Summary country scoping study CCA in Cambodia (2009) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Summary country scoping study CCA in Cambodia (2009)


Summary country scoping study CCA in Cambodia (2009) Muanpong Juntopas) Sam Chanthy Stockholm Environment Institute Asia Center – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summary country scoping study CCA in Cambodia (2009)

Summary country scoping study CCA in Cambodia
  • Muanpong Juntopas)
  • Sam Chanthy
  • Stockholm Environment Institute
  • Asia Center

Concerned locations
  • Tonle Sap Floodplain and Mekong (Delta) prone
    to flood and drought
  • North-eastern Cambodia in terms of lowest
    adaptive capacity
  • Coastal zone vulnerability to sea level rise

Key Vulnerable Sectors
  • Agriculture
  • Water resources
  • Natural disaster
  • flood/draught

  • Agriculture is the main economic sector
    generating 37 for national GDP ( 63 crop and
    37 of fisheries, forestry and livestock)
  • Gives Employment/livelihood 60 rural
    population derives their livelihoods from this
    agriculture sector (only 7 is irrigated land)
  • Rice is the primary crop covering about 90 of
    the cropped land which 80 of cultivators is

Water Resources
  • Important base for agriculture- both rice and
  • Not enough irrigating infrastructures
  • Though there are irrigations, people still cannot
    access to them due to geography, facilities and

Natural Disasters
  • Prone to flood and drought
  • Mainly affect rice cultivation and fishery
  • Insufficient climate proof infrastructures

Response overall
  • Most CCA work in the water, agriculture, and
    disaster risk management sectors vis-à-vis
    projects born out of NAPA
  • challenges for Cambodia is Water Resources
  • how it addresses water scarcity that jeopardizes
    sources of safe drinking water and agriculture
  • conversely how it copes with excessive water

Response 2
  • activity around NAPA focus on increasing water
    management to increase agricultural productivity,
    understanding countrys vulnerability to the CC
  • disaster risk management, and to a lesser
    degree, the protection of coastal area

  • NAPA activities related to climate change
    adaptation through the
  • improvement of rainwater harvesting facilities at
    the village level
  • System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to reduce
    vulnerability to changing rainfall amounts and
  • modifications to the designs of reservoirs and
    irrigation channels

  • 3 projects on coastal protection ( Mangrove
    Restoration) to stabilize coastal shorelines to
    reduce sea water intrusion, and to protect
    coastal areas from storm damage.
  • underscore the shift in NAPA initiatives to a
    more robust ecosystem-based approach

Water Resources
  • As Cambodias agriculture sector is prone to both
    drought and floods, some ongoing adaptation
  • training of adaptation experts in agricultural
    extension teams
  • rainwater harvesting techniques
  • Conduct pilot projects in local communities
  • measures to decrease soil erosion
  • changed design of reservoirs and irrigation
    channels to prevent risks from increased peak
    flows and

Natural Disasters
  • small bridges to facilitate evacuations
  • culverts to help floodwaters recede faster
  • dams that facilitate evacuation, but also allow
    the impounding of water to irrigate a second
  • villages disaster preparedness build capacity
    of communities, reduced dependency on external

  • Climate change adaptation activity in Cambodia is
    coordinated through four (4) central bodies
  • the National Committee for Disaster Management
  • Climate Change Department
  • National Authority for the Clean Development
  • National Climate Change Committee.
  • These bodies work with a) Ministries of Water
    Resources and Meteorology b) Environment b)
    Ministry of Health c) Planning d) the Ministry
    of Agricultural, Forestry, and Fisheries.

National Climate Change Committees
organizational relationships
National Climate Change Committees
organizational relationships
CCA actors /support -NGOs
  • Support Farmer to Farmer Extension groups,
    innovation in farming systems, crop research, and
    in disaster preparedness and risk management
  • NGOS work at the field /National level ( i.e
  • technical research with local people
  • Support forums networks geared to climate
    change adaptation
  • build capacities in government ministries in
    areas of risk reduction planning and disaster
    response, e.g. climate modeling, forecasting, and
    vulnerability assessments.

Some initiatives
  • Oxfam America is raising public awareness on CCA
    climate change ( w/ government bodies i.e. Dept
    Meteorology, CCCO) 2010
  • public awareness campaign production of visual
    communication materials (photos) to record the
    impact of climate change
  • Network Share best practices with members
    National Climate Change Network convene forum
    for capacity building and awareness campaigning
  • awareness building initiatives for relevant
    government officials and awareness campaign which
    will also include a perception study on climate

Planned adaptation
  • Mostly by NGO
  • - better crop seeds, digging wells, and
    training on agricultural techniques ( by external
  • pump wells provided by Santi Sena, rice seed by
  • water pumps provided by Oxfam, Cambodia Red
    Crosss water storage ponds and irrigation canals

Needs for small-scale and subsistence farmers
and fishers
  • knowledge and mechanisms are required to
    strengthen small scale producers adaptive
    capacities - field based adaptation and
    innovation in agriculture
  • Access to usable scientific information on
    climate and weather patterns at the local level
  • Hence, there are still significant grey areas in
    how livelihood security of small-scale fishers
    and farmers may be threatened by climate change
    other social and environmental stressors
  • strong need for enhanced knowledge bases for
    decision-making support.
  • (1) improved monitoring
  • (2) improved groundwater mapping, and
    compilation of existing (but scattered) knowledge
    about groundwater availability and quality
  • (3) improved availability and accessibility of
    data for decision making processes
  • (4) a supporting management capacity at the
    province and commune level, and at the irrigation
    scheme level.

Need for support1
  • Funding Support to the GCCA programme/projects
    identified in NAPA 'Integrating Climate Change
    Adaptation into National Strategic Development
  • focuses on capacity for institutional
    coordination ministries and local planning
    (Decentralization process in Cambodia)

Need for support 2
  • capacity for flood and drought warnings -
    identified in the NAPA as a problem area.
  • Raising awareness on climate change local
    planners, development ministries ( sectors) ,
    schools. Mitigation VS adaptation
  • Mainstreaming CCA in local development planning
  • Scenario based planning /climate scenarios /Risk
  • Producing trainers/ training package CC/ CCA
  • Executive briefing
  • Managers/ officers
  • Field practitioners/ local planners

Needs for support 3
  • need quality climate data to enable the
    generation of improved climate change scenarios
    and projections ( CCD)
  • climate data management, forecasting and
    automated weather stations (Danida, 2008).

Needs 4
  • Currently there are limited platforms and
    networks in Cambodia dedicated to climate change
    adaptation for development workers
  • Those present are seemingly for the experts, and
    not for those that play an everyday role in
    rural development outside of Phnom Penh

Need 5 Structure and mechanism
  • Need for Structures to house and support the
    generation of CCA knowledge
  • Also to coordinate / facilitate capacity
    development at the national commune level ( to
    help mainstream CCA to development programs/
  • to ensure that all institutions involved in
    climate change adaptation initiatives have
    adequate skills and capacities to fulfill their

In summary
  • literature review Interview, Cambodias
    understanding of CCA is still young yes experts
    are emerging, but on a country scale, even those
    tasked to research adaptation needs and implement
    adaptation initiatives have many question that
    need answering and clarity.
  • Knowledge remains in the hands of those
    generating ithighlights the newness of the
    subject matter nationally