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The Middle Ages


Title: MIDDLE AGES Author: install Last modified by: Matthew Fox Created Date: 10/25/2009 7:19:01 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages
The beginningEarly Middle Ages
  • Decline of Roman Empire
  • Rise of Northern Europe
  • New forms of government
  • Heavy Romanization (religion, language, laws,
    architecture, government)
  • Latin- medium aevum means middle age and is
    source of English word medieval

Early Middle Ages
  • Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this
    as a time when the forces of darkness
    (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light

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You scratch my back Ill scratch yours.
  • Church was granted favors by Roman Emperors /
    Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in
    courts, positions in courts) and in return the
    Church would endorse kings to help secure their
  • Kings looked to Church to supply educated
    administrators to help run kingdoms and in return
    kings would enforce laws that prohibited other

Effects of Invasions of Western Europe
  • The invasions from the western half of the Roman
    empire caused a series of changes that altered
    the economy, govt, and culture.
  • A) Disruption of trade merchants were attacked
    on land and sea. Businesses failed, loss of
    trade destroyed Europes cities that were
    economic centers. Money became scarce.

Effects of Invasions of Western Europe
  • B) Downfall of cities As Roman empire fell,
    cities were abandoned as centers of
  • C) Population shifts With no trade centers or
    government, nobles retreated to rural areas.
    Cities fell with no strong leadership. Other
    people left for countryside, where they grew
    their own food. The population of western Europe
    became mostly rural.

Decline of Learning
  • A) Germanic invaders were illiterate. Most of
    the people of lived in rural areas were also
    illiterate. Only ones who could read were
    priests and other church officials.
  • B) Germanic tribes, had rich oral traditions of
    songs and legends, but NO WRITTEN LANGUAGE

Loss of Common Language
  1. As the different types of people mixed, Latin
    changed. Still official language, was no longer
    understood. New dialects developed as new words
    and phrases became part of everyday speech.

Concept of Govt Changes
  1. Family ties and personal loyalty over citizenship
    to a public state.
  2. Lived in small communities and governed by
    unwritten rules and traditions.
  3. Loyalty to chief over king they did not know.

Monasteries, Convents, Manuscripts
  1. To adapt to rural conditions, monasteries were
    built. Monks lived there, giving up their
    private possessions and devoting their lives to
    God. Women called nuns did the same in Convents.
  2. Benedict(monk) wrote a book describing strict
    practical rules for monasteries.
  3. These were also learning communities. Monks were
    very active in education with schools, libraries
    and writing works. They wrote manuscripts to
    help tell their history.

Monasticism and Saints
  • Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions
    and devote themselves to a religious life
  • Established between 400 -700 communities called
    monasteries which became centres of education,
    literacy and learning
  • Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of
    St. Benedict
  • Saints- one who performs miracles that are
    interpreted as evidence of a special relationship
    with God
  • St. Augustine- wrote Confessions which
    discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and
    the role of free will which shaped monastic
    tradition and the influence of Church

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Monastery of the Cross
Saint George Monastery
Papal power expands under Gregory I
  1. 590 becomes Pope and broadens the authority of
    the popes office in other areas mainly in
  2. Popes palace now center of Roman Govt. Church
    funds used to raise armies, repair roads and help
  3. Much of western Europe was under his
    responsibility. This idea of churchly kingdom
    ruled by a pope will be central theme throughout
    the middle ages.

An empire evolves
  • After the fall of Rome, the land was divided and
    ruled by different kingdoms. The largest and
    strongest was the Franks.

Clovis rules the Franks
  • Franks held power in Gaul. Led by Clovis. His
    wife had always urged him to convert to
  • In one battle, he called upon God to help him the
    fight. He does and afterwards him and his him
    are baptized.
  • Church in Rome welcomes Clovis and his efforts
    to unite the Franks into one kingdom. This
    relationship begins a partnership between two
    powerful forces.

Germans adopt Christianity
  1. With the help of the Franks, the Church had
    converted many Germanic peoples. Missionaries
    help spread and convert Germanic and Celtic
  2. In the southern Europe, the fear of attacks from
    Muslims also led to many becoming Christians.

Charles Martel
  • He was the mayor of the palace and was the most
    powerful person in Frankish kingdom.
  • He extended their reign, defeated Muslim raiders
    in Spain.
  • After his death, his son was anointed king by the
    grace of God, beginning the Carolingian Dynasty.

  • Age of Charlemagne

What are the Middle Ages?
  • The time after the Roman Empire declined
  • Medieval Europe was fragmented after the Germanic
    Tribes took over

Germanic Customs
  • Germanic invaders could not read or write so
    learning declined
  • Germanic tribes did have a rich oral tradition of
    songs and legends but NO WRITTEN language
  • No common language since Latin began to change
    from region to region

Invasions of Western Europe
  • As a result Europe experienced
  • 1. Disruption of trade
  • 2. Downfall of cities
  • 3. Population shifts
  • 4. Decline of learning
  • 5. Loss of common language

Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
  • Concept of government changes
  • Family ties and personal loyalty
  • Made it impossible to establish governments to
    rule over large areas
  • Germanic chiefs led bands of warriors
  • In peacetime they lived in their lords hall and
    he gave them food, weapons, and treasure
  • In battle, warriors fought to the death at their
    lords side

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  • Clovis rules the Franks
  • Brought Christianity to the region
  • By 511, Clovis had united the Franks into one

  • Germanic tribes adopted Christianity
  • Monasteries communities of nuns and monks who
    were servants of God
  • They were Europes best educated
  • They opened schools

  • Maintained libraries
  • Copied important books this preserved
    Greco-Roman cultural achievements

Monastery of the Cross
Saint George Monastery
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Gregory the Great
  • Missionaries carried Christianity and the Latin
    alphabet to Germanic tribes
  • Gregory the Great Pope who expanded the popes
    power to be involved in politics.
  • He used church revenues (money) to
  • Raise armies
  • Repair Roads
  • Help the Poor

The Carolingian Dynasty
  • Charles Martel Expanded Frankish power and
    became more powerful than the king
  • His son Pepin the Short was anointed by the Pope
    as king By the grace of God
  • Pepin the Short died in 768 and left a strong
    Frankish kingdom to his two sons.
  • Charlemagne (Charles the Great) became king.
  • This began what is known as the reign of the
    Carolingian Dynasty time of Frankish rulers

Charles the Great
  • He was 6ft 4inches taller than many in Europe
  • AKA Charlemagne
  • Becomes king of the Francs
  • Quickly controlled the entire kingdom of the
  • Spread Christianity and reunited western Europe
    for the first time since the Roman Empire

Age of Charlemagne
  • He regularly visited every part of his kingdom
  • Limited the power of the nobles
  • Encouraged learning which revived Roman Culture
  • The Pope crowned him Emperor of the Holy Roman
  • After he died his united kingdom fell apart

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Charlemagnes Heirs
  • Louis the Pious was crowned as emperor a year
    before his death.
  • Louis was a devoutly religious man but an
    ineffective ruler.
  • Left three sons who signed the Treaty of Verdun
    dividing the empire into three kingdoms.
  • The kings lost power and central authority broke
  • Led to feudalism

  • From 800 to 1000 the Magyar warriors terrorized
    Germany and Italy
  • From the north, the Vikings attacked
  • Vikings attacked with quick speed.
  • They beached their ships, attacked, then shoved
    out to sea again
  • They were also traders and explorers (Leif
  • Impressive warships

Invaders attack Western Europe
  • From about 800 to 1000 invasions destroyed the
    Carolingian Empire.
  • Muslim invaders from the south seized Sicily and
    raided Italy.
  • From the north, came the fearsome Vikings.
  • Vikings
  • Germanic people.
  • Worshipped warlike gods
  • Carried out their raids with terrifying speed.
  • They were also traders, farmers, and explorers.
  • They ventured far beyond western Europe
  • Leif Ericson reached North America around 1000,
    almost 500 years before Columbus.
  • Vikings gradually accepted Christianity.
  • They stopped raiding monasteries.

  • Magyars (from north)
  • Muslims (from south)
  • The invasions caused
  • 1. Widespread disorder
  • 2. Suffering.
  • Most western Europeans lived in constant danger.
  • Kings could not effectively defend their lands
    from invasions.

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The Middle Ages
  • Feudalism

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Feudalism Rises
  • A system of landholding and governing
  • It was based on an exchange of protection for
    other services

Feudalism in Europe
  • Political system in which nobles are granted the
    use of lands that legally belong to their king,
    in exchange for their loyalty, military service,
    and protection of the people who live on the land.

Feudal System
  • Lords give
  • knights/vassals
  • land (fief) in
  • exchange for
  • the knights
  • promise
  • to defend the
  • lord and his
  • land

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Feudal Society
  • Rigid (strict) class structure

Fief Land given to a Vassal from a Lord
Vassal The person receiving the fief
Serf Peasants who work the land
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  • The manor is the lords estate
  • The manor system is an economic arrangement that
    is self-sufficient

  • Lord provides housing, strips of farmland, and
    protection from bandits
  • In return, serfs tend the lands, cared for his
    animals, and maintained the estate/manor

Life on the Manor
  • Rarely traveled more than 25 miles from the manor
  • Generally 15-30 families lived in the village on
    a manor
  • Everything needed such as food, clothes, fuel,
    lumber and leather goods were produced on the
  • Only outside purchases were salt, iron and
    unusual objects

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Social Structure of Feudalism
Explain the mutual obligations of the feudal system.
Explain why the feudal system often resulted in complicated alliances.
Describe feudal social classes.
Social Structure of Feudalism
Explain the mutual obligations of the feudal system. In exchange for military and other services a lord (landowner) granted land to a vassal.
Explain why the feudal system often resulted in complicated alliances. The same noble might be a vassal to several different lords.
Describe feudal social classes. There were three groups those who fought, those who prayed, and those who worked. Social class was usually inherited.
Economic Structure of Feudalsim
Explain the mutual obligations between lord and serfs under the manor system.
Explain why the serfs rarely had to leave their manor.
Explain why the serfs accepted their economic hardships.
Economic Structure of Feudalsim
Explain the mutual obligations between lord and serfs under the manor system. In exchange for housing, land, and protection, serfs had to perform tasks to maintain the estate and to pay several different kinds of taxes.
Explain why the serfs rarely had to leave their manor. The manor was practically self-sufficient, producing almost everything needed for daily life.
Explain why the serfs accepted their economic hardships. Acceptance was part of Church teachings they believed that God decided peoples social position.