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Keeping Your Body Healthy - Immune System

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Keeping Your Body Healthy - Immune System - Respiratory System - Lesson 19 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Keeping Your Body Healthy - Immune System


1
Keeping Your Body Healthy- Immune System -
Respiratory System -
  • Lesson 19

2
Quick Quiz Complete each of these statements with
always, sometimes, or never.
I ____ wash my hands before meals.
When preparing fruits and vegetables, I ____ wash
them thoroughly.
I am ____ careful to use only my own eating
utensils, drinking cups, towels and grooming
items.
I ____ cover my mouth when I cough or sneeze.
If I spend time in wooded areas, I ____ wear
insect repellent.
For each of your responses, explain how your
behavior could affect your chances of getting or
spreading an infectious disease.
3
Health Stats What does the graph suggest about
asthma rates?
Describe some factors that could contribute to
the rise and fall of asthma rates.
4
Goals/Objectives
  • Identify the parts and functions of the immune
    and respiratory systems.
  • Identify behaviors to keep your immune and
    respiratory systems healthy.
  • Describe how air travels through your respiratory
    system, and how you breathe.

5
Key Terms
  • Immune system
  • Respiratory system
  • Asthma

6
The Immune System
  • The body system that removes harmful organisms
    from the blood and combats pathogens is the
    immune system.
  • Protects your body from pathogens
  • Pathogen a disease causing germ

7
The Immune Response
  • When a pathogen enters your body for the first
    time, it often causes disease.
  • White blood cells called lymphocytes carry out
    most of the immune systems functions.
  • If a pathogen that has previously attacked your
    body enters your body again your immune system
    will quickly recognize the pathogen and launch an
    immediate attack.
  • Immunity is your bodys ability to destroy
    pathogens that it has previously encountered
    before the pathogens are able to cause disease.

8
T Cells
T cells perform several functions.
  • Killer T cells destroy any body cell that has
    been infected by a pathogen.
  • Helper T cells produce chemicals that stimulate
    other T cells and B cells to fight off infection.
  • Suppressor T cells produce chemicals that turn
    off other immune system cells when an infection
    has been brought under control.

9
B Cells
  • The B lymphocytes, or B cells, produce antibodies.
  • Antibodies are proteins that attach to the
    surface of pathogens or to the toxins produced by
    pathogens.
  • This binding action keeps the pathogen or toxin
    from harming the body.
  • The memory capacity of B cells explains why you
    develop immunity to some diseases youve already
    had.

10
The Immune Response
11
The Lymphatic System
  • The lymphatic system is a network of vessels that
    collects fluid from your tissues and returns it
    to the bloodstream.
  • The fluid flowing through the lymphatic system is
    called lymph (limf).
  • The lymphatic vessels have hundreds of small
    stations, called lymph nodes.

12
The Lymphatic System
Your lymphatic system is a complex network of
vessels and nodes.
13
How to Keep Your Immune System Healthy
  • Choose foods that are high in protein and vitamin
    B.
  • Keep accurate records of all immunizations.
  • Get plenty of rest and sleep.
  • Exercise to keep bones dense and to protect bone
    marrow.

14
The Respiratory System
  • The body system that provides body cells with
    oxygen and removes carbon dioxide that cells
    produce as waste is the respiratory system.

15
The Pathway of Air
On its way to the lungs, air passes through the
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchi

16
Cilia Cilia line most of the respiratory tract.
Cilia capture mucus that contains dust and
microorganisms and sweep it toward your throat to
be swallowed.
The Respiratory System
17
Gas Exchange
  • At the end of the smallest tubes in the lungs are
    millions of tiny sacs that look like bunches of
    grapes.
  • These sacs, called alveoli are where gases are
    exchanged between the air and the blood.

18
Alveoli
Blood rich in carbon dioxide
Capillary
Blood richin oxygen
19
The Breathing Process
The breathing process is controlled by the
actions of muscles in your ribs and chest.
  • Inhalation
  • When you inhale, the diaphragm, a dome-shaped
    muscle that lies below the lungs, flattens.
  • The chest cavity enlarges, the volume of the
    lungs increases, and air flows in.
  • Exhalation
  • When you exhale, or breathe out, the diaphragm
    moves upward.
  • The rib muscles relax and the ribs drop.
  • These movements make the chest cavity smaller and
    squeeze air from the lungs.

20
InhalationThe volume of the lungs increases, and
air flows in.
21
Keeping Healthy
You can keep your respiratory system healthy by
  • avoiding tobacco smoke and air pollution
  • treating asthma if you have it
  • avoid respiratory infections
  • get regular exercise
  • maintain a healthy weight

22
Avoiding Smoking and Air Pollution
  • The most important think you can do to protect
    your respiratory system is not to smoke.
  • It is also important to avoid exposure to air
    pollutants whenever possible.
  • If you do work that generates fumes or dust wear
    a mask.
  • Work in a well-ventilated area when you paint or
    use other chemicals.
  • Before exercising outdoors on a hot, sunny day,
    check local news reports for warnings about air
    quality.

23
Living With Asthma
  • Asthma is a disorder in which respiratory
    passageways become inflamed.
  • During an asthma attack, the passageways narrow
    until air can barely pass through.
  • As a result, the person wheezes, coughs, and has
    difficulty breathing.

24
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25
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26
Other Healthful Behaviors
  • Avoid Respiratory Infections Bronchitis is an
    infection that causes the mucous membranes lining
    the bronchi to become inflamed.
  • Get Regular Exercise Exercise helps your lungs
    become more efficient at taking in oxygen and
    eliminating carbon dioxide.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight The respiratory system
    of an overweight person must work harder to
    deliver adequate oxygen than the system of a
    normal weight person.

27
How to Keep Your Respiratory System Healthy
  • Do no smoke.
  • Avoid breathing secondhand smoke.
  • Do not inhale harmful drugs.
  • Avoid breathing polluted air.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Avoid inhaling harmful chemicals.
  • Seek medical help for respiratory infections.

28
Questions
  1. What is a pathogen?
  2. What is immunity?
  3. Why do you think that some teens risk taking
    their asthma medication?
  4. Why wasnt Alexandrias asthma diagnosed right
    away?
  5. In your own words, describe what happens during
    an asthma attack. How is asthma treated?
  6. Why is it important for people with asthma to pat
    attention to weather reports?
  7. What are some things that schools can do to
    reduce the risks of asthma attacks?
  8. Describe what happed to Briana that convinced her
    she needed to get her asthma under control?
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