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Satellite Remote Sensing for Air Quality Analysis in Central America

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Satellite Remote Sensing for Air Quality Analysis in Central America Dr. Ana Prados UMBC/JCET Ana.I.Prados_at_nasa.gov 301-614-5494 Dr. Amy K. Huff Battelle Memorial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Satellite Remote Sensing for Air Quality Analysis in Central America


1
Satellite Remote Sensing for Air Quality Analysis
in Central America
Dr. Ana Prados UMBC/JCET Ana.I.Prados_at_nasa.gov 301
-614-5494
  • Dr. Amy K. Huff
  • Battelle Memorial Institute
  • huffa_at_battelle.org
  • 703-875-2975

Betzy Hernandez CATHALAC betzy.hernandez_at_cathalac.
org
2
Acknowledgements
  • NASA Applied Sciences Program Lawrence A.
    Friedl, Daniel E. Irwin
  • U.S. EPA Orlando Gonzales, Lourdes Morales
  • National University José Félix Rojas, Jorge
    Herrera
  • CATHALAC Emil Cherrington, Francisco Delgado,
    Africa Flores, Eric Anderson, Valerie Garrish
  • University of Panama Vasco Duke, Hipólito
    Guerra, Wilfredo Urriola
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County Ray
    Hoff, Hai Zhang, Ruben Delgado, Nikisa Jordan

3
Chapter 1 Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth
  • 900 930

4
What is Remote Sensing?
Remote sensing is a method of obtaining
information about the properties of an object
without coming into physical contact with it.
5
Why use Satellites to Study the Earth?
  • Consistent, routine, global measurements
  • Overview of information on the hemispheric,
    regional, national, and local scales the big
    picture
  • Provide information in areas where there are no
    ground-based measurements
  • Advance warning of impending environmental events
    and disasters
  • Visual appeal a picture is worth a thousand
    words

6
Satellites Provide a Global View
Satellite data are used for many applications,
including monitoring global weather, studying
climate change, and observing the environment.
7
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words!
Satellites provide consistent, routine, global
coverage of environmental events
8
Important Satellite Characteristics Spatial
Resolution
  • Spatial resolution is the smallest area on Earth
    that a satellite can observe.
  • Depends on the type of instrument
  • Low spatial resolution (e.g., 10 km) can
    see large regional features (cities, forests,
    lakes)
  • High spatial resolution (e.g., 10 m) can see
    detailed features (buildings, roads, trees)

9
  • Low spatial resolution (1 km)
  • Major regional features are visible (rivers,
    urban areas, clouds)
  • Detailed features are NOT visible!

10
  • High spatial resolution (10 m)
  • Detailed features are visible!
  • Usually high spatial resolution images are
    expensive!!

11
Important Satellite Characteristics Temporal
Resolution
  • Temporal resolution is how frequently a
    satellite observes the same area on Earth.
  • Depends primarily on the orbit of the satellite
  • High temporal resolution (e.g., 30 minutes)
    nearly continuous observations
  • Low temporal resolution (e.g., 1 day) only one
    observation per day

12
Geostationary Satellites
  • In high altitude orbit (35,800 km)
  • Orbital period of satellite matches rotational
    speed of Earth
  • Continuously observe same area on Earth
  • Very high temporal resolution (minutes hours)
  • Usually used to monitor meteorological conditions
    and severe storm development, including
    hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods

13
Geostationary Environmental Operational
Satellites (GOES)
  • U.S. geostationary weather satellites
  • Temporal resolution 30 min 3 hours
  • Spatial resolution 1 km, 4 km, and 8 km
  • 5 bands
  • Visible (0.55-0.75 mm)
  • Shortwave IR (3.80-4.00 mm)
  • Water Vapor (6.50-7.00 mm)
  • IR 1 (10.20-11.20 mm)
  • IR 2 (11.50-12.50 mm)

GOES-East
GOES-West
14
Examples of Geostationary Satellites
15
Polar-Orbiting Satellites
  • In low altitude orbit (700-800 km)
  • Orbit around North and South Poles
  • Earth rotates under satellite as it orbits, so
    each time satellite makes a pass over Earth, it
    observes a new area
  • Polar-orbiting satellites observe same area on
    Earth once per day (or less)
  • Low temporal resolution
  • Global coverage!
  • Used for a variety of applications, including air
    quality, land cover, water quality, and
    vegetation studies

16
NASAs Polar-Orbiting Satellites
17
NASA Air Quality Polar-Orbiting Satellites
  • Terra
  • Launched in 1999
  • 1030 AM local overpass
  • Aqua
  • Launched in 2002
  • 130 PM local overpass
  • Aura
  • Launched in 2004
  • 130 PM local overpass

18
The A-Train Afternoon Overpass Polar-Orbiting
Satellites
19
How Do Satellites Make Measurements?
  • Satellites do not make direct measurements of
    the Earths geophysical parameters.
  • Instead, satellites measure solar and/or
    terrestrial radiance (light) in a vertical column
    of the atmosphere.
  • Radiance data are converted into geophysical
    parameters using science-based algorithms.

20
Satellite Remote Sensing of Earth Challenges
  • Satellites are very expensive to build and
    launch.
  • No direct measurements radiance (light)
    measurements must be converted to geophysical
    parameters, such as temperature or pollutant
    concentration.
  • Tradeoffs between spatial and temporal
    resolution.
  • Advantages far outweigh the challenges!

21
Activity 1 Satellite Orbits
  • Participants should break into groups of 3-4.
  • Each participant will be given a worksheet on
    satellite orbits.
  • Participants should work with their group to
    answer the questions.
  • After the team analysis, we will come back
    together as a large group to discuss the
    questions.
  • Goal become familiar with satellite terminology
    and characteristics.
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