From Legend to History (A.D. 449-1485) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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From Legend to History (A.D. 449-1485)


From Legend to History (A.D. 449-1485) The Conquest of Britain Two groups of Celts from Southern Europe invades Britain between 800-600 B.C. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Legend to History (A.D. 449-1485)

From Legend to History (A.D. 449-1485)
The Conquest of Britain
  • Two groups of Celts from Southern Europe invades
    Britain between 800-600 B.C.
  • The Britons settled on the island of Britain
  • The Gaels settled on what is now Ireland
  • Both were farmers and hunters organized
  • into clans.
  • Priests called druids settled disputes

Next came the Romans
  • Began invading in 55 B.C.
  • Julius Caesar made some hasty invasions
  • The true conquest took place 100 years later
  • Roman rule lasted for 300 years
  • Last Roman legions left to defend Rome in A.D. 407

The Anglo-Saxons
  • As Romans left, the Anglo-Saxons began invading
    from what is now Germany
  • They were deep sea fisherman and farmers

The Coming of Christianity
  • By the 4th century, the Romans had accepted
    Christianity and had introduced it to Britain.
  • A century later, when the Celts fled the
    Anglo-Saxons, they took their Christian faith
    with them.
  • Even after Rome fell in A.D. 476, the Celtic
    Christian church continued to thrive.

Coming of Christianity continued
  • Monks gained converts in North and established
  • St. Augustine established a monastery at
    Canterbury and began converting rulers
  • Church provided counsel to quarreling rulers,
    promoted peace, and helped unify the English

Danish Invasion
  • Comprised of the Norse of Norway and the Danes of
    Denmark (collectively known as Vikings)
  • Rising populations in these two countries led to
    them pirating and settling in the British Isles
  • They destroyed monasteries, entire villages,
    sacred relics, and manuscripts

  • In 871, Alfred the Great ascended to the Wessex
    throne. Stopped Danish encroachment.
  • Negotiated a truce where he controlled southern
    England and the Danes controlled the East and
  • Alfred preserved remnants of pre-Danish
    civilization and encouraged rebirth of learning
    and education

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  • Danes continued to push for control in England.
  • 1042, Edward the Confessor ascended to the
    throne. His death in 1066 led to the end of the
    Anglo-Saxon period of history.

The Norman Conquest
  • These were descendants of the Vikings who invaded
    the coast of France in the 9th century.
  • William, Duke of Normandy, had family ties to
    Edward the Confessor.
  • When Edward died in 1066, Saxon council of Elders
    elected Harold II to be king

  • William claimed that Edward had promised him the
  • He crossed the English Channel to assert his
    claim by force
  • At Battle of Hastings, Harold II was killed, and
    William emerged victorious
  • Over next five years he suppressed Anglo-Saxon
    nobility, and he confiscated their lands

  • He saw to it that Normans controlled the
    government and that business was conducted in
    Norman French or Latin
  • Remade England by implementing the Feudal System

The Feudal System
  • Involved the exchange of property for personal
  • Theory
  • King owned all land
  • He parceled it out to his powerful supporters
  • He gave these supporters titles-usually Baron
  • They in turn paid taxes and supplied a certain
    number of Knights should the king need them

  • Knights received smaller parcels of land for
    their services
  • These parcels were called manors
  • The peasants who worked on these manors were
    called serfs, and they were the lowest class in
    the feudal system

The Reign of the Plantagenets
  • Norman rule ended in 1154, when Henry
    Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, came to the throne
    as Henry II.
  • His concern with legal matters led him into a
    conflict with the church
  • When the archbishop of Canterbury died, Henry
    appointed his friend, Thomas Becket to the
    position. He thought Becket would go along with
    royal policy

  • Instead, Becket defied the king and appealed to
    the Pope. This angered Henry
  • In 1170, thinking they were doing the king a
    favor, four of Henrys knights murdered Becket in
    his cathedral
  • Henry quickly condemned the action and tried to
    atone for it by making a pilgrimage to Beckets

  • Since then, a pilgrimage to Beckets shrine at
    Canterbury became a common English means of
    showing religious devotion

The Magna Carta
  • The next king after Henry II was Richard I
  • Richard spent most of his reign doing overseas
    military expeditions
  • This proved to be quite costly
  • King John ended up inheriting these debts
  • John tried to pay these debts by raising taxes
  • The barons resisted these measures and forced
    King John to sign the Magna Carta

  • The Magna Carta was a document where the king
    stated he couldnt raise taxes without first
    meeting with the barons.
  • This restriction on the Kings power was the
    first step towards a constitutional government in

Lancasters, Yorks, and Tudors
  • In 1399, the House of Lancaster replaced the
    Plantagenets on the throne.
  • These kings included Henry IV, V, VI all of whom
    were central characters in Shakespearean
    historical dramas
  • Through the 15th century, York and Lancaster
    competed for the throne
  • This led to the war of the Roses (1455-1485)

  • Henry Tudor, distant cousin and supporter of
    Lancaster, led a rebellion against the unpopular
    York king-Richard III- and killed Richard in
  • Henry Tudor was crowned Henry VII and married
    Richards niece
  • This united the house of Lancaster w/ York, thus
    ending the War of the Roses

Decline of the Feudal System
  • After the Plague swept across England in 1348
    1349, massive labor shortages increased the value
    of peasant work.
  • Peasants began to get paid and experience more
  • The peasants staged a revolt that was crushed,
    but the seeds were planted for a more liberal