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History of Britain and the USA

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History of Britain and the USA Michael Parsons, 2006-2007 Reading David McDowall, An Illustrated History of Britain. London: Longman, 1989 Bryn O'Callaghan, An ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Britain and the USA


1
History of Britain and the USA
  • Michael Parsons, 2006-2007

2
Reading
  • David McDowall, An Illustrated History of
    Britain. London Longman, 1989
  • Bryn O'Callaghan, An Illustrated History of the
    United States.London Longman, 1990
  • Several copies in main library.

3
The challenge
  • The History of Britain and the United States ...
    in twelve weeks.
  • Key issues in British and United States history.
  • Reading the books is essential. (Or any other
    good histories of the UK and the US).

4
Why History?
  • Difficult to understand the present without
    knowledge of the past
  • Historians and others write histories with one
    eye on the present and one on the past
  • History is often a narrative written to explain
    how we got where we are now.

5
Problems ...
  • History is not just facts, but an attempt to make
    sense of the past.
  • Questions, problems ...

6
Key themes in British history
  • The people(s) of Britain.
  • England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
  • Forging the nation (English nation, Britain)
  • Church and State
  • Towards a liberal democracy?
  • Constitutional monarchy?
  • Why no revolution? (??)

7
More key themes in British history
  • Britain and the wider world Britain and Europe,
    Britain and the Empire, Britain and the United
    States.
  • Great Britain and Ireland ...
  • Britain as a welfare state ...
  • A British identity/ English/Welsh/Scottish/Irish
    identity?

8
Contemporary themes in British history
  • The Disunited Kingdom of England, Wales, Scotland
    and Northern Ireland?
  • Multi-ethnic Britain
  • Britain and the world, Blair and Bush, Britain
    and Europe ...

9
Key themes in the history of the United States
  • Origins (Mayflower, Pilgrims etc)
  • Thirteen colonies
  • Independence - why?
  • Britain and France in North America
  • Expansion - the frontier/wild west
  • Manifest destiny and Monroe doctrine
  • Civil war

10
More key themes in the history of the United
States
  • Indians
  • Immigrants
  • Industrial growth - a (reluctant?) world power.
  • World War One - getting involved in Europe.
  • Wilson and Versailles. Retreat into isolation
  • Prohibition and gangsters

11
Even more key themes in the history of the United
States
  • Wall Street crash, dustbowl, hungry thirties, New
    Deal
  • World War Two
  • Playing a world role. NATO, Truman doctrine,
    Marshall aid, ...
  • Cold War, Korea
  • Civil rights, assassinations
  • Vietnam

12
The United States today
  • Nixon and Watergate
  • America in retreat
  • Reagan "America is back"
  • The Clinton years
  • 9/11 George W. Bush
  • Contemporary issues ...

13
British History 1 Britain until the Norman
invasion
  • The people(s) of Britain.
  • England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
  • Forging the nation (England ...)
  • Neolithic England, Iron Age England, Celts,
    Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans.

14
A timeline - from the beginning up to Roman
Britain
  • 5000-2500 BC Neolithic Britain
  • 2500-1600 BC Bronze Age
  • 2200 BC - 1300 BC Stonehenge
  • 1600 BC-43 AD Iron Age
  • (800 BC gt immigration of Celts)
  • 55 BC Julius Caesar
  • 43 AD Roman invasion

15
Stonehenge
16
Maiden Castle - an Iron Age hill Fort, built by
the Celts
17
Maiden Castle - a hill Fort
18
The Battersea Shield, 1st century BC)
19
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20
The Roman invasion
  • British Celts were aiding the Celts of Gaul
    against the Romans. The Romans responded by
    invading Britain. Britain also had good farmland.
  • The Romans had relatively little difficulty
    conquering the Celts - better army Celts divided
  • However Boudicca's revolt (Iceni) (aka Boadicea)
    (61 AD)

21
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22
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23
Roman Britain
  • Roman lifestyle attractive
  • "Villas"
  • Hadrian's Wall (c. 100 AD)
  • Roman Empire weakening in 4th century
  • Troops out 409. Romano-British alone.
  • Language place names (Chester etc, )
  • Roman roads

24
Invasions
  • Germanic tribes raided Britain as Roman hold
    weakened.
  • Angles, Saxons and Jutes raided, then started to
    settle. Celts pushed westwards.
  • Anglo-Saxon language - Germanic, many words,
    especially the most common.

25
Anglo-Saxon Britain
  • Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Wessex, Essex, Sussex,
    Middlesex, Mercia, East Anglia, Northumbria.
  • Political and social organisation council to
    advise king. Shires. Strip-farming.
  • Christianity and Britain. 597 St. Augustine.
    Became first Archbishop of Canterbury 601.

26
Anglo-Saxon Britain
  • Christian Church (especially Roman "branch")
    relationship with power.
  • Trade with Europe.
  • Late 8th century Viking raids. By late 9th
    century they had even started to settle.
    Anglo-Saxon king Alfred able to raise an army
    against Vikings, defeat them in battle and hold
    the West (878) Danelaw in East and North.

27
Settlements
28
Anglo-Saxon Britain
  • Alfred (the Great) had been king of the West
    Saxons.
  • Succeeded by Edward the elder, king of the Angles
    and Saxons,
  • himself succeeded by two sons, Athelstan King of
    West Saxons and Mercians, and Edmund, King of the
    English (940-6)
  • 1016 Edmund Ironside King of England.

29
Viking/Norman/Saxon Britain ...
  • King Canute (Cnut) king 1016, but with powerful
    Saxon counsellor(s)
  • Edward (the Confessor) 1042 (Norman ... with
    Saxon Godwin pulling the strings ...)
  • Built church to the West of London (Westminster)
  • Died 1066 - no son. Who was to succeed him?

30
Viking/Norman/Saxon Britain ...
  • Harold Godwinson claimed Edward had held out his
    hand on his death bed to pass the crown on to
    him.
  • Over in Normandy, William claimed Harold had
    promised not to take the throne during a visit to
    Normandy a year or two earlier ... In 1066,
    Harold had to fight a major battle ... in the
    North, against Danish forces. He won.

31
Viking/Norman/Saxon Britain ...
  • Back down south fast William ... Harold lost.

32
Bayeux tapestry - Harold swears
33
Bayeux tapestry - Harold dies
34
Bayeux tapestry - Harold dies
35
Norman Britain ...
  • William of Normandy became King William I of
    England.

36
Norman invasion and Anglo-Saxon resistance
  • 1066-1070 Normans consolidate castles
  • Many Anglo-Saxon revolts
  • North in particular revolted Norman repression.
  • William gave land to Norman nobles many
    different estates spread across the country
  • Feudal system developed

37
Norman invasion and Anglo-Saxon resistance
  • Domesday book (1086)
  • Norman French spoken in the court, Anglo-Saxon
    among the people.
  • Effect on language ...
  • William died in 1087 his son William II, known
    as Rufus because of his red hair, became King.

38
Norman England
  • Rufus killed in hunting accident (??) in 1100
  • Henry I (1100-1135)
  • Henry modernised English administration
  • He married a Scottish princess, Matilda (peace
    with Scotland for a while)
  • 1120 Henry's son died in a shipwreck.
  • Henry's daughter, Matilda designated as his heir.

39
Norman England
  • 1125 Matilda married Geoffrey Plantagenet
  • Henry died 1135, his nephew Stephen seized the
    throne.
  • Matilda invaded from Normandy civil war
  • King Stephen died Matilda's son Henry king in
    1154. His wife Eleanor of Aquitaine.
  • Henry II ruled over England, Wales, Normandy,
    Britanny, Maine, Anjou and Aquitaine. First
    Plantagenet (Angevin) king.

40
Plantagenet (Angevin) England
  • Henry II set up system of trial by jury (12 men)
  • He challenged immunity for the clergy came into
    conflict with the Archbishop of Canterbury,
    Thomas Becket
  • In a moment of temper Henry asked "Will no-one
    rid me of this turbulent priest?"

41
Plantagenet (Angevin) England
  • Four knights decided to do Henry's will and
    murdered the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas
    Becket, in the cathedral, in December 1170.
  • Also in 1170 Henry II agreed to Norman moves to
    control Ireland. Essentially only controlled area
    around Dublin, the "Pale" (see expression "beyond
    the Pale")

42
Plantagenet (Angevin) England
  • Henry also had to resist attacks against
    Northumbia from Scotland. Captured Scottish king
    and made him accept superiority of English king.
  • Henry's military activity was expensive he
    needed money.
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