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Progressive American Society

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Title: America s Early 19th Century Society and Culture Author: M-DCPS Last modified by: AAA Created Date: 10/5/2010 2:36:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Progressive American Society


1
Progressive American Society
  • Unit VIIB
  • AP United States History

2
Fundamental Question
  • To what extent was the progressive movement
    progressive in American society?

3
Development of Progressives Problems and Solutions
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Commercialism and Consumerism
  • Laissez-faire Policies
  • Radicalism
  • Upper-Class
  • Lower-Class
  • Social Darwinism
  • Middle Class
  • Social Gospel
  • Populism
  • Education and Academics
  • Journalism and Literature

4
Muckrakers
  • Purpose
  • Exposure of urban problems and political and
    economic corruption and exploitation
  • Targets
  • monopolies/trusts/corporations (steel, oil,
    railroads)
  • political bosses and machines
  • poor living and working conditions (tenements)
  • Mainstream
  • Mass media (newspapers, magazines)
  • Journalists and Authors
  • Upton Sinclairs The Jungle
  • Meat-packing industry
  • Jacob Riiss How the Other Half Lives
  • Tenement living
  • Ida Tarbells Mother of Trusts
  • Rockefeller and Standard Oil Trust

5
Progressive Social Reform Temperance to
Prohibition
  • Anti-Saloon League (1895)
  • the Church in action against the saloon
  • Pressure politics
  • Grassroots campaigning and mass media
  • Coalition included Democrats, Republicans,
    suffragists, KKK, industrialists, IWW, NAACP,
    Progressives, Populists, Protestants, American
    Catholics
  • Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
  • Prohibited the manufacturing, sale, and
    transportation of alcohol
  • Volstead Act

6
Progressive Labor Reforms Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (1905)
  • The Wobblies
  • Mother Jones, Big Bill Haywood
  • one big union
  • Platform
  • an injury to one is an injury to all
  • Industrial unionism
  • All inclusive membership
  • Direct Action
  • Strikes, boycotts, propaganda, violence

Labor Union Membership, 1897-1920
7
Progressive Labor Reforms Labor Strikes
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
  • 147,000 miners strike
  • President Theodore Roosevelt mediates
  • Victory for union and membership soared
  • Lawrence Textile Strike (1912)
  • IWW organized 23,000 worker strike
  • Media used to appeal to public sympathies
  • Ludlow Massacre (1914)
  • Led to political, corporate, and public support
    for labor unions and worker demands

8
Progressive Labor Reforms Labor - Working Hours
  • Lochner v. New York (1905)
  • 10-hour day/60-hour week unconstitutional in
    violation of right to contract per 14th Amendment
  • Muller v. Oregon (1908)
  • Limited working hours for women based on health
    and maternity
  • Ford Motor Company
  • Doubled pay to 5/day and 8-hour work days
  • Profits and productivity increased

9
Progressive Labor Reforms Labor - Working
Conditions
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911)
  • 146 garment workers killed
  • Led to massive push for worker/factory safety
    regulations and accident insurance

10
Progressive Labor Reforms Child Labor
  • By 1900, 1.7 million 5-10 year olds (1 in 6) were
    wage earners
  • Keating-Owen Act (1916)
  • Prohibited interstate shipment of goods
    manufactured or processed by child labor
  • Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)
  • Federal regulation of child labor not within
    Congresss interstate commerce power
  • Only states could establish child labor laws
    through intrastate commerce

11
Progressive Social Reforms Blacks in America
  • Supreme Court
  • Civil Rights Cases of 1883
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional
  • Segregation may be practiced by private
    individuals and businesses
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Established separate but equal
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Established by white Redeemer state governments
  • Legitimized by Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Segregated public facilities and accommodations
  • Disenfranchisement
  • Grandfather clauses
  • Poll taxes
  • Literacy tests

12
Progressive Social Reforms Black Americans -
Booker T. Washington
  • Advocated economic progress to secure civil
    rights
  • Tuskegee Institute (1881-1915)
  • Vocational institution, primarily teaching
  • Atlanta Compromise (1895)
  • In the South, blacks would submit to white
    political rule in exchange for education and due
    process of law
  • Up From Slavery (1901)
  • Depicted his struggle and rise from slavery to
    educational leader
  • White House Dinner
  • First black person ever invited to a White House
    dinner with Theodore Roosevelt
  • White reaction and backlash
  • "I am just as much opposed to Booker T.
    Washington as a voter as I am to the
    cocoanut-headed, chocolate-colored typical little
    coon who blacks my shoes every morning. Neither
    is fit to perform the supreme function of
    citizenship." Mississippi Governor James K.
    Vardaman

13
Progressive Social Reform Black Americans -
W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Advocated social and political equality to secure
    economic progress
  • Niagara Movement (1905)
  • Opposed disenfranchisement and segregation
  • Dismissed accommodation and pursued more direct
    action and struggle
  • National Association for the Advancement for
    Colored People (NAACP) (1909)
  • A group of blacks and whites, males and females
    established an effective civil rights organization

14
Progressive Social Reforms Blacks in America
  • Lynchings
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Muckraking articles and pamphlets to expose
    lynchings against blacks in the South
  • We of the South have never recognized the right
    of the negro to govern white men, and we never
    will. We have never believed him to be the equal
    of the white man, and we will not submit to his
    gratifying his lust on our wives and daughters
    without lynching him. - Senator Ben Tillman
    (D-SC), 1900
  • Great Migration (1910-1930)
  • Escape segregation, disenfranchisement, lynchings
  • 1.6 million Southern blacks migrated to Northeast
    and Midwest cities

15
The Great Migration
16
Progressive Social Reforms Women Suffrage
  • Supporters
  • Young women
  • Inspiration from female social reformers and 19th
    century leaders
  • Political Progress
  • Frontier life promoted equality among women
  • Western states fuel suffrage movement
  • Jeanette Ranking (R-MT) first woman elected to
    U.S. House (1916)
  • Organizations
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA) (1900)
  • Carrie Chapman Catt
  • National Womens Party (1916)
  • Stronger Tactics
  • Alice Paul and Lucy Burns
  • Picketing, parades, hunger strikes
  • Silent Sentinels

17
Suffrage by States
18
Nineteenth Amendment
  • The right to vote cannot be denied based on
    sex/gender
  • Ratified August 18, 1920
  • 9 southern states did not ratify until 1941-1984
    after originally rejecting it
  • Legacy
  • League of Women Voters
  • Develop political efficacy among women
  • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  • Equal opportunity, pay, recognition, and benefits

19
Progressive Social Reforms Immigration
  • Gilded Age Legislation
  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • Immigration Act of 1882
  • Excluded lunatics, idiots, convicts, disabled
  • Progressive Era Legislation
  • Anarchist Exclusion Act (1903)
  • Gentlemans Agreement (1905)
  • Desegregate California schools for Japanese
    children
  • Japan prevents further emigration of unskilled
    laborers
  • Naturalization Act of 1906
  • Required English for citizenship
  • Dillingham Commission (1907-1911)
  • Southern and Eastern Europeans threatened
    American character
  • Recommended literacy requirements
  • Immigration Act of 1917
  • Extended list of undesirables (homosexuals,
    alcoholics, illiterate)
  • Asiatic Barred Zone

20
Asiatic Barred Zone
21
Migration
22
Progressive Era Culture
  • Commercialism and Consumerism
  • On advertising, firms spent 95 million in 1900
    to 500 million in 1920
  • Market research and sampling
  • Standard clothes sizes and styles
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Leisure Time
  • Causes
  • Decreased working hours
  • Higher average wages
  • Convenience and Infrastructure
  • Entertainment
  • Jazz
  • Evolution of blues and ragtime
  • Improvization
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Records
  • Dance halls
  • Movie theaters
  • Birth of a Nation (1915)
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