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Learning Biotechnology

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Learning Biotechnology Chase High School ... Heredity The transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Biotechnology


1
Learning Biotechnology
  • Chase High School

2
It All Started With
3
Bread, Cheese and Biotechnology?
  • Yeast is used to make bread rise
  • Bacteria is used to produce various kinds of
    cheeses and other dairy products.

4
Genetics and Biotechnology?
  • Genetics the biology of heredity.
  • Gregor Johann Mendel discovered the effect of
    genetics on plant characteristics w/ his
    experiments with garden peas.

5
Heredity
  • The transmission of characteristics from an
    organism to its offspring through genes in
    reproductive cells.

6
Genes
  • Components of cells that determine the individual
    characteristics of living things.
  • Genes are comprised of DNA
  • DNA determines what the cell and its successive
    cells will become.

7
Mapping
  • The matching of genes to certain traits.
  • Used by geneticists to determine which genes are
    responsible for certain traits.
  • Examples Tendency of baldness, height of plants
    at maturity, and tendency of females to have twin
    offspring.

8
Applying Biotechnology to Agriscience
9
Applications
  • DNA matching to identify parents of offspring.

10
Genetic Engineering
  • Discovered by scientists in the early 1980s and
    was a breakthrough in modifying genetic makeup.
  • Genetic Engineering is the movement of genetic
    information in the form of genes from one cell to
    another.

11
Products of Genetic Engineering
  • One of the first commercial products of genetic
    engineering was insulin, the chemical used by
    people with diabetes. E. coli was genetically
    engineered to produce insulin.

12
Products of Genetic Engineering
  • Herbicide resistant crops are a product of
    genetic engineering.
  • BST (bovine somatropin) increases milk production
    in dairy cattle and became available commercially
    as a result of genetic engineering.

13
Products of Genetic Engineering
  • Lee-minus is a bacteria that was genetically
    altered to retard frost formation on plant
    leaves.
  • Other bacteria strains are under development to
    convert solid waste from humans and livestock
    into sugar and fuel.

14
The Use of DNA in Biotechnology
  • Characteristics of DNA

15
Gene Splicing
  • Gene splicing is the process of removing and
    inserting genes into DNA.
  • Gene splicing is also known as recombinant DNA
    technology.
  • Gene splicing is used to alter a given
    characteristic in a microorganism, plant, or
    animal.

16
Gene Splicing
  • Some examples of the use of gene splicing are
  • Alter a plants susceptibility to disease.
  • Make a plant resistant to insects.
  • Alter bacteria to increase meat production in
    swine.

17
Gene Mapping
  • Gene mapping is the process of finding and
    recording the location of genes.

18
Importance of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Improve plants and animals performance through
    the manipulation of genes.
  • Alter characteristics or performance of
    microorganisms

19
Importance of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • The greatest potential for controlling disease,
    insects, weeds, and other pests is through
    genetic engineering
  • Less use of chemical pesticides and more genetic
    use of biological controls result in a better
    environment.

20
Concerns with the use of Biotechnology
  • State and federal government monitor the use of
    biotechnology.

21
Concerns with the use of Biotechnology
  • Extensive testing is done to make certain
    biotechnology products safe.
  • Testing proceeds from laboratory to the
    greenhouse
  • Final testing occurs outdoors on a small scale
    prior to produce approval.

22
Concerns with the use of Biotechnology
  • Final approval by the federal government occurs
    only after all phases of testing have been
    completed.
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