here
1) ship by truck / send cargo by ship
ship can be either a verb or a noun.
The first ship means send, the second one a
large boat.
2) noses that run / feet that smells
This refers to what people usually say have a
running nose (???), have smelly feet (??).
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B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 3
3) a slim/fat chance
a remote possibility
4) a wise guy
a person who pretends to be much wiser than
he/she really is a derogatory term
a wise man
a really wise person a commendatory term
5) overlook
fail to see or notice, pay no attention to
oversee
control (work, workmen)
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B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 4
6) hot /cold as hell
extremely hot/cold
7) burn up
catch fire and flare up
burn down
be destroyed by fire
8) fill in a form/fill out a form
synonymous
9) go off
start an action, usually accompanied by a great
noise
go on
continue doing something
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B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 5
10) when stars are out
when stars appear in the sky
when lights are out
when lights are turned off
11) wind up a watch
tighten the spring of a watch
wind up a speech
end a speech
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B R _ The root of English 1
The root of English
English began as a west Germanic language
which was brought to England by the Saxons around
400 A.D. Old English was the spoken and written
language of England between 400 and 1100 A.D.
Many words used today come from Old English,
including man, woman, king, mother, etc. But Old
English was very different from modern English
and only a few words can be easily recognized. In
the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded
England, Old Norse words, e.g. sky, take and get
and many place names, entered the language.
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B R _ The root of English 2
From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late
12th. century English was replaced as the
official language by Norman French, though
English was still used by the lower classes.
English from about 1300 to 1500 is known as
Middle English. It was influenced by French and
also Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation.
French brought many words connected with
government, e.g. sovereign, royal, court, legal
and government itself. Latin was the language of
religion and learning and gave to English words
such as minister, angel, master, school and
grammar. Literature began again to be written in
English during this period. One of the most
famous Middle English works is Chaucers The
Canterbury Tales
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BR_ The development of Modern English 1
The development of Modern English
Modern English developed from the Middle
English dialect of the East Midlands and was
influenced by the English used in London, where a
printing press was set up by William Caxton in
1476. English changed a great deal from this time
until the end of the 18th century. During the
Renaissance, many words were introduced from
Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially
in science, medicine and philosophy. They
included physics, species, architecture,
encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the 16th century
several versions of the Bible helped bring
written English to ordinary people. The
Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama,
and Shakespeares plays were seen by many people.
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BR_ The development of Modern English 2
The development of printing helped
establish standards of spelling and grammar, but
there remained a lot of variation. Samuel
Johnsons A Dictionary of the English Language
(1755) was the first authoritative treatment of
English. It defined about 40,000 words and gave
examples of their use. By the 18th
century American English was established and
developing independently from British English.
After colonists arrived in the US new words began
to be added from Native American languages, and
from French and Spanish. In 1783, soon after
Johnsons dictionary was published, Noah
Websters The Elementary Spelling Book
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BR_ The development of Modern English 3
was published in the US. At first it used
Johnsons spellings, but later editions contained
many of what have come to be known as American
spellings, e.g. harbor and favorite.
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BR_ 20th Century English
20th Century English
During the 19th and early 20th centuries
many dictionaries and books about language were
published. New words are still being added to
English from other languages, including Chinese
(feng shui) and Japanese (karaoke). Existing
words gain new senses, and new expressions spread
quickly through television and the Internet.
English is now an international language and is
used as a means of communication between people
from many countries. As a result the influences
on the English language are wider than ever and
it is possible that World English will move away
from using a British or American standard and
establish its own international identity.
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BR_A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill 1
A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill
As a politician, Winston Churchill is
remembered as one of Britains greatest
statesmen. He was the son of the Conservative
politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as
a soldier in India and Egypt, and as a journalist
in South Africa, before entering politics.
Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister of
Defence in 1940. His radio speeches during World
War II gave the British people a strong
determination to win the war, especially at times
of great crisis. Examples of Churchills phrases
still often quoted today are I have nothing to
offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat, and
This was their finest hour.
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BR_A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill 2
The Conservative Party led by Churchill lost the
election of 1945, but he became Prime Minister
again from 1951 to 1955 when he retired, aged 80.
When he died in Jan 1965 he was given a state
funeral.
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BR_Chronology of Winston Churchill 1
Chronology of Winston Churchill




November 30, 1874
Born Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill at
Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, near Oxford.
Appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in Liberal
government.
October 1, 1911
Failure of the Dardanelles Expedition, in World
War I, led to his resignation as First Lord of
the Admiralty.
April 30, 1915
November 6, 1924
Baldwin named him Chancellor of the Exchequer.
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BR_Chronology of Winston Churchill 2
May 10, 1940
Appointed to head wartime coalition government.





July 1945
Lost general election.
April 24, 1953
Knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Awarded Nobel prize for literature in recognition
of historical works and biographies as well as
his brilliant speeches.
December 10, 1953
Died in London given a state funeral buried in
the churchyard at Bladon, near Blenheim.
January 24, 1965
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BR_ A Video Clip 1
A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
Directions Watch this video clip and answer the
following questions.
1. What do you learn from the clip?
2. What do you think of Winston Churchill?
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BR_ A Video Clip 2
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BR_ Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)
Julius Caesar was the best-known of all
the ancient Roman leaders, and the first one to
land in Britain with an army. He did this
twice, in 55 and 54 BC, although Britain did not
become part of the Roman Empire until nearly a
hundred years later.
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BR_ Viking
Viking
Viking was a member of a people from
Scandinavia who attacked parts of northern and
western Europe, including Britain and Ireland, in
the 8th to 11th centuries. In Britain they were
also known as Norsemen. They settled on the
Scottish islands and in areas of
eastern England, and the Danish king Canute ruled
England from 1016. The Vikings were feared as
violent and cruel, but they were also noted for
their skill in building ships and as sailors.
They had an important influence on English
culture and the English language.
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BR_ Norman 1
Norman
Norman refers to any of the people from
Normandy in northern France who settled in
England after their leader William defeated the
English king at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
The Normans took control of the country, a
process known as the Norman Conquest. They used
many of the
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BR_ Norman 2
existing Anglo-Saxon methods of government of the
state and the church, but added important aspects
of their own and made government much more
effective. The language of government became
first Latin,
and then Norman French, and this caused many new
words to be added to the existing English
language.
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BR_ William Caxton
William Caxton (c. 14221491)
William Caxton was the man who set up the
first printing firm in Britain. He printed his
first book in 1474. By printing books in English,
Caxton had a strong influence on the spelling and
development of the language. were French stories
which he translated himself.
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BR_ Otto Jespersen
Otto Jespersen (18601943)
Otto Jespersen was a Danish philologist,
grammarian, and educationist. He promoted the use
of the direct method in language teaching with
the publication of his theoretical work How to
Teach a Foreign Language (1904). Other books
include his seven-volume Modern English Grammar
(19091949).
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BR_ Renaissance 1
Renaissance
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BR_ Renaissance 2
The Renaissance emerged in northern Italy in the
1300s when, not content with the abstract and
highly subjective thinking of the Middle Ages,
scholars turned for inspiration to the ancient
Greeks and Romans with their love of earthly
life. Italian architects rediscovered ancient
construction techniques and incorporated Greek
and Roman columns, arches, and domes into their
public buildings. Instead of the flat, stiff
figures of the Middle Ages, Renaissance artists
portrayed rounded, flesh-and-blood people, people
filled with emotions. To depict the world they
lived in realistically, Renaissance artists
developed linear perspective, which creates on a
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BR_ Renaissance 3
flat surface the illusion of depth. Renaissance
scholars explored their world through
mathematics, science, and engineering. Probably
the most famous people of the Renaissance times
are Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. By the
1500s the Renaissance had spread to Spain and the
countries of northern Europe, where people sought
to blend the intense interest in human affairs
with spiritual ideals.
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G R _ main
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
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G R _ Further Understanding
Further Understanding
Pair Discussion
English the Sea of Language
Questions and Answers
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G R _ Part Division of the Text 1
Part Division of the Text
Parts
Para(s).
Main Ideas
1
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Massive borrowing from other languages is a major
feature of the English language.
2
416
Tells about the history of the English language
from the Indo-European parent language to modern
English.
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G R _ Part Division of the Text 2
Parts
Main Ideas
Para(s).
3
1719
Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for the
rights of others these qualities in the
English-speaking people explain the richness of
their language.
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GR_ Pair Discussion1
Pair Discussion
Directions Look at the picture below. Answer
these questions with a partner.
  1. What are differences between English and French
    in borrowing foreign words?

English has a vocabulary of about one million
words while French has only about 75,000 words.
English has borrowed a lot of words from other
languages while French hasnt. And the French
government even tries to ban words from English.
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GR_ Pair Discussion 2
2. What can we infer from the invention of a
French word balladeer?
In borrowing foreign words, English people are
open-minded while French people are conservative.
We know the reason why English has become the
first truly global language.
3. How did the word Walkman come into being?
The Japanese put two simple English words
together to name their product.
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GR_ English the Sea of Language
English the Sea of Language
Old English
eye
angel
Latin
sky
Greek
royal
kingly
capsule
Chinese
thermometer
Christianity
habitual
mahjong
water
Vikings
French
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GR_ Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers
1. Who is Otto Jespersen?
He is a Danish scholar.
2. According to Otto Jespersen, what is the
cause for English to become what it is?
Its the result of the great respecters of the
liberties of each individual.
3. What is English language in the authors
opinion?
English is the tongue of common man.
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D R _ Text 1
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically
one of massive stealing from other languages.
That is why English today has an estimated
vocabulary of over one million words, while other
major languages have far fewer. French, for
example, has only about 75,000 words, and that
includes English expressions like snack bar and
hit parade. The French, however, do not like
borrowing foreign words because they think it
corrupts their language. The government tries
to ban words from English and declares that
Walkman is not desirable so they invent a word,
balladeur, which French kids are supposed to
say instead but they dont.
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DR_ Text 2
Walkman is fascinating because it isnt even
English. Strictly speaking, it was invented by
the Japanese manufacturers who put two simple
English words together to name their product.
That doesnt bother us, but
it does bother the French. Such is the
glorious messiness of English. That happy
tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
anywhere, explains the richness of English and
why it has become, to a very real extent, the
first truly global language.
40
How did the language of a small island off the
coast of Europe become the language of the planet
more widely spoken and written than any other
has ever been? The history of English is
present in the first words a child learns about
identity (I, me, you) possession (mine, yours)
the body (eye, nose, mouth) size (tall, short)
and necessities (food, water). These words all
come from Old English or Anglo-Saxon English, the
core of our language.
Usually short and direct, these are words we
still use today for the things that really matter
to us.
Great speakers often use Old English to arouse
our emotions.
41
For example, during World War II, Winston
Churchill made this speech, stirring the courage
of his people against Hitlers armies positioned
to cross the English Channel We shall
fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the
landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and
in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We
shall never surrender.
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last surrender, which came
from Norman French. Churchill could have said,
We shall never give in, but it is one of the
lovely and powerful opportunities of English
that a writer can mix, for effect, different
words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us
from the earliest words in our language.
42
When Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C.,
English did not exist. The Celts, who inhabited
the land, spoke languages that survive today
mainly as Welsh. Where those languages came from
is still a mystery,
but there is a theory.
Two centuries ago an English judge in India
noticed that several words in Sanskrit closely
resembled some words in Greek and Latin. A
systematic study revealed that many modern
languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written
down.
43
Identifying similar words, linguists have
come up with what they call an Indo-European
parent language, spoken until 3500 to 2000 B.C.
These people had common words for snow, bee and
wolf but no word for sea. So some scholars assume
they lived somewhere in north-central Europe,
where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan,
and others drifted west toward the gentler
climates of Europe. Some who made the
earliest move westward became known as the Celts,
whom Caesars armies found in Britain. New
words came with the Germanic tribes the Angles,
the Saxons, etc. that slipped across the North
Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th century.
Together they formed what we call Anglo-Saxon
society.
44
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood,
field and work. They must have also enjoyed
themselves because they gave us the word laughter.
The next big influence on English was
Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon
vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words from Greek
and Latin, including angel, disciple and martyr.
45
Then into this relatively peaceful land
came the Vikings from Scandinavia. They also
brought to English many words that begin with sk,
like sky and skirt. But Old Norse and English
both survived, and so you can rear a child
(English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such
pairs survive wish and want, craft and skill,
hide and skin. Each such addition gave English
more richness, more variety.
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066,
when the Normans conquered England. The country
now had three languages French for the
nobles, Latin for the churches and English for
the common people.
46
With three languages competing, there were
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For
example, Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but
after the Normans, royal and sovereign entered
the language as alternatives. The extraordinary
thing was that French did not replace English.
Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what
had developed was a modified, greatly enriched
language Middle English with about 10,000
borrowed French words.
47
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a
printing press in England and started a
communications revolution. Printing brought into
English the wealth of new thinking that sprang
from the European Renaissance. Translations
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page, and with them
thousands of Latin words like capsule and
habitual, and Greek words like catastrophe and
thermometer. Today we still borrow from Latin
and Greek to name new inventions, like video,
television and cyberspace.
48
As settlers landed in North America and
established the United States, English found
itself with two sources American and British.
Scholars in Britain worried that the language was
out of control, and some wanted to set up an
academy to decide which words were proper and
which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
49
That tolerance for change also represents deeply
rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar Otto
Jespersen wrote in 1905, The English language
would not have been what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the
liberties of each individual and if everybody had
not been free to strike out new paths for
himself. I like that idea. Consider that the
same cultural soil producing the English language
also nourished the great principles of freedom
and rights of man in the modern world. The first
shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples
have defeated all efforts to build fences around
their language.
50
Indeed, the English language is not the special
preserve of grammarians, language police,
teachers, writers or the intellectual elite.
English is, and always has been, the tongue of
the common man.
51
D R _ Sentence THE GLORIOUS 1
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
Translate the title into Chinese.
???????????????
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D R _ Sentence THE GLORIOUS 2
What kind of rhetorical device is used in the
title?
The rhetorical device used here is called
oxymoron (?????). An oxymoron puts two
contradictory terms together to puzzle the
reader, luring him/her to pause and explore why.
Here Glorious is a commendatory (???) term,
while Messiness is derogatory (???). As the
reader reads on, he/she will know that English is
messy, but the messiness reflects some
commendable qualities of English, such as
tolerance, the love of freedom, and the respect
for others rights. At this point the reader
cannot but admire the authors ingenuity.
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D R _ Sentence 2 which
which French kids are supposed to say instead
but they dont.
Paraphrase the sentence.
French children are expected to say the word
balladeer instead of Walkman but they dont
say it.
54
D R _ Sentence 3 Such is
Such is the glorious messiness of English.
What can we know about the authors attitude
towards English from this sentence?
He thinks much of it.
55
D R _ Sentence 4 The history
The history of English is present in the first
words a child learns about
Paraphrase this part.
The history of English is revealed in the first
words a child learns about
Translate this part into Chinese.
????????????????????????
56
D R _ Sentence 5 We
We shall fight surrender.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here? And
whats the function of it?
The rhetorical device used here is called
parallelism (???). With this device the sentences
become more powerful and will leave a deeper
impression on listeners or readers.
57
D R _ Sentence 6 French
French for the nobles, Latin for the churches
and English for the common people.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The rhetorical device used here is called
metonymy (??). Here the word churches stands
for religious institutions and those who are
involved in religious practices. Another example,
in the sentence The kettle boils., the word
kettle stands to the water in the kettle.
58
D R _ Sentence 7 Translations of Greek
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page,
What is the Chinese version of this part?
??????????????????
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The author used personification (???) in this
part.
59
D R _ Sentence 8 Today we still
Today we still borrow from Latin cyberspace.
Where are the two words television and
cyberspace from?
The word television is formed by tele (Greek,
meaning far off) and vision (Latin, meaning
to see. The word cyberspace is formed by
cyber (Greek, meaning to steer) and space
(Old French, Latin) .
60
D R _ Sentence 9 Fortunately their
Fortunately their idea has never been put into
practice.
What can we infer from this sentence about the
authors attitude towards English?
The author prefers what English is today to what
some British scholars wanted to do.
61
D R _ Sentence 10 I like that idea.
I like that idea.
What does that idea refer to?
It refers to the fact that the English language
today results from the great respecters of the
liberties of each individual and his freedom to
strike out new path for himself.
62
D R _ Sentence 11 Consider that around
Consider that around their language.
What kind of rhetorical device is used in these
sentences?
The rhetorical device used in these sentences is
called metaphor. Here the author uses sustained
metaphor the cultural soil, the first shoots
sprang up, grew stronger, build fences around
their language. In this case the English language
is compared to plants, and the various cultures
influencing it are compared to the soil, while
users of English are compared to gardeners.
Besides this, the author employs many other
metaphors in this text, such as core of English
(Para. 4), another flood of new vocabulary (Para.
14), and the special preserve of grammarians
(Para. 19).
63
D R _ word _ corrupt
corrupt vt.
cause errors to appear in
The Academy ruled that such foreign expressions
were not permitted, as they corrupted the
language.
Has Japanese been corrupted by the introduction
of foreign words?
cause to act dishonestly in return for personal
gains
To our great surprise, the former mayor turned
out to have been corrupted by the desire for
money and power.
To gain more profits, the businessman tried every
means to corrupt the officials in the local
government.
64
D R _ word _ ban 1
ban vt. 1. forbid (sth.) officially (used in
the pattern ban sth. ban sb. from
sth./doing sth.
The local government will ban smoking in all
offices later this year.
Tom was banned from driving for six months after
being caught speeding again.
Lady Chatterleys Lover was banned when it was
first published.
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D R _ word _ ban 2
ban, forbid prohibit ????????,???????
CF
ban ????,????????????????
?????,??????????????????
The treaty bans all nuclear tests.
???????????
forbid ?????,????????????
He forbade his children sweets because he didnt
want their teeth to be ruined.
?????????,??????????????
66
D R _ word _ ban 3
prohibit ?(????????????)???
???,?????ban????
In some countries the sale of alcoholic beverages
is prohibited.
????????????????
2. ban n. (followed by on)
The government is considering a total ban on
cigarette advertising.
The ban on human cloning is welcomed by most
countries in the world.
67
D R _ word _ invent 1
invent vt.
  • make or design (sth. that has not existed
    before)
  • create (sth.)

James Watt invented the steam engine.
Walter Hunt and Elias Hone invented the sewing
machine
2. give (a name, reason, etc. that doesnt
exist or is not true)
All the characters in the novel are invented.
Standing still in the teachers office, the boy
tried to invent a plausible excuse for his
absence from class.
68
D R _ word _ invent 2
invent discover ??????????,???????????
CF
invent??,????????????????
???????,?????,????????? ??
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
????????????????
69
D R _ word _ invent 3
discover??,???????????,?????
????,???????,???????? ??????????
??????
The planet Pluto was discovered in 1930.
?????1930??????
70
D R _ word _ fascinating
fascinating adj. of great interest or attraction
The story of his adventures in the Arctic was
fascinating to listen to.
????????????????
I found the discussion about cloning absolutely
fascinating.
It is fascinating to imagine what might have
happened if the US had not declared war against
Japan in World War II.
71
D R _ word _ strictly speaking
strictly speaking if one uses words, applies
rules, etc. in their
exact sense
Hes not strictly speaking an artist he is more
of a performer.
Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the
job. But we employed her because of her honesty.
72
D R _ word _ tolerance 1
tolerance n.
the quality of allowing other people to say and
do as they like, even if you dont agree or
approve of it (followed by for)
1.
School teachers have to have a great deal of
tolerance in order to deal with difficult
children.
He has no tolerance for people who disagree with
him.
2.
the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant
(followed by of / for / to)
Human beings have limited tolerance of/to noise.
The patient had no tolerance for/to pain.
Whenever he was injected he would cry.
73
D R _ word _tolerance 2
Collocation
display/show tolerance
????
???????
have tolerance
tolerance for/of/towards
???
74
D R _ word _tolerance 3
to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent to the
degree specified
I agree with him to some extent but there are
still some areas of sharp disagreement between
us.
To some extent the water pollution has affected
local residents.
???????,????????????????
To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant
was due to bad management.
75
D R _ word _necessity
necessity n.
1. sth. you must have in order to live properly
or do sth.
Water is a basic necessity of life.
A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a
necessity than a luxury item.
The workers wages were so low that they hardly
had enough money to buy the bare necessities of
life.
76
D R _ word _ necessity 2
2. circumstances that force one to do sth. the
state of being necessary the need for sth.
(followed by of / for)
???????????
Is there any necessity for another election?
There is absolutely no necessity for you to be
involved in the project.
77
D R _ word _ necessity 3
Collocation
??????
feel the necessity of
????????
the bare necessities
?????
the necessities of life
???
of necessity
You will of necessity remain silent.
?????????
???????
by necessity
I walked home by necessity, because the car broke
down.
????,??????????
78
D R _ word _ arouse
arouse vt. provoke (a particular feeling or
attitude)
These educational toys give children a feeling of
self-worth by arousing their interest in
challenging tasks.
The mans strange behavior aroused the
policemans suspicions.
79
D R _ word _ SURRENDER
surrender v. give in (followed by to)
After several weeks of severe attacks,
Afghanistans Taliban forces surrendered to the
Northern Alliance.
After the bombs fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
the Japanese surrendered.
Well never surrender to terrorism despite the
terrorist attacks.
??????????
You must surrender your guns to the police.
80
D R _ word _ virtually
virtually adv. for the most part, almost
Its virtually impossible to tell the imitation
from the real thing.
It has been raining virtually non-stop for the
past several days.
?????????????????
The dinners virtually ready I only have to
finish the vegetables.
81
D R _ word _ invade
invade vt. enter with armed forces
In July 1937 the Japanese army invaded China.
The Germans invaded Poland in 1939, leading to
the start of World War II.
82
D R _ word _ mystery 1
mystery n. sth. that people cant, or have not
been able to understand or
explain
The politicians sudden death remains a mystery
to us all.
??????(pyramid)????????????
How Egyptian pyramids were built still remains a
mystery.
No one has ever been able to explain the mystery
of the Bermuda Triangle.
83
D R _ word _ mystery 2
Collocation
????
pose a mystery
remain a mystery
?????
clear up a mystery
?????????
solve/unravel a mystery
????
shrouded/cloaked/wrapped in mystery
??????
84
D R _ word _ resemble
resemble vt. be like or similar to
??????????????
John resembles his father very much in all ways.
Id say he resembles his mother more than his
father.
85
D R _ word _ descend 1
descend v. come down (from a source), go down
These ideas descend from those of the ancient
philosophers.
The old lady descended the stairs.
??????
The sun descended behind the hills.
86
D R _ word _ descend 2
descend, fall drop ????????,???????
CF
descend ????????,????????????
?? fall ??????,?????????????????
????????,????????? drop ?????????,?????????????
??????????????
87
D R _ word _ descend 3
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
dropping
__________
  • The rain was still from the
    trees.
  • On turning the corner, we saw that the road
  • steeply.
  • 3. Large masses of rock are constantly
    into the sea.
  • 4. The hawk (?) in a vertical
    stoop on its quarry (??).

descended
__________
falling
______
descends
__________
88
D R _ word _ establish 1
establish vt.
1. cause to be, set up
?????????????1905?????
The school was established in 1905 by an Italian
professor.
The bank helps people wanting to establish their
business.
89
D R _ word _ establish 2
2. place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an
office, etc.
Ingrid Bergman established her fame as a film
star at the age of 20.
Yao Ming established himself in the team soon
after he arrived in U.S.
90
D R _ word _ drift 1
drift
1. vi. move or go somewhere in a slow casual way
Jimmy spent the year drifting around Europe.
The football match was over, and the crowds
drifted away from the stadium.
????????
She just drifts from job to job.
91
D R _ word _ drift 2
2. n.
1) the movement or course of sth. drifting
Nowadays there is a drift of young people from
the country to the city.
2) the general meaning
Im sorry I cant catch/get the drift of what
youre saying.
???????????
Did you get/see the drift of the argument?
92
D R _ word _ drift 3
Collocation
drift along
???????
????
drift apart
??????
drift into/toward
At last, he drifted into a life of crime.
??,?????????
????
drift from to
The conversation drifted from one subject to
another.
???????????????
93
D R _ word _ drift 4
Collocation
????
a general drift
????
get/catch the drift of
???????
follow sbs drift
94
D R _ word _ pass
pass (sth.) on to (sb.) hand or give (sth.) to
(sb.)
When you have finished reading the novel, please
pass it on to Laura.
The King passed on much of his fortune to the
princess.
95
D R _ word _ addition 1
addition n. 1. a person or thing added
(followed by to)
The baby is a welcome addition to the Smith
family.
?????????????????
He will be a valuable addition to our basketball
team.
2. the act of adding, esp. adding numbers together
Before I entered the primary school, my mother
taught me to do addition and subtraction.
96
D R _ word _ addition 2
Collocation
do addition
???
????
make an addition
???
in addition to
In addition to his salary, he earns a lot from
giving lectures.
????
in addition
You need money and time. In addition, you need
diligence.
97
D R _ word _ conquer 1
conquer vt. take possession and control of (a
country, city, etc.) by
force defeat
Afghanistans Northern Alliance conquered Kabul a
month ago.
She has conquered the hearts of many men.
????????????????
There has been a tremendous international effort
to conquer cancer.
98
D R _ word _ conquer 2
conquer, beat defeat ????????,??????????
CF
conquer ?????????????????????
??????????????
The Romans conquered parts of Britain in the
first century B. C.
?????????????????????
99
D R _ word _ conquer 3
beat ?????????,?????????,? ???????????
She beat her brother at tennis.
????,????????
defeat ????????????????,???
??????,???????????
He was defeated by 165 votes against 132.
??132??165 ?????
100
D R _ word _ alternative1
alternative 1. n. one of two or more
possibilities (followed by to)
His father gave John the alternative of staying
in high school or going to work.
????????????,??????
Im afraid I have no alternative but to report
you to the police.
????????,????????,??????????????,??????????????
,?? We have several alternatives to chose from.
(?????????????)???????????
NB
101
D R _ word _ alternative2
2. adj. (of two things) that may be used, had,
done, etc. instead of another other
We returned by an alternative road.
??alternate?????alternative They had an
alternate/alternative plan. (?????????)
??,alternative???????????
NB
102
D R _ word _ enrich1
enrich vt.
1. make rich or richer
That once poor coastal village has been enriched
by the profits from tourism.
???????????????????
The discovery of oil has enriched many Arabian
countries.
2. improve
It is important to enrich the soil prior to
planting.
Music can enrich your whole life.
103
D R _ word _ enrich1
source n.
1. a place from which sth. comes or is obtained
Tourism, which is a major source of income for
the city, has been seriously affected by SARS.
Do you have any other source of income apart from
your job?
2. the place where a stream of water starts
Where is the source of the Amazon River?
104
D R _ word _ enrich2
source origin ????????,????,?????
CF
source ????,????????,??? ????
They had to find a new source of income.
??????????????
origin ?????????,??????????? ??,??????,???
105
D R _ word _ enrich3
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
  • There are a number of words in the English
    language
  • which were French in
  • 2. Where is the of the River
    Thames?
  • 3. They had to find a new of
    income.
  • 4. This practice owes its to the
    Chinese.

origin
_______ .
source
________
source
________
origin
_______
106
A R _ main
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Synonyms
Body Language
Sentence Translation
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
107
A R _ Listening Comprehension
Listening Comprehension
Brainstorm
Respond
108
A R _ Writing Practice
Writing Practice
A brief introduction
An example
Some useful expressions in graph writing
Homework
109
A R _ Useful Expressions 1
Useful Expressions
a hit parade
1. ???
strictly speaking
2. ????
the things that really matter to us
3. ???????????
make a speech
4. ????
for effect
5. ??????
a systematic study
6. ?????
descend from
7. ???
110
A R _ Useful Expressions 2
come up with
drift west
pass on to us
enjoy oneself
rear/raise a child
the Normans conquered England
common people
111
A R _ Useful Expressions 3
15. ???
a printing press
16. ?????
a wealth of new thinking
17. ??????
the European Renaissance
18. ??
be out of control
put into practice
19. ????
20. ????????
a respecter of the liberties of each
individual
112
A R _ Useful Expressions 4
21. ????
strike out new path
nourish the principles of
22. ??????
23. ??
the rights of man
24. ????
an intellectual elite
113
A R _ Brainstorm
standard Chinese
Han nationality
mother tongue
Brainstorm

overseas Chinese
Chinese Language
dialect
Directions Work in groups and brainstorm as many
words as possible that are related to the topic
Chinese Language.
United Nation
working language
114
A R _ Respond 1
Respond
Directions Listen to the passage and answer the
following questions.
1. What does the Chinese language usually refer
to?
It refers to the standard language and its
dialect.
2. What percentage of the Han nationality
accounts for the total population?
93.3.
115
A R _ Respond 2
3. Why do we say the Chinese language is very
important in the world?
Because it is one of the five working languages
in the United Nations.
4. How many overseas Chinese and persons of
Chinese decent in Southeast Asia speak Chinese
language?
Its more than 10 million.
5. According to this passage, what was the
worlds population when the passage was written?
About 5 billion.
116
A R _ Respond 3
6. How long has the Chinese language been spoken?
More than 6,000 years.
117
A R _ Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue 1
Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue
The Chinese language usually refers to the
standard language and its dialects used by the
Han nationality which makes up 93.3 of the total
population. Most of the minority nationalities in
China have their own languages. Both numerically
(??????) and in the extent of its distribution,
Chinese is the most important language in China
and also one of the five official working
languages of the United Nations. It is also one
of the richest and highly developed languages in
the world. Chinese is also spoken by many
overseas Chinese it is the common language of
more than 10 million overseas
118
A R _ Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue 2
Chinese and persons of Chinese descent in
Southeast Asia alone. At present, more than one
billion people, approximately 1/5 of the worlds
population, speak Chinese as their mother
tongue. A written form of the language was
developed as early as 6,000 years ago. From the
point of view of its origin, it belongs to the
Sino-Tibetan languages family (????,?????????????)
.
119
A R _ Synonyms 1
Synonyms
Directions Choose a suitable word from the given
pairs to complete the following sentences and try
to figure out the difference in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear,
royal, kingly and sovereign, come very close in
meaning but are not interchangeable in some
contexts.
1. want/wish
a) I you both a very pleasant journey.
wish
____
120
A R _ Synonyms 2
b) Ann, I am sorry. I I had never said
that to you.
wish
____
c) My parents me to give you their best
regards.
want
____
wish/want
d) We do not to waste our money
on such worthless things.
__________
2. skin/hide
skin
a) This is the best lotion Ive ever known for
care.
____
b) Im sorry I called you a pig. My
is thick enough it didnt bother me.
hide/skin
_________
hide
c) This pair of boots is made of buffalo
They are very durable.
____ .
121
A R _ Synonyms 3
skin
d) I dont need a knife I can peel the
off with my fingers.
____
3. raise/rear
rear/raise
a) The male bird helps the female to
the young.
_________
b) You cannot corn here. The climate is
not right for it.
raise
____
rear/raise
c) The couple agreed that to the
children properly they need two incomes.
_________
d) He worked hard to himself from
poverty.
raise
____
122
A R _ Synonyms 4
4. royal/kingly/sovereign
royal
a) The British family has been the focus
of media attention in recent weeks.
_____
kingly/royal
b) The young mans bearing
(??) has won him many admirers.
__________
c) When did India gain its independence and
become a state?
sovereign
_________
d) With his health restored, he is now ready to
resume his duties.
royal/kingly
__________
123
A R _ Body Language 1
Body Language
Directions In this part, you can see four
pictures and each picture shows the different
meaning of body language both in China and U.S.
At the same time, you can also see the different
phrases or expressions showing the meaning of the
different pictures. Youre required to match the
picture with the phrases by drawing the phrases
into the proper places.
124
A R _ Body Language 2
considered impolite making people embarrassed,
self-conscious applauding oneself improper,
immodest curiosity, sometimes surprise calling
for silence thank you mutual positive
feelings giving comfort, consolation or
encouragement also showing affection disapproval,
hissing (?????) patting the head of children to
show affection patting the head of a teenager or
adult causing displeasure
A B C D E F G H
125
A R _ Body Language 3
No.1
No.2
No.3
No.4


Meaning in China
Meaning in U. S.
B
D
( )
No.1 No.2
No.3 No.4
No.1 No.2
No.3 No.4
G
( )
( )
( )
E
F
( )
A
( )
( )
( )
C
H
126
A R _ Body Language 4
127
A R _ Body Language 5
128
A R _ Body Language 6
129
A R _ Body Language 7
130
A R _ Sentence Translation 1
Sentence Translation
1. That happy tolerance, that willingness to
accept words from anywhere, explains the richness
of English and why it has become, to a very real
extent, the first truly global language.
?????????,????????????????,???????????????,???????
???????????????????
131
A R _ Sentence Translation 2
2. A systematic study revealed that many modern
languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written
down.
???????,????????????????,?????????,????????
3. The English language would not have been what
it is if the English had not been for centuries
great respecters of each individual and if
everybody had not been free to strike out new
paths for himself.
?????????????????????,????????????????????,???????
??????
132
A R _ Sentence Translation 3
4. English may become one tool that opens windows
to the world, unlocks doors to opportunities, and
expands our minds to new ideas.
????????????????????????????????????
5. ???????????????????????????
Yet there is something direct to the heart that
speaks to us from the earliest words in our
language.
133
A R _ Sentence Translation 4
6. ??????????????????
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page.
7. ?2010?,??????????????????????????????
By 2010, the number of people who speak English
as a second or foreign language will exceed the
number of native speakers.
8. ?????????,???????????
The world is in transition, and the English
language will take new forms.
134
A R _ Writing Practice 1
Graph Writing
Cause and effect essays are concerned with why
things happen (causes) and what happens as a
result (effects). Cause and effect is a common
method of organizing and discussing ideas. The
following tips can help you draft this type of
essay
135
A R _ Writing Practice 2
A brief introduction
Graph writing, in fact, is a way to transfer
information into written language from a graph
or chart. Here the word graph refers to Graphs,
Charts, and Tables. Graphs and charts are
pictures which show numbers or figures, and
tables are just rows and columns of
information. Usually, graph writing consists of
three parts Introduction, Body and Conclusion.
Introduction should describe the purpose of
report and say what overall trends you see. Body
should describe the most important trends, while
all information is summarized
1. 2. 3.
136
A R _ Writing Practice 3
to avoid unnecessary details. Conclusion should
sum up the global trends shown on the figure and
compare them if possible. In order to have a
better composition, the writer should be familiar
with some special expressions in graph writing.
(Details can be seen in Some common connects
below)
4.
137
A R _ An example 1
An example
Directions Write a composition entitled Leading
Causes of Road Accidents in China. The
composition should be based on the following
graph.
Percentage of Accidents
Bicycles
Pedestrians
Others
Motor Vehicles
138
A R _ An example 2
Your composition should be in three paragraphs
1. introduce the causes 2. report the
information given in the graph 3. conclude the
composition by giving some suggestions.
139
A R _ Leading Causes of Road 1
Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China
With the development of the cities, the road
accident is becoming a more and more serious
problem in China. The information represented in
the graph, which depicts the leading causes of
road accidents in China, indicates that most
accidents are caused by motor vehicles, bicycles,
and pedestrians. In the graph we can clearly see
that motor vehicles are responsible for most of
the road accidents, namely about 50 of them.
Bicycles account for 35 of the accidents and
pedestrians caused nearly 10. These results
indicate that motor vehicles can thus be regarded
as the enemy of the
140
A R _ Leading Causes of Road 2
whole society, especially when the peoples life
is taken into consideration.
Since we know that motor vehicles are the leading
cause of road accidents in China, we should take
some measures to prevent them from happening.
First, we should make a law to punish any
violators of traffic regulations. Then, cyclists
should use hand signals to warn other road users
of their intentions. Last but not least, the
department concerned should educate ordinary
people to walk on a zebra crossing or overpass
when they cross a street. All in all, its time
for us to attach great importance to this problem.
141
A R _ some useful 1
Some useful expressions in graph writing
1. The picture shows. 2. This table shows the
differences between. 3. The diagram
represents 4. The chart above indicates 5. The
information represented in the graph
indicates 6. As can be seen from the chart, 7.
As is shown in the bar graph, there were 8. From
the diagram it can be seen clearly that 9. From
these figures one can easily see that
142
A R _ some useful 5
10. According to the graph given above, we can
see that 11. This is an illustration of/a
typical example of 12. There was a great/slight
increase/rise. 13. There has been a
sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop 14. Take the above
chart as an example,
143
A R _ Homework1
Homework
Directions Write a composition entitled Us
Spending Patterns, 1966-1996 based on the
following pie charts.
144
A R _ Homework2
The pie charts show changes in American spending
patterns between 1966 and 1996. Food and cars
made up the two biggest items of expenditure in
both years. Together they comprised over half of
household spending. Food accounted for 44 of
spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds
to 14 in 1996. However, the outlay on cars
doubled, rising from 23 in 1966 to 45 in 1996.
Other areas changed significantly. Spending on
eating out doubled, climbing from 7 to 14. The
proportion of salary spent on computers increased
dramatically, up
145
A R _ Homework 3
from 1 in 1996 to 10 in 1996. However, as
computer expenditure rose, the percentage of
outlay on books plunged from 6 to 1. 
Some areas remained relatively unchanged.
Americans spent approximately the same amount of
salary on petrol and furniture in both years.
In conclusion, increased amounts spent on cars,
computers, and eating out were made up for by
drops in expenditure on food and books.
146
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 1
Talk about the Pictures
147
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 2
148
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 3
149
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 4
150
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 5
151
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 6
152
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 7
153
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 8
154
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 9
155
A R _ Spot Dictation 1
Proverbs and Quotations
1. Speech is silver, silence is gold.
????,?????
2. Speech is the index/picture of the mind.
?????
3. Speech shows what a man is.
????????
156
A R _ Spot Dictation 2
4. A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle
of life. Karl
Marx, German revolutionary
???????????? ????? K.???
5. Grammar must be learned through language, and
not language through grammar.
Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
??????????,???????????
????? J.G. ???
157
A R _ Spot Dictation 3
6. Speech is a mirror of soul as a man speaks,
so is he.
Ephraem Syrus, American writer
???????????????,?????????????
???? E. ???
158
S R _ main
Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Tasks
159
S R _ Culture Notes
Culture Notes
From English to Panglish
160
S R _ Comprehension Tasks
Comprehension Tasks
Task One Table Completion
Task Two Questions and Answers
161
S R _ From English to Panglish 1
From English to Panglish
Directions You are required to read the words
while listening to the following passage and then
have a dialogue about the pros and cons of
Internet.
We know that English is the prevailing world
language, and that Chinglish should be avoided.
However, a new global tongue, called Panglish,
is expected to overtake traditional English in
the coming decades. The language of Shakespeare
and Dickens is evolving into a new, simplified
form of English that will
162
S R _ From English to Panglish 2
be spoken by billions of people around the world.
The changes are being driven by people who speak
English as a second language, New Scientist
magazine reports.
According to the report, Panglish will be similar
to the versions of English used by non-native
speakers. Linguists say Panglish will lose some
of the English sounds which non-native speakers
find difficult to pronounce. For instance, the
th sounds in this and thin might be
replaced by z or s, respectively. The short
l sound in hotel might be replaced with the
longer l of lady.
163
S R _ From English to Panglish 3
Consonants at the end of words may be dropped. So
friend may be pronounced as frien and send
as sen. Group nouns like information and
furniture which dont have plural versions
could vanish. Therefore, it may become acceptable
in Panglish to talk about informations and
furnitures. Non-English speakers often forget
the s at the end of third person singular verbs
like he runs or she walks. In Panglish,
people may say he talk or she eat.
164
S R _ From English to Panglish 4
By 2010, around 2 billion people, or a third of
the worlds population, will speak English as a
second language. In contrast, just 350 million
people will speak it as a first language. By
2020, the number of native speakers will be down
to 300 million, the Daily Mail newspaper
predicts. Unlike French, which is protected from
corruption by the Academie Francaise, there is no
organization to guard the English language.
165
S R _ Reading _ text 1
Wondering whether all the time and effort spent
learning English is worthwhile? Here are some
good reasons why it is.
The Role of English in the 21st Century
Melvyn A. Hasman
The global spread of English over the last
40 years has been remarkable. It is
unparalleled in several ways by the increasing
number of users of the language by its depth of
penetration into societies by its range of
functions.
166
S R _ Reading _ text 2
Worldwide over 1.4 billion people live in
countries where English has official status. One
out of five of the worlds population speaks some
English. And at present one in five over one
billion people are learning English. Over 70
of the worlds scientists read English. About 85
of the worlds mail is written in English. And
90 of all information in the worlds electronic
retrieval systems is stored in English. By 2010,
the number of people who speak English as a
second or foreign language will exceed the number
of native speakers. This trend will certainly
affect the language. English is used for more
purposes than ever before.
167
S R _ Reading _ text 3
Vocabularies, grammatical forms, and ways of
speaking and writing have emerged influenced by
technological and scientific developments,
economics and management, literature and
entertainment. What began some 1,500 years
ago as a crude language, originally spoken by
little known German tribes who invaded England,
now covers the globe.
When Mexican pilots land their airplanes in
France, they and the ground controllers use
English. When German physicists want to alert the
international scientific community to new
discoveries, they first publish their findings in
English. When Japanese e
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Title: B R _ main


1
B R _ main
Listening and Answering the Questions
History of English
Winston Churchill
Julius Caesar
Viking
Norman
William Caxton
Otto Jespersen
Renaissance
2
B R _ History of English
History of English
The root of English
The development of Modern English
20th Century English
3
B R _ Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill
Chronology of Winston Churchill
A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
4
B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 1
Listen and Answer the Questions
Directions Listen to the recording two or three
times and then think over the following
questions.
1. What is the passage about?
English is a great language, but it is also a
crazy language.
2. Can you give one or two examples to illustrate
the messiness of the English language?
Yes. For example, the meaning of your house
burns up is the same as that of your house
burns down, or you fill in a form is the same
as you fill out a form.
5
B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 2
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages
mentioned in the recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained
here
1) ship by truck / send cargo by ship
ship can be either a verb or a noun.
The first ship means send, the second one a
large boat.
2) noses that run / feet that smells
This refers to what people usually say have a
running nose (???), have smelly feet (??).
6
B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 3
3) a slim/fat chance
a remote possibility
4) a wise guy
a person who pretends to be much wiser than
he/she really is a derogatory term
a wise man
a really wise person a commendatory term
5) overlook
fail to see or notice, pay no attention to
oversee
control (work, workmen)
7
B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 4
6) hot /cold as hell
extremely hot/cold
7) burn up
catch fire and flare up
burn down
be destroyed by fire
8) fill in a form/fill out a form
synonymous
9) go off
start an action, usually accompanied by a great
noise
go on
continue doing something
8
B R _ Listen and Answer the Questions 5
10) when stars are out
when stars appear in the sky
when lights are out
when lights are turned off
11) wind up a watch
tighten the spring of a watch
wind up a speech
end a speech
9
B R _ The root of English 1
The root of English
English began as a west Germanic language
which was brought to England by the Saxons around
400 A.D. Old English was the spoken and written
language of England between 400 and 1100 A.D.
Many words used today come from Old English,
including man, woman, king, mother, etc. But Old
English was very different from modern English
and only a few words can be easily recognized. In
the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded
England, Old Norse words, e.g. sky, take and get
and many place names, entered the language.
10
B R _ The root of English 2
From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late
12th. century English was replaced as the
official language by Norman French, though
English was still used by the lower classes.
English from about 1300 to 1500 is known as
Middle English. It was influenced by French and
also Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation.
French brought many words connected with
government, e.g. sovereign, royal, court, legal
and government itself. Latin was the language of
religion and learning and gave to English words
such as minister, angel, master, school and
grammar. Literature began again to be written in
English during this period. One of the most
famous Middle English works is Chaucers The
Canterbury Tales
11
BR_ The development of Modern English 1
The development of Modern English
Modern English developed from the Middle
English dialect of the East Midlands and was
influenced by the English used in London, where a
printing press was set up by William Caxton in
1476. English changed a great deal from this time
until the end of the 18th century. During the
Renaissance, many words were introduced from
Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially
in science, medicine and philosophy. They
included physics, species, architecture,
encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the 16th century
several versions of the Bible helped bring
written English to ordinary people. The
Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama,
and Shakespeares plays were seen by many people.
12
BR_ The development of Modern English 2
The development of printing helped
establish standards of spelling and grammar, but
there remained a lot of variation. Samuel
Johnsons A Dictionary of the English Language
(1755) was the first authoritative treatment of
English. It defined about 40,000 words and gave
examples of their use. By the 18th
century American English was established and
developing independently from British English.
After colonists arrived in the US new words began
to be added from Native American languages, and
from French and Spanish. In 1783, soon after
Johnsons dictionary was published, Noah
Websters The Elementary Spelling Book
13
BR_ The development of Modern English 3
was published in the US. At first it used
Johnsons spellings, but later editions contained
many of what have come to be known as American
spellings, e.g. harbor and favorite.
14
BR_ 20th Century English
20th Century English
During the 19th and early 20th centuries
many dictionaries and books about language were
published. New words are still being added to
English from other languages, including Chinese
(feng shui) and Japanese (karaoke). Existing
words gain new senses, and new expressions spread
quickly through television and the Internet.
English is now an international language and is
used as a means of communication between people
from many countries. As a result the influences
on the English language are wider than ever and
it is possible that World English will move away
from using a British or American standard and
establish its own international identity.
15
BR_A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill 1
A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill
As a politician, Winston Churchill is
remembered as one of Britains greatest
statesmen. He was the son of the Conservative
politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as
a soldier in India and Egypt, and as a journalist
in South Africa, before entering politics.
Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister of
Defence in 1940. His radio speeches during World
War II gave the British people a strong
determination to win the war, especially at times
of great crisis. Examples of Churchills phrases
still often quoted today are I have nothing to
offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat, and
This was their finest hour.
16
BR_A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill 2
The Conservative Party led by Churchill lost the
election of 1945, but he became Prime Minister
again from 1951 to 1955 when he retired, aged 80.
When he died in Jan 1965 he was given a state
funeral.
17
BR_Chronology of Winston Churchill 1
Chronology of Winston Churchill




November 30, 1874
Born Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill at
Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, near Oxford.
Appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in Liberal
government.
October 1, 1911
Failure of the Dardanelles Expedition, in World
War I, led to his resignation as First Lord of
the Admiralty.
April 30, 1915
November 6, 1924
Baldwin named him Chancellor of the Exchequer.
18
BR_Chronology of Winston Churchill 2
May 10, 1940
Appointed to head wartime coalition government.





July 1945
Lost general election.
April 24, 1953
Knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Awarded Nobel prize for literature in recognition
of historical works and biographies as well as
his brilliant speeches.
December 10, 1953
Died in London given a state funeral buried in
the churchyard at Bladon, near Blenheim.
January 24, 1965
19
BR_ A Video Clip 1
A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
Directions Watch this video clip and answer the
following questions.
1. What do you learn from the clip?
2. What do you think of Winston Churchill?
20
BR_ A Video Clip 2
21
BR_ Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)
Julius Caesar was the best-known of all
the ancient Roman leaders, and the first one to
land in Britain with an army. He did this
twice, in 55 and 54 BC, although Britain did not
become part of the Roman Empire until nearly a
hundred years later.
22
BR_ Viking
Viking
Viking was a member of a people from
Scandinavia who attacked parts of northern and
western Europe, including Britain and Ireland, in
the 8th to 11th centuries. In Britain they were
also known as Norsemen. They settled on the
Scottish islands and in areas of
eastern England, and the Danish king Canute ruled
England from 1016. The Vikings were feared as
violent and cruel, but they were also noted for
their skill in building ships and as sailors.
They had an important influence on English
culture and the English language.
23
BR_ Norman 1
Norman
Norman refers to any of the people from
Normandy in northern France who settled in
England after their leader William defeated the
English king at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
The Normans took control of the country, a
process known as the Norman Conquest. They used
many of the
24
BR_ Norman 2
existing Anglo-Saxon methods of government of the
state and the church, but added important aspects
of their own and made government much more
effective. The language of government became
first Latin,
and then Norman French, and this caused many new
words to be added to the existing English
language.
25
BR_ William Caxton
William Caxton (c. 14221491)
William Caxton was the man who set up the
first printing firm in Britain. He printed his
first book in 1474. By printing books in English,
Caxton had a strong influence on the spelling and
development of the language. were French stories
which he translated himself.
26
BR_ Otto Jespersen
Otto Jespersen (18601943)
Otto Jespersen was a Danish philologist,
grammarian, and educationist. He promoted the use
of the direct method in language teaching with
the publication of his theoretical work How to
Teach a Foreign Language (1904). Other books
include his seven-volume Modern English Grammar
(19091949).
27
BR_ Renaissance 1
Renaissance
28
BR_ Renaissance 2
The Renaissance emerged in northern Italy in the
1300s when, not content with the abstract and
highly subjective thinking of the Middle Ages,
scholars turned for inspiration to the ancient
Greeks and Romans with their love of earthly
life. Italian architects rediscovered ancient
construction techniques and incorporated Greek
and Roman columns, arches, and domes into their
public buildings. Instead of the flat, stiff
figures of the Middle Ages, Renaissance artists
portrayed rounded, flesh-and-blood people, people
filled with emotions. To depict the world they
lived in realistically, Renaissance artists
developed linear perspective, which creates on a
29
BR_ Renaissance 3
flat surface the illusion of depth. Renaissance
scholars explored their world through
mathematics, science, and engineering. Probably
the most famous people of the Renaissance times
are Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. By the
1500s the Renaissance had spread to Spain and the
countries of northern Europe, where people sought
to blend the intense interest in human affairs
with spiritual ideals.
30
G R _ main
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
31
G R _ Further Understanding
Further Understanding
Pair Discussion
English the Sea of Language
Questions and Answers
32
G R _ Part Division of the Text 1
Part Division of the Text
Parts
Para(s).
Main Ideas
1
13
Massive borrowing from other languages is a major
feature of the English language.
2
416
Tells about the history of the English language
from the Indo-European parent language to modern
English.
33
G R _ Part Division of the Text 2
Parts
Main Ideas
Para(s).
3
1719
Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for the
rights of others these qualities in the
English-speaking people explain the richness of
their language.
34
GR_ Pair Discussion1
Pair Discussion
Directions Look at the picture below. Answer
these questions with a partner.
  1. What are differences between English and French
    in borrowing foreign words?

English has a vocabulary of about one million
words while French has only about 75,000 words.
English has borrowed a lot of words from other
languages while French hasnt. And the French
government even tries to ban words from English.
35
GR_ Pair Discussion 2
2. What can we infer from the invention of a
French word balladeer?
In borrowing foreign words, English people are
open-minded while French people are conservative.
We know the reason why English has become the
first truly global language.
3. How did the word Walkman come into being?
The Japanese put two simple English words
together to name their product.
36
GR_ English the Sea of Language
English the Sea of Language
Old English
eye
angel
Latin
sky
Greek
royal
kingly
capsule
Chinese
thermometer
Christianity
habitual
mahjong
water
Vikings
French
37
GR_ Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers
1. Who is Otto Jespersen?
He is a Danish scholar.
2. According to Otto Jespersen, what is the
cause for English to become what it is?
Its the result of the great respecters of the
liberties of each individual.
3. What is English language in the authors
opinion?
English is the tongue of common man.
38
D R _ Text 1
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically
one of massive stealing from other languages.
That is why English today has an estimated
vocabulary of over one million words, while other
major languages have far fewer. French, for
example, has only about 75,000 words, and that
includes English expressions like snack bar and
hit parade. The French, however, do not like
borrowing foreign words because they think it
corrupts their language. The government tries
to ban words from English and declares that
Walkman is not desirable so they invent a word,
balladeur, which French kids are supposed to
say instead but they dont.
39
DR_ Text 2
Walkman is fascinating because it isnt even
English. Strictly speaking, it was invented by
the Japanese manufacturers who put two simple
English words together to name their product.
That doesnt bother us, but
it does bother the French. Such is the
glorious messiness of English. That happy
tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
anywhere, explains the richness of English and
why it has become, to a very real extent, the
first truly global language.
40
How did the language of a small island off the
coast of Europe become the language of the planet
more widely spoken and written than any other
has ever been? The history of English is
present in the first words a child learns about
identity (I, me, you) possession (mine, yours)
the body (eye, nose, mouth) size (tall, short)
and necessities (food, water). These words all
come from Old English or Anglo-Saxon English, the
core of our language.
Usually short and direct, these are words we
still use today for the things that really matter
to us.
Great speakers often use Old English to arouse
our emotions.
41
For example, during World War II, Winston
Churchill made this speech, stirring the courage
of his people against Hitlers armies positioned
to cross the English Channel We shall
fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the
landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and
in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We
shall never surrender.
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last surrender, which came
from Norman French. Churchill could have said,
We shall never give in, but it is one of the
lovely and powerful opportunities of English
that a writer can mix, for effect, different
words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us
from the earliest words in our language.
42
When Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C.,
English did not exist. The Celts, who inhabited
the land, spoke languages that survive today
mainly as Welsh. Where those languages came from
is still a mystery,
but there is a theory.
Two centuries ago an English judge in India
noticed that several words in Sanskrit closely
resembled some words in Greek and Latin. A
systematic study revealed that many modern
languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written
down.
43
Identifying similar words, linguists have
come up with what they call an Indo-European
parent language, spoken until 3500 to 2000 B.C.
These people had common words for snow, bee and
wolf but no word for sea. So some scholars assume
they lived somewhere in north-central Europe,
where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan,
and others drifted west toward the gentler
climates of Europe. Some who made the
earliest move westward became known as the Celts,
whom Caesars armies found in Britain. New
words came with the Germanic tribes the Angles,
the Saxons, etc. that slipped across the North
Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th century.
Together they formed what we call Anglo-Saxon
society.
44
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood,
field and work. They must have also enjoyed
themselves because they gave us the word laughter.
The next big influence on English was
Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon
vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words from Greek
and Latin, including angel, disciple and martyr.
45
Then into this relatively peaceful land
came the Vikings from Scandinavia. They also
brought to English many words that begin with sk,
like sky and skirt. But Old Norse and English
both survived, and so you can rear a child
(English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such
pairs survive wish and want, craft and skill,
hide and skin. Each such addition gave English
more richness, more variety.
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066,
when the Normans conquered England. The country
now had three languages French for the
nobles, Latin for the churches and English for
the common people.
46
With three languages competing, there were
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For
example, Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but
after the Normans, royal and sovereign entered
the language as alternatives. The extraordinary
thing was that French did not replace English.
Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what
had developed was a modified, greatly enriched
language Middle English with about 10,000
borrowed French words.
47
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a
printing press in England and started a
communications revolution. Printing brought into
English the wealth of new thinking that sprang
from the European Renaissance. Translations
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page, and with them
thousands of Latin words like capsule and
habitual, and Greek words like catastrophe and
thermometer. Today we still borrow from Latin
and Greek to name new inventions, like video,
television and cyberspace.
48
As settlers landed in North America and
established the United States, English found
itself with two sources American and British.
Scholars in Britain worried that the language was
out of control, and some wanted to set up an
academy to decide which words were proper and
which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
49
That tolerance for change also represents deeply
rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar Otto
Jespersen wrote in 1905, The English language
would not have been what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the
liberties of each individual and if everybody had
not been free to strike out new paths for
himself. I like that idea. Consider that the
same cultural soil producing the English language
also nourished the great principles of freedom
and rights of man in the modern world. The first
shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples
have defeated all efforts to build fences around
their language.
50
Indeed, the English language is not the special
preserve of grammarians, language police,
teachers, writers or the intellectual elite.
English is, and always has been, the tongue of
the common man.
51
D R _ Sentence THE GLORIOUS 1
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
Translate the title into Chinese.
???????????????
52
D R _ Sentence THE GLORIOUS 2
What kind of rhetorical device is used in the
title?
The rhetorical device used here is called
oxymoron (?????). An oxymoron puts two
contradictory terms together to puzzle the
reader, luring him/her to pause and explore why.
Here Glorious is a commendatory (???) term,
while Messiness is derogatory (???). As the
reader reads on, he/she will know that English is
messy, but the messiness reflects some
commendable qualities of English, such as
tolerance, the love of freedom, and the respect
for others rights. At this point the reader
cannot but admire the authors ingenuity.
53
D R _ Sentence 2 which
which French kids are supposed to say instead
but they dont.
Paraphrase the sentence.
French children are expected to say the word
balladeer instead of Walkman but they dont
say it.
54
D R _ Sentence 3 Such is
Such is the glorious messiness of English.
What can we know about the authors attitude
towards English from this sentence?
He thinks much of it.
55
D R _ Sentence 4 The history
The history of English is present in the first
words a child learns about
Paraphrase this part.
The history of English is revealed in the first
words a child learns about
Translate this part into Chinese.
????????????????????????
56
D R _ Sentence 5 We
We shall fight surrender.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here? And
whats the function of it?
The rhetorical device used here is called
parallelism (???). With this device the sentences
become more powerful and will leave a deeper
impression on listeners or readers.
57
D R _ Sentence 6 French
French for the nobles, Latin for the churches
and English for the common people.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The rhetorical device used here is called
metonymy (??). Here the word churches stands
for religious institutions and those who are
involved in religious practices. Another example,
in the sentence The kettle boils., the word
kettle stands to the water in the kettle.
58
D R _ Sentence 7 Translations of Greek
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page,
What is the Chinese version of this part?
??????????????????
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The author used personification (???) in this
part.
59
D R _ Sentence 8 Today we still
Today we still borrow from Latin cyberspace.
Where are the two words television and
cyberspace from?
The word television is formed by tele (Greek,
meaning far off) and vision (Latin, meaning
to see. The word cyberspace is formed by
cyber (Greek, meaning to steer) and space
(Old French, Latin) .
60
D R _ Sentence 9 Fortunately their
Fortunately their idea has never been put into
practice.
What can we infer from this sentence about the
authors attitude towards English?
The author prefers what English is today to what
some British scholars wanted to do.
61
D R _ Sentence 10 I like that idea.
I like that idea.
What does that idea refer to?
It refers to the fact that the English language
today results from the great respecters of the
liberties of each individual and his freedom to
strike out new path for himself.
62
D R _ Sentence 11 Consider that around
Consider that around their language.
What kind of rhetorical device is used in these
sentences?
The rhetorical device used in these sentences is
called metaphor. Here the author uses sustained
metaphor the cultural soil, the first shoots
sprang up, grew stronger, build fences around
their language. In this case the English language
is compared to plants, and the various cultures
influencing it are compared to the soil, while
users of English are compared to gardeners.
Besides this, the author employs many other
metaphors in this text, such as core of English
(Para. 4), another flood of new vocabulary (Para.
14), and the special preserve of grammarians
(Para. 19).
63
D R _ word _ corrupt
corrupt vt.
cause errors to appear in
The Academy ruled that such foreign expressions
were not permitted, as they corrupted the
language.
Has Japanese been corrupted by the introduction
of foreign words?
cause to act dishonestly in return for personal
gains
To our great surprise, the former mayor turned
out to have been corrupted by the desire for
money and power.
To gain more profits, the businessman tried every
means to corrupt the officials in the local
government.
64
D R _ word _ ban 1
ban vt. 1. forbid (sth.) officially (used in
the pattern ban sth. ban sb. from
sth./doing sth.
The local government will ban smoking in all
offices later this year.
Tom was banned from driving for six months after
being caught speeding again.
Lady Chatterleys Lover was banned when it was
first published.
65
D R _ word _ ban 2
ban, forbid prohibit ????????,???????
CF
ban ????,????????????????
?????,??????????????????
The treaty bans all nuclear tests.
???????????
forbid ?????,????????????
He forbade his children sweets because he didnt
want their teeth to be ruined.
?????????,??????????????
66
D R _ word _ ban 3
prohibit ?(????????????)???
???,?????ban????
In some countries the sale of alcoholic beverages
is prohibited.
????????????????
2. ban n. (followed by on)
The government is considering a total ban on
cigarette advertising.
The ban on human cloning is welcomed by most
countries in the world.
67
D R _ word _ invent 1
invent vt.
  • make or design (sth. that has not existed
    before)
  • create (sth.)

James Watt invented the steam engine.
Walter Hunt and Elias Hone invented the sewing
machine
2. give (a name, reason, etc. that doesnt
exist or is not true)
All the characters in the novel are invented.
Standing still in the teachers office, the boy
tried to invent a plausible excuse for his
absence from class.
68
D R _ word _ invent 2
invent discover ??????????,???????????
CF
invent??,????????????????
???????,?????,????????? ??
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
????????????????
69
D R _ word _ invent 3
discover??,???????????,?????
????,???????,???????? ??????????
??????
The planet Pluto was discovered in 1930.
?????1930??????
70
D R _ word _ fascinating
fascinating adj. of great interest or attraction
The story of his adventures in the Arctic was
fascinating to listen to.
????????????????
I found the discussion about cloning absolutely
fascinating.
It is fascinating to imagine what might have
happened if the US had not declared war against
Japan in World War II.
71
D R _ word _ strictly speaking
strictly speaking if one uses words, applies
rules, etc. in their
exact sense
Hes not strictly speaking an artist he is more
of a performer.
Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the
job. But we employed her because of her honesty.
72
D R _ word _ tolerance 1
tolerance n.
the quality of allowing other people to say and
do as they like, even if you dont agree or
approve of it (followed by for)
1.
School teachers have to have a great deal of
tolerance in order to deal with difficult
children.
He has no tolerance for people who disagree with
him.
2.
the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant
(followed by of / for / to)
Human beings have limited tolerance of/to noise.
The patient had no tolerance for/to pain.
Whenever he was injected he would cry.
73
D R _ word _tolerance 2
Collocation
display/show tolerance
????
???????
have tolerance
tolerance for/of/towards
???
74
D R _ word _tolerance 3
to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent to the
degree specified
I agree with him to some extent but there are
still some areas of sharp disagreement between
us.
To some extent the water pollution has affected
local residents.
???????,????????????????
To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant
was due to bad management.
75
D R _ word _necessity
necessity n.
1. sth. you must have in order to live properly
or do sth.
Water is a basic necessity of life.
A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a
necessity than a luxury item.
The workers wages were so low that they hardly
had enough money to buy the bare necessities of
life.
76
D R _ word _ necessity 2
2. circumstances that force one to do sth. the
state of being necessary the need for sth.
(followed by of / for)
???????????
Is there any necessity for another election?
There is absolutely no necessity for you to be
involved in the project.
77
D R _ word _ necessity 3
Collocation
??????
feel the necessity of
????????
the bare necessities
?????
the necessities of life
???
of necessity
You will of necessity remain silent.
?????????
???????
by necessity
I walked home by necessity, because the car broke
down.
????,??????????
78
D R _ word _ arouse
arouse vt. provoke (a particular feeling or
attitude)
These educational toys give children a feeling of
self-worth by arousing their interest in
challenging tasks.
The mans strange behavior aroused the
policemans suspicions.
79
D R _ word _ SURRENDER
surrender v. give in (followed by to)
After several weeks of severe attacks,
Afghanistans Taliban forces surrendered to the
Northern Alliance.
After the bombs fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
the Japanese surrendered.
Well never surrender to terrorism despite the
terrorist attacks.
??????????
You must surrender your guns to the police.
80
D R _ word _ virtually
virtually adv. for the most part, almost
Its virtually impossible to tell the imitation
from the real thing.
It has been raining virtually non-stop for the
past several days.
?????????????????
The dinners virtually ready I only have to
finish the vegetables.
81
D R _ word _ invade
invade vt. enter with armed forces
In July 1937 the Japanese army invaded China.
The Germans invaded Poland in 1939, leading to
the start of World War II.
82
D R _ word _ mystery 1
mystery n. sth. that people cant, or have not
been able to understand or
explain
The politicians sudden death remains a mystery
to us all.
??????(pyramid)????????????
How Egyptian pyramids were built still remains a
mystery.
No one has ever been able to explain the mystery
of the Bermuda Triangle.
83
D R _ word _ mystery 2
Collocation
????
pose a mystery
remain a mystery
?????
clear up a mystery
?????????
solve/unravel a mystery
????
shrouded/cloaked/wrapped in mystery
??????
84
D R _ word _ resemble
resemble vt. be like or similar to
??????????????
John resembles his father very much in all ways.
Id say he resembles his mother more than his
father.
85
D R _ word _ descend 1
descend v. come down (from a source), go down
These ideas descend from those of the ancient
philosophers.
The old lady descended the stairs.
??????
The sun descended behind the hills.
86
D R _ word _ descend 2
descend, fall drop ????????,???????
CF
descend ????????,????????????
?? fall ??????,?????????????????
????????,????????? drop ?????????,?????????????
??????????????
87
D R _ word _ descend 3
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
dropping
__________
  • The rain was still from the
    trees.
  • On turning the corner, we saw that the road
  • steeply.
  • 3. Large masses of rock are constantly
    into the sea.
  • 4. The hawk (?) in a vertical
    stoop on its quarry (??).

descended
__________
falling
______
descends
__________
88
D R _ word _ establish 1
establish vt.
1. cause to be, set up
?????????????1905?????
The school was established in 1905 by an Italian
professor.
The bank helps people wanting to establish their
business.
89
D R _ word _ establish 2
2. place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an
office, etc.
Ingrid Bergman established her fame as a film
star at the age of 20.
Yao Ming established himself in the team soon
after he arrived in U.S.
90
D R _ word _ drift 1
drift
1. vi. move or go somewhere in a slow casual way
Jimmy spent the year drifting around Europe.
The football match was over, and the crowds
drifted away from the stadium.
????????
She just drifts from job to job.
91
D R _ word _ drift 2
2. n.
1) the movement or course of sth. drifting
Nowadays there is a drift of young people from
the country to the city.
2) the general meaning
Im sorry I cant catch/get the drift of what
youre saying.
???????????
Did you get/see the drift of the argument?
92
D R _ word _ drift 3
Collocation
drift along
???????
????
drift apart
??????
drift into/toward
At last, he drifted into a life of crime.
??,?????????
????
drift from to
The conversation drifted from one subject to
another.
???????????????
93
D R _ word _ drift 4
Collocation
????
a general drift
????
get/catch the drift of
???????
follow sbs drift
94
D R _ word _ pass
pass (sth.) on to (sb.) hand or give (sth.) to
(sb.)
When you have finished reading the novel, please
pass it on to Laura.
The King passed on much of his fortune to the
princess.
95
D R _ word _ addition 1
addition n. 1. a person or thing added
(followed by to)
The baby is a welcome addition to the Smith
family.
?????????????????
He will be a valuable addition to our basketball
team.
2. the act of adding, esp. adding numbers together
Before I entered the primary school, my mother
taught me to do addition and subtraction.
96
D R _ word _ addition 2
Collocation
do addition
???
????
make an addition
???
in addition to
In addition to his salary, he earns a lot from
giving lectures.
????
in addition
You need money and time. In addition, you need
diligence.
97
D R _ word _ conquer 1
conquer vt. take possession and control of (a
country, city, etc.) by
force defeat
Afghanistans Northern Alliance conquered Kabul a
month ago.
She has conquered the hearts of many men.
????????????????
There has been a tremendous international effort
to conquer cancer.
98
D R _ word _ conquer 2
conquer, beat defeat ????????,??????????
CF
conquer ?????????????????????
??????????????
The Romans conquered parts of Britain in the
first century B. C.
?????????????????????
99
D R _ word _ conquer 3
beat ?????????,?????????,? ???????????
She beat her brother at tennis.
????,????????
defeat ????????????????,???
??????,???????????
He was defeated by 165 votes against 132.
??132??165 ?????
100
D R _ word _ alternative1
alternative 1. n. one of two or more
possibilities (followed by to)
His father gave John the alternative of staying
in high school or going to work.
????????????,??????
Im afraid I have no alternative but to report
you to the police.
????????,????????,??????????????,??????????????
,?? We have several alternatives to chose from.
(?????????????)???????????
NB
101
D R _ word _ alternative2
2. adj. (of two things) that may be used, had,
done, etc. instead of another other
We returned by an alternative road.
??alternate?????alternative They had an
alternate/alternative plan. (?????????)
??,alternative???????????
NB
102
D R _ word _ enrich1
enrich vt.
1. make rich or richer
That once poor coastal village has been enriched
by the profits from tourism.
???????????????????
The discovery of oil has enriched many Arabian
countries.
2. improve
It is important to enrich the soil prior to
planting.
Music can enrich your whole life.
103
D R _ word _ enrich1
source n.
1. a place from which sth. comes or is obtained
Tourism, which is a major source of income for
the city, has been seriously affected by SARS.
Do you have any other source of income apart from
your job?
2. the place where a stream of water starts
Where is the source of the Amazon River?
104
D R _ word _ enrich2
source origin ????????,????,?????
CF
source ????,????????,??? ????
They had to find a new source of income.
??????????????
origin ?????????,??????????? ??,??????,???
105
D R _ word _ enrich3
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
  • There are a number of words in the English
    language
  • which were French in
  • 2. Where is the of the River
    Thames?
  • 3. They had to find a new of
    income.
  • 4. This practice owes its to the
    Chinese.

origin
_______ .
source
________
source
________
origin
_______
106
A R _ main
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Synonyms
Body Language
Sentence Translation
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
107
A R _ Listening Comprehension
Listening Comprehension
Brainstorm
Respond
108
A R _ Writing Practice
Writing Practice
A brief introduction
An example
Some useful expressions in graph writing
Homework
109
A R _ Useful Expressions 1
Useful Expressions
a hit parade
1. ???
strictly speaking
2. ????
the things that really matter to us
3. ???????????
make a speech
4. ????
for effect
5. ??????
a systematic study
6. ?????
descend from
7. ???
110
A R _ Useful Expressions 2
come up with
drift west
pass on to us
enjoy oneself
rear/raise a child
the Normans conquered England
common people
111
A R _ Useful Expressions 3
15. ???
a printing press
16. ?????
a wealth of new thinking
17. ??????
the European Renaissance
18. ??
be out of control
put into practice
19. ????
20. ????????
a respecter of the liberties of each
individual
112
A R _ Useful Expressions 4
21. ????
strike out new path
nourish the principles of
22. ??????
23. ??
the rights of man
24. ????
an intellectual elite
113
A R _ Brainstorm
standard Chinese
Han nationality
mother tongue
Brainstorm

overseas Chinese
Chinese Language
dialect
Directions Work in groups and brainstorm as many
words as possible that are related to the topic
Chinese Language.
United Nation
working language
114
A R _ Respond 1
Respond
Directions Listen to the passage and answer the
following questions.
1. What does the Chinese language usually refer
to?
It refers to the standard language and its
dialect.
2. What percentage of the Han nationality
accounts for the total population?
93.3.
115
A R _ Respond 2
3. Why do we say the Chinese language is very
important in the world?
Because it is one of the five working languages
in the United Nations.
4. How many overseas Chinese and persons of
Chinese decent in Southeast Asia speak Chinese
language?
Its more than 10 million.
5. According to this passage, what was the
worlds population when the passage was written?
About 5 billion.
116
A R _ Respond 3
6. How long has the Chinese language been spoken?
More than 6,000 years.
117
A R _ Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue 1
Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue
The Chinese language usually refers to the
standard language and its dialects used by the
Han nationality which makes up 93.3 of the total
population. Most of the minority nationalities in
China have their own languages. Both numerically
(??????) and in the extent of its distribution,
Chinese is the most important language in China
and also one of the five official working
languages of the United Nations. It is also one
of the richest and highly developed languages in
the world. Chinese is also spoken by many
overseas Chinese it is the common language of
more than 10 million overseas
118
A R _ Chinese Language Our Mother Tongue 2
Chinese and persons of Chinese descent in
Southeast Asia alone. At present, more than one
billion people, approximately 1/5 of the worlds
population, speak Chinese as their mother
tongue. A written form of the language was
developed as early as 6,000 years ago. From the
point of view of its origin, it belongs to the
Sino-Tibetan languages family (????,?????????????)
.
119
A R _ Synonyms 1
Synonyms
Directions Choose a suitable word from the given
pairs to complete the following sentences and try
to figure out the difference in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear,
royal, kingly and sovereign, come very close in
meaning but are not interchangeable in some
contexts.
1. want/wish
a) I you both a very pleasant journey.
wish
____
120
A R _ Synonyms 2
b) Ann, I am sorry. I I had never said
that to you.
wish
____
c) My parents me to give you their best
regards.
want
____
wish/want
d) We do not to waste our money
on such worthless things.
__________
2. skin/hide
skin
a) This is the best lotion Ive ever known for
care.
____
b) Im sorry I called you a pig. My
is thick enough it didnt bother me.
hide/skin
_________
hide
c) This pair of boots is made of buffalo
They are very durable.
____ .
121
A R _ Synonyms 3
skin
d) I dont need a knife I can peel the
off with my fingers.
____
3. raise/rear
rear/raise
a) The male bird helps the female to
the young.
_________
b) You cannot corn here. The climate is
not right for it.
raise
____
rear/raise
c) The couple agreed that to the
children properly they need two incomes.
_________
d) He worked hard to himself from
poverty.
raise
____
122
A R _ Synonyms 4
4. royal/kingly/sovereign
royal
a) The British family has been the focus
of media attention in recent weeks.
_____
kingly/royal
b) The young mans bearing
(??) has won him many admirers.
__________
c) When did India gain its independence and
become a state?
sovereign
_________
d) With his health restored, he is now ready to
resume his duties.
royal/kingly
__________
123
A R _ Body Language 1
Body Language
Directions In this part, you can see four
pictures and each picture shows the different
meaning of body language both in China and U.S.
At the same time, you can also see the different
phrases or expressions showing the meaning of the
different pictures. Youre required to match the
picture with the phrases by drawing the phrases
into the proper places.
124
A R _ Body Language 2
considered impolite making people embarrassed,
self-conscious applauding oneself improper,
immodest curiosity, sometimes surprise calling
for silence thank you mutual positive
feelings giving comfort, consolation or
encouragement also showing affection disapproval,
hissing (?????) patting the head of children to
show affection patting the head of a teenager or
adult causing displeasure
A B C D E F G H
125
A R _ Body Language 3
No.1
No.2
No.3
No.4


Meaning in China
Meaning in U. S.
B
D
( )
No.1 No.2
No.3 No.4
No.1 No.2
No.3 No.4
G
( )
( )
( )
E
F
( )
A
( )
( )
( )
C
H
126
A R _ Body Language 4
127
A R _ Body Language 5
128
A R _ Body Language 6
129
A R _ Body Language 7
130
A R _ Sentence Translation 1
Sentence Translation
1. That happy tolerance, that willingness to
accept words from anywhere, explains the richness
of English and why it has become, to a very real
extent, the first truly global language.
?????????,????????????????,???????????????,???????
???????????????????
131
A R _ Sentence Translation 2
2. A systematic study revealed that many modern
languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written
down.
???????,????????????????,?????????,????????
3. The English language would not have been what
it is if the English had not been for centuries
great respecters of each individual and if
everybody had not been free to strike out new
paths for himself.
?????????????????????,????????????????????,???????
??????
132
A R _ Sentence Translation 3
4. English may become one tool that opens windows
to the world, unlocks doors to opportunities, and
expands our minds to new ideas.
????????????????????????????????????
5. ???????????????????????????
Yet there is something direct to the heart that
speaks to us from the earliest words in our
language.
133
A R _ Sentence Translation 4
6. ??????????????????
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page.
7. ?2010?,??????????????????????????????
By 2010, the number of people who speak English
as a second or foreign language will exceed the
number of native speakers.
8. ?????????,???????????
The world is in transition, and the English
language will take new forms.
134
A R _ Writing Practice 1
Graph Writing
Cause and effect essays are concerned with why
things happen (causes) and what happens as a
result (effects). Cause and effect is a common
method of organizing and discussing ideas. The
following tips can help you draft this type of
essay
135
A R _ Writing Practice 2
A brief introduction
Graph writing, in fact, is a way to transfer
information into written language from a graph
or chart. Here the word graph refers to Graphs,
Charts, and Tables. Graphs and charts are
pictures which show numbers or figures, and
tables are just rows and columns of
information. Usually, graph writing consists of
three parts Introduction, Body and Conclusion.
Introduction should describe the purpose of
report and say what overall trends you see. Body
should describe the most important trends, while
all information is summarized
1. 2. 3.
136
A R _ Writing Practice 3
to avoid unnecessary details. Conclusion should
sum up the global trends shown on the figure and
compare them if possible. In order to have a
better composition, the writer should be familiar
with some special expressions in graph writing.
(Details can be seen in Some common connects
below)
4.
137
A R _ An example 1
An example
Directions Write a composition entitled Leading
Causes of Road Accidents in China. The
composition should be based on the following
graph.
Percentage of Accidents
Bicycles
Pedestrians
Others
Motor Vehicles
138
A R _ An example 2
Your composition should be in three paragraphs
1. introduce the causes 2. report the
information given in the graph 3. conclude the
composition by giving some suggestions.
139
A R _ Leading Causes of Road 1
Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China
With the development of the cities, the road
accident is becoming a more and more serious
problem in China. The information represented in
the graph, which depicts the leading causes of
road accidents in China, indicates that most
accidents are caused by motor vehicles, bicycles,
and pedestrians. In the graph we can clearly see
that motor vehicles are responsible for most of
the road accidents, namely about 50 of them.
Bicycles account for 35 of the accidents and
pedestrians caused nearly 10. These results
indicate that motor vehicles can thus be regarded
as the enemy of the
140
A R _ Leading Causes of Road 2
whole society, especially when the peoples life
is taken into consideration.
Since we know that motor vehicles are the leading
cause of road accidents in China, we should take
some measures to prevent them from happening.
First, we should make a law to punish any
violators of traffic regulations. Then, cyclists
should use hand signals to warn other road users
of their intentions. Last but not least, the
department concerned should educate ordinary
people to walk on a zebra crossing or overpass
when they cross a street. All in all, its time
for us to attach great importance to this problem.
141
A R _ some useful 1
Some useful expressions in graph writing
1. The picture shows. 2. This table shows the
differences between. 3. The diagram
represents 4. The chart above indicates 5. The
information represented in the graph
indicates 6. As can be seen from the chart, 7.
As is shown in the bar graph, there were 8. From
the diagram it can be seen clearly that 9. From
these figures one can easily see that
142
A R _ some useful 5
10. According to the graph given above, we can
see that 11. This is an illustration of/a
typical example of 12. There was a great/slight
increase/rise. 13. There has been a
sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop 14. Take the above
chart as an example,
143
A R _ Homework1
Homework
Directions Write a composition entitled Us
Spending Patterns, 1966-1996 based on the
following pie charts.
144
A R _ Homework2
The pie charts show changes in American spending
patterns between 1966 and 1996. Food and cars
made up the two biggest items of expenditure in
both years. Together they comprised over half of
household spending. Food accounted for 44 of
spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds
to 14 in 1996. However, the outlay on cars
doubled, rising from 23 in 1966 to 45 in 1996.
Other areas changed significantly. Spending on
eating out doubled, climbing from 7 to 14. The
proportion of salary spent on computers increased
dramatically, up
145
A R _ Homework 3
from 1 in 1996 to 10 in 1996. However, as
computer expenditure rose, the percentage of
outlay on books plunged from 6 to 1. 
Some areas remained relatively unchanged.
Americans spent approximately the same amount of
salary on petrol and furniture in both years.
In conclusion, increased amounts spent on cars,
computers, and eating out were made up for by
drops in expenditure on food and books.
146
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 1
Talk about the Pictures
147
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 2
148
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 3
149
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 4
150
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 5
151
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 6
152
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 7
153
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 8
154
A R _ Talk about the Pictures 9
155
A R _ Spot Dictation 1
Proverbs and Quotations
1. Speech is silver, silence is gold.
????,?????
2. Speech is the index/picture of the mind.
?????
3. Speech shows what a man is.
????????
156
A R _ Spot Dictation 2
4. A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle
of life. Karl
Marx, German revolutionary
???????????? ????? K.???
5. Grammar must be learned through language, and
not language through grammar.
Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
??????????,???????????
????? J.G. ???
157
A R _ Spot Dictation 3
6. Speech is a mirror of soul as a man speaks,
so is he.
Ephraem Syrus, American writer
???????????????,?????????????
???? E. ???
158
S R _ main
Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Tasks
159
S R _ Culture Notes
Culture Notes
From English to Panglish
160
S R _ Comprehension Tasks
Comprehension Tasks
Task One Table Completion
Task Two Questions and Answers
161
S R _ From English to Panglish 1
From English to Panglish
Directions You are required to read the words
while listening to the following passage and then
have a dialogue about the pros and cons of
Internet.
We know that English is the prevailing world
language, and that Chinglish should be avoided.
However, a new global tongue, called Panglish,
is expected to overtake traditional English in
the coming decades. The language of Shakespeare
and Dickens is evolving into a new, simplified
form of English that will
162
S R _ From English to Panglish 2
be spoken by billions of people around the world.
The changes are being driven by people who speak
English as a second language, New Scientist
magazine reports.
According to the report, Panglish will be similar
to the versions of English used by non-native
speakers. Linguists say Panglish will lose some
of the English sounds which non-native speakers
find difficult to pronounce. For instance, the
th sounds in this and thin might be
replaced by z or s, respectively. The short
l sound in hotel might be replaced with the
longer l of lady.
163
S R _ From English to Panglish 3
Consonants at the end of words may be dropped. So
friend may be pronounced as frien and send
as sen. Group nouns like information and
furniture which dont have plural versions
could vanish. Therefore, it may become acceptable
in Panglish to talk about informations and
furnitures. Non-English speakers often forget
the s at the end of third person singular verbs
like he runs or she walks. In Panglish,
people may say he talk or she eat.
164
S R _ From English to Panglish 4
By 2010, around 2 billion people, or a third of
the worlds population, will speak English as a
second language. In contrast, just 350 million
people will speak it as a first language. By
2020, the number of native speakers will be down
to 300 million, the Daily Mail newspaper
predicts. Unlike French, which is protected from
corruption by the Academie Francaise, there is no
organization to guard the English language.
165
S R _ Reading _ text 1
Wondering whether all the time and effort spent
learning English is worthwhile? Here are some
good reasons why it is.
The Role of English in the 21st Century
Melvyn A. Hasman
The global spread of English over the last
40 years has been remarkable. It is
unparalleled in several ways by the increasing
number of users of the language by its depth of
penetration into societies by its range of
functions.
166
S R _ Reading _ text 2
Worldwide over 1.4 billion people live in
countries where English has official status. One
out of five of the worlds population speaks some
English. And at present one in five over one
billion people are learning English. Over 70
of the worlds scientists read English. About 85
of the worlds mail is written in English. And
90 of all information in the worlds electronic
retrieval systems is stored in English. By 2010,
the number of people who speak English as a
second or foreign language will exceed the number
of native speakers. This trend will certainly
affect the language. English is used for more
purposes than ever before.
167
S R _ Reading _ text 3
Vocabularies, grammatical forms, and ways of
speaking and writing have emerged influenced by
technological and scientific developments,
economics and management, literature and
entertainment. What began some 1,500 years
ago as a crude language, originally spoken by
little known German tribes who invaded England,
now covers the globe.
When Mexican pilots land their airplanes in
France, they and the ground controllers use
English. When German physicists want to alert the
international scientific community to new
discoveries, they first publish their findings in
English. When Japanese e
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