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Anxiety and Mood Disorders

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Anxiety and Mood Disorders Class Activity: Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale Anxiety Development Anxiety Development: Learning Theorists Anxiety Development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anxiety and Mood Disorders


1
  • Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Class Activity Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale
2
Anxiety Development
3
Anxiety Development Learning Theorists
4
Anxiety Development Psychoanalysts Theory
5
Anxiety Development Existential Theory
6
Anxiety Disorders
  • Primary disturbance is distressing, persistent
    anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce
    anxiety
  • Anxiety - diffuse, vague feelings of fear and
    apprehension
  • everyone experiences it
  • becomes a problem when it is irrational,
    uncontrollable, and disruptive

7
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • More or less constant worry about many issues
  • The worry seriously interferes with functioning
  • Physical symptoms
  • headaches
  • stomachaches
  • muscle tension
  • irritability

8
Model of Development of GAD
  • GAD has some genetic component
  • Related genetically to major depression
  • Childhood trauma also related to GAD

9
Phobias
  • Intense, irrational fear that may focus on
  • category of objects
  • event or situation
  • social setting

10
Phobias
  • It is not phobic to simply be anxious about
    something

11
Specific Phobias
  • Specific phobias - fear of specific object
  • animals (e.g., snakes)
  • substances (e.g., blood)
  • situations (e.g., heights)
  • more often in females than males

12
Some Unusual Phobias
  • Ailurophobia - fear of cats
  • Algobphobia - fear of pain
  • Anthropophobia - fear of men
  • Monophobia - fear of being alone
  • Pyrophobia - fear of fire

13
Social Phobias
  • Social phobias - fear of failing or being
    embarrassed in public
  • public speaking (stage fright)
  • fear of crowds, strangers
  • meeting new people
  • eating in public
  • Considered phobic if these fears interfere with
    normal behavior
  • Equally often in males and females

14
Development of Phobias
  • Classical conditioning model
  • e.g., dog CS, bite UCS
  • problems
  • often no memory of a traumatic experience
  • traumatic experience may not produce phobia
  • Seligmans preparedness theory

15
Overall Information
  • Top Ten
  • Top five
  • Over 700 specific fears with thousands of minor
    fears.
  • Listing click here.
  • Video of Anxiety (3)

16
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Obsessions - irrational, disturbing thoughts that
    intrude into consciousness
  • Compulsions - repetitive actions performed to
    alleviate obsessions
  • Checking and washing most common compulsions
  • Heightened neural activity in caudate nucleus

17
Panic Disorder
  • Panic attacks - helpless terror, high
    physiological arousal
  • Very frightening - sufferers live in fear of
    having them
  • Agoraphobia often develops as a result

18
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Follows traumatic event or events such as war,
    rape, or assault
  • Symptoms include
  • nightmares
  • flashbacks
  • sleeplessness
  • easily startled
  • depression
  • irritability

19
(No Transcript)
20
Mood Disorders
  • Depressive disorders
  • depression of mood
  • Bipolar disorders
  • cycling between depression and mania (extreme
    euphoria)

21
Depression
  • Symptoms include
  • sadness
  • feelings of worthlessness
  • changes in sleep
  • changes in eating
  • anhedonia
  • suicidal behavior

22
Depression
  • Major Depression
  • prolonged, very severe depression
  • lasts without remission for at least 2 weeks
  • Dysthymia
  • less severe, but long-lasting depression
  • lasts for at least 2 years
  • Can have both at the same time
  • Women diagnosed far more often than men

23
Biological Bases for Depression
  • Neurotransmitter theories
  • dopamine
  • norepinephrine
  • serotonin
  • Genetic component
  • more closely related people show similar
    histories of depression

24
Situational Bases for Depression
  • Positive correlation between stressful life
    events and onset of depression
  • Is life stress causal of depression?
  • Most depressogenic life events are losses
  • spouse or companion
  • long-term job
  • health
  • income

25
Cognitive Bases for Depression
  • A.T. Beck depressed people hold pessimistic
    views of
  • themselves
  • the world
  • the future
  • Depressed people distort their experiences in
    negative ways
  • exaggerate bad experiences
  • minimize good experiences

26
Cognitive Bases for Depression
  • Hopelessness theory
  • depression results from a pattern of thinking
  • person loses hope that life will get better
  • negative experiences are due to stable, global
    reasons
  • e.g., I didnt get the job because Im stupid
    and inept vs. I didnt get the job because the
    interview didnt go well

27
Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Cyclic severe depression and elevated mood
  • Seasonal regularity
  • Unique cluster of symptoms
  • intense hunger
  • gain weight in winter
  • sleep more than usual
  • depressed more in evening than morning

28
Bipolar Disorders
  • Cyclic disorders
  • Mood levels swing from severe depression to
    extreme euphoria (mania)
  • No regular relationship to time of year (like
    SAD)
  • Bipolar disorder is severe form
  • Cyclothymia is less severe form
  • Strong heritable component
  • Bipolar disorder often treated with lithium

29
Somatoform Disorders
  • Bodily ailments in absence of any physical
    disease
  • Examples are conversion disorder and somatization
    disorder

30
  • Psychological Influences on Physical Symptoms and
    Diseases

31
Conversion Disorder
  • Person temporarily loses some bodily function
  • blindness, deafness, paralyzed portion of body
  • glove anesthesia
  • No physical damage to cause problems

32
Conversion Disorder
  • Rare in western culture now
  • relatively common 100 years ago
  • prominent in Freuds work/clients
  • Often see examples in non-Western people exposed
    to traumatic event
  • e.g., high rate of psychological blindness in
    Cambodian women after Khmer Rouge reign of terror
    in 1970s

33
Somatization Disorder
  • Long history of dramatic complaints re different
    medical conditions
  • complaints usually vague, undifferentiated
  • e.g., heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea
  • Often difficult to determine whether complaints
    are somatization or undetectable physical disease

34
Somatization Disorder
  • Kleinmans theory
  • somatization and depression are different
    manifestations of the same problem
  • cross-cultural research
  • pattern of somatoform disorders affected by
    cultural beliefs

35
Psychological factors and medical condition
  • Traumatic Grief
  • studied peoples health before and after death of
    spouse
  • 25 months following death of a spouse
  • surviving spouses had increased incidences of
    flu, heart disease, cancer

36
Psychological factors and cardiovascular disease
  • Friedman Rosenmans studies
  • type A personality
  • competitive, aggressive, easily irritated,
    impatient, workaholic
  • have shown increased risk for heart attack
  • biggest personality risks are the irritability
    and hostility, not the hurried life-style

37
Friedman Rosenmans studies
  • Type B personality
  • opposite of type A, more relaxed
  • Have shown low risk for heart attack
  • Anxiety and depression also predictive of heart
    disease
  • Conclusion
  • prolonged, frequent negative emotions increase
    risk of heart disease
  • hard working people who enjoy what theyre doing
    not at higher risk

38
Immune function emotional distress
  • Emotional distress shuts down some bodily
    defenses against pathogens
  • makes person more vulnerable to infectious
    diseases
  • Some studies
  • temporary decrease in T-cells following
    frustrating cognitive task
  • only in people who also showed other signs of
    physiological distress to task

39
Cohen, et al. (1991)
  • Exposed group of people to cold virus
  • Quarantined for 6 days
  • Distressed develop cold more easily
  • Not due to other risk factors like
  • smoking
  • diet
  • sleep
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