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20th Century Short Stories with MOVEMENTS (ISMS)


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Title: 20th Century Short Stories with MOVEMENTS (ISMS)

20th Century Short Stories with MOVEMENTS (ISMS)
  • We will examine popular short stories through the
    lens of the artistic movement that influenced
    each writer.

  • The early 20th century pulled influences from
    previous artistic movements (so we will examine
    movements from the 18th century onward) in
    addition to focus on 20th century artistic
  • Your task will be to learn the basic definition
    of each artistic movement with a writer from our
    unit as well as a popular artist. Dates are

Short Stories in the Unit with author and date
  • The Metamorphisms by Franz Kafka (Handout)
  • -written in 1916
  • The Wall by Jean Paul Sarte (Handout)
  • -written in 1939
  • The Devil and Tom Walker by Washington Irving
  • - written in 1824
  • Bliss by Katherine Mansfield (Handout)
  • -written in 1920
  • The Jilting of Granny Weatherall by Katherine Ann
    Porter (Textbook)
  • -written in 1930
  • A Rose for Emily (Textbook)
  • -written in 1930
  • Trapped in A Comic Book by Jules Feiffer
  • -written in 1986
  • Use the dates to help you decide which literary
    unit the author found as an influence.

How to critique art remember DAIJ Focus on
  • It stands for Description, Analysis,
    Interpretation, Judgment or Dem Apples Is

How to critique art remember DAIJ Focus on
  • To start give the title, artist, medium, etc.
  • Next, describe the colors that you see. What
    does the art look like? Are the colors bright or
    subdued? What is it made of? What objects and
    textures do you see in it?
  • What is the entrance point. (Ill explain).
  • Remember This is all factual, there is NO
    OPINION involved in description.
  • Now you try.

Okay, give me a D.
How to critique art remember DAIJ Focus on
  • Next, tell how all of the answers form the
    Description stage are related to one another.
    i.e. how the above facts are organized and
    compliment one another or create harmony or
    distress. This step can be the most confusing
    because it is very similar to the first step and
    can easily overlap. A good suggestion is to
    think about some of the principles of art
    movement, variety, proportion, emphasis, balance,
    and contrast.

How to critique art remember DAIJ Focus on
  • Interpretation. Basically, how does the painting
    make you feel? What does it make you think of?
    Dont say the artwork sucks. Not yet. (That
    comes in the next step.) What do you think the
    artist is trying to communicate to you as a
    viewer? Just because this step is more open-ended
    than the previous steps, and there are not any
    right or wrong answers, I still think it is the
    most important (and fun) step.

How to critique art remember DAIJ Focus on
  • Judgment. Okay, so whether or not in the
    previous step you interpreted the paintings as
    reminding you of regurgitated lunchroom tater
    tots, you NOW say whether it is a success or a
    failure in your opinion. Also, do you feel it is
    original or unoriginal? Would you hang it on your
    wall at home? Here is the place for all the gut
    feelings you had when you first looked at the

  • Gothicism
  • Modernism
  • Post-Modernism and Existentialism and Surrealism
  • Expressionism
  • Impressionism and Post-Impressionism
  • Pop Art

Gothicism Definition
  • Time Period Late 18th century early 19th
    century (parallel to Romantic movement)
  • Gothic Fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic
    horror) is a genre of literature that combines
    elements of both horror and romance. As a genre,
    it is generally believed to have been invented by
    the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1794
    novel The Castle of Orantho.

(No Transcript)
Modern Day Gothicism
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFdL496Oc3VQ

History of the Gothic Movement
  • The word Gothic, is very old and was used from
    the Renaissance on to signify the art of the
    Middle Ages. It was named after the German tribe
    of the Goths who once had invaded Italy and
    broken up the Roman Empire to revive the Classic
    age. The term Gothic had a negative connotation
    because the Italians blamed the Goths for
    breaking up the empire. The art style of this
    period they called Gothic, by which they meant

Gothic Literature/ Writers
  • A literary genre that began in England in the
    late 1700s. The word Goth came from the
    architecture where it describes castles and
    cathedrals as they served for the mysterious
    settings of early Gothic fiction.
  • Writers Percy Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron,
    Edgar Allan Poe, Mary Shelley.

Elements of Gothic Style(Study this carefully.
We will do an entire unit on Gothicism later in
the semester).
  • Bleak or remote settings
  • Macabre or dismal settings
  • Characters in psychological or physical torment
  • Supernatural or otherworldly elements
  • Strong language full of dangerous meanings

Gothic Architecture
Gothic Art
More Art
  • American Gothic by Grant Wood was created in
    the 20th century. However, it depicts a house
    from 1881 that is described as Gothic revival.

A Definition of Modernism
  • Time Period late 19th century mid-20th century
  • Definition Modernism describes both a set of
    cultural tendencies and an array of associated
    cultural movements arising from wide-scale and
    far reaching changes in Western society in the
    19th and early 20th century. BIG CHANGE WWI.
    The term encompasses the literature, religious
    faith, social organization and daily life were
    becoming outdated in the new economic, social and
    political conditions of an emerging, fully
    industrialized world.
  • Modernism rejected the lingering certainty of
    Enlightenment thinking, and also that of a
    benignly, intervening, all-powerful Creator.
    CONTROVERSIAL-influenced by Charles Darwins
    ideas on evolution.

Famous Artists and Authors
  • Artists Manet, Hans Hoffman
  • Authors Baudelaire, Flaubert

An example of art from the Modernist movement
  • Rope Swinger by Hans Hoffman mid 20th century.
    This is also considered abstract expressionism.

A definition of Post-Modernism
  • Time period mid-late 20th century (specific
  • Postmodernism-literally means after Modernism
    movement. This movement carries Modernist styles
    or practices to the extreme!
  • Largely influenced by Western European
    Disillusionment induced by WWII. It refers to
    an artistic state lacking a clear central
    hierarchy or organizing principle and embodying
    extreme complexity, contradiction, ambiguity,
    diversity or interconnectivity.

Famous Existential Authors
  • Existentialism emerges from a movement in
    twentieth-century literature and philosophy Kafka
    and Sarte.

Famous Post-Modern Authurs
  • Arthurs William Burroughs, and Kurt Vonnegut.
  • NOTE Postmodernist writiers often point to
    earlier novels and short story collections as
    inspiration for their experiments with narrative
    and structure.
  • Artists Tristan Tzara (dadaism specifically).
    Rene Magritte and Salvador Dali (surrealism

Definition of Existentialism
  • Given to 19th and 20th century philosophers who
    share a belief that philosophic thinking begins
    with the human subject-not merely the thinking
    subject, but the acting, thinking, feeling,
    living human individual. In existentialism, the
    individuals starting point is characterized by
    what has been called the existential attitude
    or sense of disorientation of confusion in the
    face of an apparently meaningless or absurd

Surrealism defined as an offshoot of
  • Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in
    the 1920s and is best known for the visual
    artworks and writings of the group members.
  • Surrealist works feature the element of surprise,
    unexpected juxtapositions (a paring of two unlike
    things, i.e. pox, politics, and beans). However,
    many Surrealist artists and writers regard their
    work as an expression of the philosophical
    movement first and foremost with their works
    being an artifact. In the 1920s, the movement
    developed from the Dada movement, and spread
    around the globe affecting the visual arts,
    literature, film and music of many countries and
    languages, as well as political thought and
    practice and social theory.

Famous Surrealist authors and artists
  • Authors Marx Ernst, Franz Kafka, Shirley Jackson
  • Artists Joan Miro, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali,
    Rene Magritte

Surrealist Artwork- Rene Magritte
  • Cest n est pas une pipe or this is not a
    pipe AND IT ISNT. ?

Surrealist Artwork-Salvador Dali The Persistence
of Memory
Surrealist artwork Max Ernst and The Couple in
The Expressionism Movement
  • Dates 20th century-roughly 1914-1945
  • Definition Expressionism is the tendency of an
    artist to distort reality for an emotional
    effect it is a subjective art form.
    Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms,
    including painting, literature, theater, film,
    architecture, and music. The term often implies
    emotional angst. the artist's subjective
    expression of inner experiences was emphasized
    an inner feeling was expressed through a
    distorted rendition of reality.

Expressionist Artists/Authors
  • Edward Munch, Vincent Van Gogh, Max Weber
  • Authors Nietzsche, Franz Kafka
  • Expressionism in architecture Babelsberg
    Einsteinturm in Potsdam, Germany

Expressionist Artwork The Scream by Edward
Munch and View of Toledo by El Greco influenced
the Expressionism Movement (But it was painted in
the 16th century)
Expressionist Art- On White II by Wassily
  • Please D.A.I.J. this painting.

Expressionism is the opposite of Impressionism (a
quote to prove it)
  • The term was also coined by Czech art historian
    in 1910as the opposite of Impressionism. An
    Expressionist wishes, above all, to express
    himself(An Expressionist rejects) immediate
    perception and builds on more complex psychic
    structuresImpressionists and mental images that
    pass through mental peoples souls as through a
    filter which rids them of all substantial
    accretions to produce their clear essence and are
    assimilated and condensed in more general forms,
    into types, which he transcribes through simple
    short-handed formulae and symbols. Gordon, 1987)

Impressionism Defined
  • Dates 1860s-mid 20th century
  • Impressionism was a 19th century art movement
    that began as a loose association of Paris-based
    artists exhibiting their art publicly in the
    1860s. The name of the movement is derived from
    the title of the Claude Monet work,
    impressionist Sunrise (this is a test question)
  • Characteristics of impressionists paintings
    include visual brush strokes, open composition,
    emphasis on light and its changing qualities
    (often exentuating the effects of the passing of
    time) ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of
    movement as a crucial element of human perception
    and experience and unusual visual angles.

Impressionistic Authors and Artists
  • Authors James Joyce
  • Artists Claude Monet, Winslow Homer,
    Pierre-Auguste Renior, Edgar Degas

Der Star des Ballets by Edgar Degas
Gustave Caillebotte-La Place de lEurope, temps
la pluie (a place in Europe, when it rains, I
Pop Art
  • Pop Art was a visual art movement that emerged in
    the 1950s in Britain and the United States. The
    origin of the term Pop Art is unknown but is
    often credited to British art critic Lawrence
    Alloway in an essay titled "The Arts and the Mass
    Media", although he uses the words "popular mass
    culture" instead of "pop art". Alloway was one of
    the leading critics to defend Pop Art as a
    legitimate art form.

(No Transcript)
Pop Art Part Deux
  • It was one of the biggest art movements of the
    twentieth century and is characterized by themes
    and techniques drawn from popular mass culture,
    such as television, movies, advertising and comic
    books. Pop art is widely interpreted as either a
    reversal or reaction to Abstract Expressionism or
    an expansion upon it.

Pop Art Continued
  • Pop Art aimed to employ images of popular culture
    as opposed to elitist culture in art, often
    emphasizing kitsch and thus targeted a broad
    audience. It was easy to understand, easy to
    recognize because it was iconic and accessible to
    the mass public. Pop art is sometimes considered
    to be very academic and unconventional, but it
    was always easy to interpret.

Pop Artists Crash, Jim Dine, Keith Haring, Roy
Lichtenstein , Andy Warhol  and Tom Wesselmann
  • You must know which movements influenced your
    story and your author.
  • You must remember which movements influenced
    other movements.
  • You must know one author and one artist from each
    movement for the ISMS exam.
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