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The Last of the Great Nomadic Challenges 600-1450

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... to Russia during the 8th and 9th centuries looting and destroying communities and churches and monasteries. ... the indirect beginnings of the rise of Western ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Last of the Great Nomadic Challenges 600-1450


1
The Last of the Great Nomadic Challenges 600-1450
  • Expanding Communities

2
Demographic and Environmental Changes
  • Nomadic Migrations
  • Vikings
  • Turks
  • Aztecs
  • Mongols
  • Arabs
  • Predict the impact of these movements.

3
Demographic and Environmental Changes
  • Migration of Agricultural Peoples
  • Bantu migrations
  • Europeans to Eastern and Central Europe
  • Consequences of Disease
  • For ex. Black Plague 1348
  • Growth and Role of Cities
  • Urbanization (Ghuang Zhou, Canton,
    Changan,Cairo, Cordova, Samarkand, Baghdad,
    Damascus, Venice, Constantinople, Tenochtitlan,
    Timbuktu, etc.)
  • How much of this demonstrates continuity?

4
Compare the Aztecs to
  • Group 1-Arabs
  • Group 2-Turks
  • Group 3- Vikings
  • Group 4- Bantus
  • Group 5- Mongola
  • Aztecs were nomadic and settled around Lake
    Texcoco, established a militaristic empire based
    on tribute, became expert engineers constructing
    chinampas (floating gardens) demanding tribute
    from their peripheral states and creating a
    flourishishing marketplace in Tenochtitlan. Their
    religious polytheistic components could be felt
    in everything from their monumental architecture,
    calendars and human sacrifice to appease the
    Gods. Theiir military is how they established and
    maintained their empire while creating gender
    paralellism where spearate spheres of work were
    establiehd fore men and women.

5
Arabs
  • Early post-classical movements along the Arabian
    Peninsula. Bedouin merchants facilitated spread
    of Islam invaded and eventually settled in Middle
    East, Northern Africa and Southern Europe.
    Although the notion of Caliphate would be sacked
    by Mongols in 1258, Islam held areas together
    culturally, and mixed with native customs and
    religions. Despite political conflict over
    succession (Sunni-Shiite) Dar Al Islam would
    unite much of AfroEurasia

6
Vikings
  • These sea-faring marauders swept into many parts
    of Europe from Normandy to Mediterranean areas,
    to Russia during the 8th and 9th centuries
    looting and destroying communities and churches
    and monasteries. Some settled and intermarrying
    with groups like Normans and Rus (Russia). Served
    in Black sea trade with Byzantium but are mostly
    known for providing the threat to Western
    European armies developed under the auspices of
    Feudalism

7
Turks
  • Originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the
    Middle east dating various time in this era. The
    Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzanitne Empire
    sparking another Great migration to the Middle
    Eats-crusader. Indirectly responsible for
    Europes interest and involvement in
    long-distance trade. Also served as mercenaries
    and militia in both Tang and Abbasid armies. By
    the end of this era, the Ottoman Turks were on
    the rise capturing Constantinople (thanks to the
    Mongols) by 1453. Turks (Afghan) even invaded
    India forming the Delhi Sultanate and introduced
    Islam into India with such force that the
    consequences reverberated throughout the rest of
    Indian history.

8
Mongols
  • Identified by many historians as the end on the
    nomadic era. Clearly the good was their ability
    to establish a Khanate system where safe trade,
    religious tolerance and a relatively peaceful
    existence (Pax Mongolica) facilitated an East
    meets west connecting Middle East, South Asia,
    East Asia and Europe. For even a brief time
    Central Asian Empire the Timurud Dynasty will
    become a major Islamic center of trade and
    scholarship in the great city of Samarkand ruled
    by Tamerlane. They would also contribute to the
    spread of the black death, the end of the Song
    Dynasty and the Abbasid Caliphate and the
    indirect beginnings of the rise of Western
    European age of exploration.

9
Aztecs
  • Migrated to the Central Valley of Mexico around
    Lake Texcoco according to legend ( area where
    Eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its
    talons). Developed an agricultural method of
    tying reeds to floating gardens known as
    chinampas. Established a thriving militaristic
    state using tribute from surrounding areas to
    develop thriving city Tenochtitlan.
    Decentralized in nature, the development of
    causeways and bridges and roads would facilitate
    trade within the city dubbed the Venice of the
    Americas by the Spanish conquistadores who
    encountered it for the first time. Many war
    captives were either enslaved or sacrificed.

10
Inter-regional networks and Contacts
  • Mediterranean trade circuit
  • Silk Routes
  • Indian Ocean
  • Trans-Saharan Trade
  • Trans-American circuits
  • Religious connections missionaries,
    inter-religious contact
  • Impact of Mongols

11
Mediterranean Circuits
12
Silk Routes
13
Indian Ocean
14
Trans-Saharan Trade
15
Trans-American trade
16
Religious Connections
17
COMP Thesis
The Mongols and Aztecs both established large
empire based on military prowess and might, both
collected tribute from peripheral states in
return for protection and autonomy, however, the
Mongol Empire was established into a massive
interregional trading network while the Aztecs
regional connections were much smaller extending
into only the Central Valley of Mexico
18
Impact of Mongols Blessing or a Curse
19
China Internal and External Expansion
  • Tang Dynasty
  • Technological innovations compass, paper,
    gunpowder etc.
  • Influence on Japan
  • Footbinding, Neo-Confucianism
  • Song Dynasty
  • All the makings of an industrial revolution
  • Early Ming
  • Zheng He voyages, eunochs and nomadic threats

20
Islamic World Dar al-Islam
  • Expanding cultural, economic and political
    influence
  • Al-Andalus/ Islamic Spain
  • North and West Africa
  • Indian Ocean East Africa, India, SE Asia
  • Technological accomplishments astrolabe,
    algebra, philosophy, cartography

21
Al-Andalus
22
Islamic World Sample Comparisons
  • Compare Islam to Christianity
  • Compare Islamic contacts with Europe and with
    Africa
  • Crusades- points of view compared
  • Compare gender changes
  • Compare support/ patronage of arts and sciences

23
Europe
  • Break in eastern and Western Christendom
    political significance?
  • Religious schisms compared
  • Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism
  • Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism
  • Sunni/ Shiite in Islam

24
Europe
  • Restructuring of institutions
  • Role of religion Papacy, Crusades, architecture
    and education
  • Development of feudalism
  • Comparison of feudalism in Europe and Japan
  • Increasing importance of monarchy over church

25
Amer-Indian World
  • Migrations over the Bering Strait at least 10,000
    years ago.
  • Northern America Cahokia
  • Southwest Hohokam
  • Meso-America Olmecs, Maya, Toltec (Aztec)
  • South America Nazca, Moche, (Inca)

26
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • West African kingdoms Ghana, Mali, Songhay
  • East African city states Axum, Kilwa, Mombasa
  • Southern Africa Great Zimbabwe
  • Contacts with Islamic World, Indian Ocean world,
    and within Africa
  • Role of Trade, Education and Religion

27
Questions we will focus on
  • Was there a world economic network in this time
    period?
  • How did gender roles change?
  • How can material culture and urban history help
    us to understand early societies?

28
Conclusions
  • Examples of continuity?
  • Examples of change?
  • Think about new and old players.
  • Similar patterns and trends demographic, social
    and cultural, technological.
  • New avenues of intersection.
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