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English / Language Arts Review of Commonly Tested Skills

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Kristie English Last modified by: User Created Date: 6/13/2004 7:46:38 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: English / Language Arts Review of Commonly Tested Skills


1
English / Language Arts Review of Commonly Tested
Skills
  • Education Access Network (EAN)
  • Linda Coleman Kristie English
  • Website http//www.EducationAccessNetwork.org

2
What will we talk about?
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Listening
  • Inferential Thinking
  • Vocabulary
  • Grammar
  • Literature
  • Poetry
  • Functional Texts
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Nonfiction
  • Comparing Contrasting
  • Writing Process
  • Essay Writing

3
Reading Comprehension Why is it important?
  • Academic Subjects Math, Science, History, Social
    Studies, and English classes all require us to
    read well.
  • Testing PSAT, SAT I, ACT, WASL, etc.
  • Writing Reading helps writing. College
    Admissions Personal Statement Essay

4
Reading Comprehension
Main Idea
Authors Purpose
5
Main Idea What is the author saying about the
topic?
TOPIC
FREEDOM
Freedom always comes with a price.
MAIN IDEA
Freedom is a recurring theme in American
literature.
Freedom is the most precious gift of all.
2 Ws Who Subject What Action
6
Authors Purpose (Fiction) Why? Questions
?
  • Why was he/she chosen to be the main character?
  • Why does he/she act and speak this way?
  • Why here? (setting chosen)
  • Why now? (time period chosen)

Investigate!
7
Authors Purpose (Nonfiction) Questions to Ask
  • What does the author want me to know about this
    topic?
  • Why is it important that I know this?
  • What does the author want me to do with
    this knowledge?
  • Possible Purposes
  • To Inform
  • To Persuade
  • To Change Your Opinion

8
The Message
  • Fiction (implicit)
  • Does the main character change in some important
    way?
  • Does s/he learn anything important?
  • How would I explain this story to another
    person?
  • Nonfiction (explicit)
  • What has the author demonstrated or proved?
  • Often this is located at the end of the writing
    piece.

9
Important Details! Showing, not Telling
Nonfiction
  • Nonfiction Details SUPPORT the main idea
  • Fiction Details ILLUSTRATE or bring to LIFE the
    main idea
  • Unimportant Details May be interesting, but
    dont provide examples or offer proof.
  • Add Interest and Color to the Story

Fiction
10
Summarizing
  • Identify the main idea.
  • Include details that support the main idea.
  • Use your own words.
  • Keep it short and to the point.

Writing Summaries Tips to Remember
11
Listening
  • Active Listening helps you take notes in class.
  • Why is it so difficult to listen actively?
  • Visual Reliance (T.V., video games, etc.)
  • Continuous Attention Span Required
  • Society is used to multi-tasking, switching from
    one idea to the next, quickly and frequently
  • Big Picture is lost in the Details

12
When is Listening Critical?
  • Communicating with Friends
  • Listening Tips
  • Listen for SEQUENCE
  • Cant reread for clarification
  • Order of Events, Mental Outline
  • Note Actual Chronology (time), not Order of
    Narration (as told)
  • Listen for DETAILS
  • Important details may not always be interesting
    to you.
  • Taking Notes in Class

13
Thought Focus Questions
  • What am I listening to?
  • Lecture? Joke? Directions?
  • Why am I listening to it?
  • Collect facts? Follow an argument?
  • Follow a character through a storys plot?
  • What am I supposed to do with it?

Hmmm
14
Inferential Thinking
  • Definition Educated guesses or assumptions
    based on evidence Reading between the lines of
    text
  • Types of Inferences
  • General Inference (figure out whats left unsaid
    or undone)
  • Prediction (what will happen next)
  • Conclusion (figure out larger meaning of what
    weve read)
  • Cause and Effect (why certain events happen)

15
General Inferences (4 Types)
  • 1) Tone
  • Clue Its feeling or mood. Use descriptions of
    sights, sounds, smells, and other
    sense images.
  • 2) Point of View
  • Clue Voice of story. Personal point of view
    (I) is called first person.
  • 3) What is NOT Said
  • Clue What does the character want to say, but
    does not say?
  • 4) What is NOT Done
  • Clue What does the character want to do, but
    does not do?

16
Predicting
  • Fictional Story Clues Know the character!
    How do they typically act?
  • Nonfiction Passage Clues Facts and arguments.
    Imagine the effect of some condition,
    action, or trend.
  • Often used in persuasive writing, editorial
    columns

17
Conclusion
  • What message can be drawn from the storys
    events?
  • If Fictional What lesson or moral was
    learned?
  • If Essay or Article What is the final argument
    or position on the issue?

18
Cause and Effect
19
VOCABULARY
Dont dread it. Use it to your advantage!
VOCABULARY
20
Vocabulary
  • Word Parts (prefix, suffix, root)
  • Context (positive, negative, angry, happy, etc.)
  • Multiple Meanings of Words (Which one is
    appropriate for this situation?)

21
Derivations / The Words History Dictionary
Tender (1st meaning)
  • tender 1  Pronunciation () adj. tenderer,
    tenderest
  • 1)
  • a) Easily crushed or bruised fragile a tender
    petal.
  • b) Easily chewed or cut tender beef.
  • 2) Young and vulnerable of tender age.
  • 3) Frail delicate.
  • 4) Sensitive to frost or severe cold not hardy
    tender green shoots.
  • 5)
  • a) Easily hurt sensitive tender skin.
  • b) Painful sore a tender tooth.
  • 6)
  • a) Considerate and protective solicitous a
    tender mother his tender concern.
  • b) Characterized by or expressing gentle
    emotions loving a tender glance a
    tender ballad.
  • c) Given to sympathy or sentimentality soft a
    tender heart.
  • 7) Nautical. Likely to heel easily under sail
    crank.

22
Dictionary Tender (2nd meaning)
  • tender 2   pronunciation ()
  • 1) A formal offer, as
  • a) Law. An offer of money or service in payment
    of an obligation.
  • b) A written offer to contract goods or services
    at a specified cost or rate a bid.
  • 2) Something, especially money, offered in
    payment.
  • tr.v. tendered, tendering, tenders
  • To offer formally tender a letter of
    resignation. See Synonyms at offer.
  • From French tendre, to offer, from Old French,
    from Latin tendere, to hold forth, extend. See
    ten- in Indo-European Roots.

23
Dictionary Tender (3rd meaning)
  • tender 3  Pronunciation ( ) n.
  • 1) One who tends something a lathe tender.
  • 2) Nautical. A vessel attendant on other
    vessels, especially one that ferries supplies
    between ship and shore.
  • 3) A railroad car attached to the rear of a
    locomotive and designed to carry fuel and water.

24
Grammar Writing Mechanics
  • Parts of Speech
  • Subject Verb Agreement
  • Fragments and Run-Ons
  • Capitalization and Punctuation

25
Literary Texts Types of Stories
  • Folktales (types)
  • Myths
  • Answer How and Why ?s
  • Legends
  • Exaggerated stories about, real, historical
    figures
  • Fairy Tales
  • Heroic adventures
  • Fables
  • Teach moral lessons
  • Fiction (several genres or categories)
  • Historical Fiction
  • Biographical Fiction
  • Science Fiction
  • Mystery
  • Romance
  • Tragedy
  • Comedy
  • Satire

26
Literary Devices
  • Setting Tone
  • Voice
  • Symbolism
  • Other Devices
  • Foreshadowing
  • Flashbacks

27
Authors Purpose Forms of Literature
  • Short Story
  • Evoke emotional response. Snapshot, slice of
    life.
  • Novel
  • Create rich, detailed characters and complex,
    fictional world.
  • Drama
  • Rich, expressive dialogue.

28
How Storys Work The Basic Structure
CLIMAX
COMPLICATIONS
RESOLUTION
SUSPENSE (RISING ACTION)
THEME
EXPOSITION
29
Poetic Texts
  • What makes Poetry different from Prose
    (non-poetry)?
  • Written in verse, sets the rhythm (similar to
    song lyrics)
  • May be written in
  • Classical Metered Verse
  • Blank Verse
  • Free Verse

30
Poetry Devices
  • Metaphor
  • Simile
  • Metonymy
  • Onomatopoeia
  • Personification
  • Hyperbole
  • Alliteration
  • Think About
  • Why doesnt the poet use more direct language?
  • Poetry communicates a series of sensory
    associations or feelings, not so much facts and
    dates.

31
Structure Poetry
  • In poetry, the STRUCTURE is as essential as the
    texts meaning
  • Poets consider meanings of words and sounds and
    rhythms.
  • Types of Poetry / Styles
  • Sonnets
  • Odes
  • Villanelles
  • Haiku
  • Epic Poems
  • Lyric Poems
  • Limericks

32
Functional Texts
  • Advertisements
  • Outlines (table of contents, indexes)
  • Instructions
  • Maps
  • Charts Graphs
  • Glossaries
  • Recipes
  • Phone Books
  • Application Forms

Provide efficient facts, info, or
instructions. Tend to use bullet points,
subheadings, and graphics
Types
33
Graphic Organizers
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Sequence Charts
  • Webs

34
Venn Diagram Compare Contrast
35
Sequence Charts Cause Effect
36
Webs Brainstorming
37
Nonfiction
  • Categories / Types of Nonfiction
  • Informational
  • Biographical Autobiographical
  • Editorial
  • Oral (speeches)

38
Basic Writing
  • 1) Know Your Audience
  • 2) Find Your Rhythm
  • 3) Support Your
  • Arguments
  • 4) Maintain Your Focus
  • Address Your Audience
  • What Do They Already Know?
  • Make Writing Flow (Transitions)
  • Enough Support, and Too Much
  • Arrange Details by
  • - Importance
  • - Time
  • - Location

39
Essay Writing Essay Topic Categories help
determine the papers organization, info to
include, and how to effectively use that info.
  • Definition
  • Description
  • Narration
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Process
  • Classification
  • Cause
  • Effect
  • Persuasion
  • Provide an explanation
  • Illustrate a scene or idea
  • Tell a story
  • Find similarities or differences
  • Explain how task is completed
  • Place items into categories
  • Link events to their causes or explain effects of
    event
  • Argue position or point of view
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