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The Creation of Women in Social Welfare

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Title: The Creation of Women in Social Welfare


1
(No Transcript)
2
Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1815-1902
The moment we begin to fear the opinions of
others and hesitate to tell the truth that is in
us, and from motives of policy are silent when we
should speak, the divine floods of light and life
no longer flow into our souls.
3
Background
  • Born eighth of eleven children in Johnstown, New
    York in which five of her siblings died in early
    childhood or infancy
  • Stanton's father, was a prominent attorney who
    served one term in the Congress and later became
    a judge which planted the earliest seeds which
    grew into her legal and social activism
  • Mother was distant in childhood after she fell
    into severe depression from loss of so many
    children
  • Attended Jamestown Academy and studied Latin,
    Greek, and mathematics until age 16 and went on
    to Troy Female Seminary
  • Christian background but soon feared her
    damnation and left Christianity for a view that
    ethics are the best guide for thought and
    behavior
  • Married abolitionist Henry Brewster Stanton in
    1840 and had six children

4
How It All Got Started...
  • Her fathers statement, "Oh, my daughter, I wish
    you were a boy! showed her that her own father
    valued men more than women.
  • Encounters with fugitive slaves at the home of
    her cousin Gerrit Smith
  • Sexual discrimination when young men that she
    surpassed academically went on to Union College
    but she could not because they were only
    accepting men
  • Lucretia Motts exclusion from being an
    abolitionist delegate, even after all of her hard
    work
  • Over a glass of tea and a discussion with
    friends, Stanton raised her concerns regarding
    the extreme limitations on women under Americas
    new democracy. She found it amazingly ironic that
    the American Revolution had just been fought
    seventy years prior in order to gain freedom, yet
    women were not included in this American freedom.
    Within two days of this conversation, a meeting
    had been announced for women to gather and
    discuss how changes could be made.

5
Women's Rights Convention Seneca Falls, NY
  • Outraged when the World's Anti-Slavery Convention
    in London, in 1840, denied official standing to
    women delegates. Stanton formed the first
    womens rights meeting in the U.S. in 1848.
  • 240 Supporters, including 40 men attended
  • Wrote Declaration of Sentiments
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident that
    all men and women are created equal
  • Addressed inalienable right to freedom, lack of
    voice and voting rights, leadership roles, reform
    of marital and property laws, education and
    employment discrimination, exclusion from church
    ministry, a womans life belongs to God,
    different moral standards for men and women, and
    overall suffrage of women

6
Early Work
  • Abolitionist
  • Temperance Movement
  • Womans State Temperance Society (1852-53)
  • Lobbied for Ratification of 14th and 15th
    Amendment

7
National Woman Suffrage Association
  • Founded in 1869, based in New York
  • Stanton was first President and Susan B. Anthony
    was first Vice President
  • Opposed passage of the fifteenth amendment
    without it being changed to include female
    suffrage, unlike American Woman Suffrage
    Association which supported Amendment as written
  • Focused attention on voting rights and admittance
    of working women into labor unions
  • In 1890 the NWSA merged with AWSA to form the
    National American Women Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA)
  • The organization started to try and win support
    through a state-by-state approach rather than
    nationally
  • Became the most mainstream and nationally visible
    pro-suffrage group

The best protection any woman can have . . . is
courage.
8
Accomplishments
  • Married Womans Property Act, 1848
  • Allowed women to hold property, gain custody of
    children, make contracts, keep earnings and
    inheritance, and sue in court
  • Equal guardianship of children
  • Divorce laws
  • Women could leave marriages that were abusive to
    the wife, the children, or the economic health of
    the family
  • The Womans Bible
  • Helped publish the first three volumes of the
    History of Woman Suffrage
  • Impacted passage of Womens Suffrage Amendment
  • Active in European Womens Movement
  • Founder of womens rights newsletter, The
    Revolution

9
Julia Lathrop
It is doubtful that many people strolling
through a book store or reading publishers
advertisements will recognize the name of Julia
Lathrop, yet she was on of the people who shaped
the social and political history of the United
States. Jane Addams
10
BACKGROUND ON JULIA LATHROP
  • Born in Rockford, Illinois-1858
  • Began her college education at Rockford Seminary
    for a year
  • She then transferred to Vasser College-she
    received her degree in 1880
  • After she graduated she worked as a secretary in
    her fathers law office. This is when she became
    interested in the treatment of the mentally ill,
    equal rights for women and social reform

11
JULIA LATHROP AND THE HULL HOUSE
  • In 1890 Julia joined Jane Addams and Ellen Gates
    Star at the Hull House in Chicago
  • She spent the next 22 years there
  • She led organizations to increase public
    knowledge on child welfare, social work,
    immigrant protection and the mentally ill
  • Plato Club-the large amount of members were
    elderly men who debated philosophical and
    religious matters
  • Soon Julia Lathrop became an asset to the Hull
    House Organization

12
The Hull House created by Jane Addams was made to
offer not only food and shelter but also to bring
about education to those of the lower class.
They also attempted to help immigrants adapt to
the American way of life. This settlement tried
to bring equality to the social classes by having
the well educated live among the poor, so they
begin to know them directly.
13
Illinois Board of Charities
  • In 1893--1st woman to receive a state position of
    the Illinois Board of Charities, this was
    appointed by Governor Altgeld
  • In her work with the board, Lathrop visited many
    facilities in and around Chicago, that housed
    people who were mentally ill, aged, sick, or
    disabled. She advocated that separate facilities
    should be established that would attend to these
    specific groups.

14
My picture of Miss Lathrop is characterized by
her eagerness to let youth speak for itselfand
speak with her sympathetic support close at hand.
She gave youth her friendship and faith. She
gave to youth as to all others credit for the
accomplishments she herself inspired. Mrs.
Kenneth Rich
15
The Creation of the Children's Bureau
Julia C. Lathrop, first Chief of the Children's
Bureau
16
Julia Lathrop
  • In 1912 Julia moved to Washington D.C. where she
    was appointed Chief to the Federal Childrens
    Bureau
  • The reasoning for appointing her was because she
    was an educator, State Board of Charities member,
    and Hull House insider who had read law in her
    fathers office and visited every state
    institution and almshouse in Illinois.
  • She made issues like child labor laws and
    juvenile delinquency.

17
The Childrens Bureau Today
-a nonprofit organization that receives funding
from the U.S. Department of health and services.
This is all a direct result of Julia Lathrops
hard work and dedication. -The Childrens Bureau
protects children from neglect and abuse and also
offers family services, adoption, and foster care.
18
Through the Efforts of Julia, the Sheppard-Towner
Act of 1921 was realized-a law which provided
grants for state use in the health care of
mothers and children. Lathrop resigned from the
Childrens Bureau position in 1922, and went to
live with her sister in Rockford, Illinois From
1925-1931, she participated as a member of the
Child Welfare Committee of the League of
Nations. Until her death in 1932, she fought
against the capital punishment of juveniles.
19
JANE ADDAMS
20
Biography
  • Born in Cedarville, Illinois on September 6, 1860
  • She was the youngest of eight children
  • Her mother died when she was three years old, her
    father remarrying in 1868
  • She is most well-known for founding the world
    famous social settlement Hull-House in Chicago,
    Illinois
  • She also built her reputation as one of Americas
    most prominent women through her writings and her
    international efforts for world peace
  • Died in Chicago, Illinois on May 21, 1935

21
Accomplishments
  • She graduated from the Rockford Female Seminary
    in Rockford, Illinois in 1882, as valedictorian
    of her class
  • In 1889 she and Ellen Gates Starr co-founded
    Hull-House
  • In 1899 she gave a Democracy or Militarism speech
    in front of the Chicago Liberty Meeting
  • Along with workers, she lobbied the state of
    Illinois to examine laws governing child labor,
    the factory inspection system, and the juvenile
    justice system
  • She began to form the juvenile court system,
    because she felt it was unfair to try adolescents
    as adults
  • The first juvenile court opened in 1899 in
    Chicago
  • By 1920, only three states did not have juvenile
    courts

22
Accomplishments
  • In 1905 she was appointed Chicago's Board of
    Education and chairman of School Management
    Committee
  • She was elected the first woman at the National
    Conference of Social Work in 1905
  • In 1906 she wrote Newer Ideals of Peace, which
    discussed problems with the military among
    civilians
  • She helped found Chicago School of Civics and
    Philanthropy in 1908
  • In 1909 she was the first woman president of
    National Conference of Charities and Corrections

23
Accomplishments
  • In addition to her involvement in the American
    Anti-Imperialist League and the American
    Sociology Association, she was also an
    influential member of both the American Civil
    Liberties Union and the National Association for
    the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • In 1911 she helped to establish the National
    Foundation of Settlements and Neighborhood
    Centers and became its first president
  • Her first book was released in 1910, followed by
    two every year
  • Her biggest success in writing came with the
    release of the book, Twenty Years at Hull House,
    this became her autobiography

24
Accomplishments
  • She received the first honorary degree given to a
    woman by Yale University in 1910
  • In 1910 she was the first female president of the
    National Conference of Charities and Corrections
    (NCCC) which she gave 18 papers from 1897-1933
  • In 1911 she was the first vice-president of
    National American Women suffrage Association
  • She campaigned for Theodore Roosevelt and the
    Progressive Party and seconded his nomination for
    President of the Progressive Party
  • In 1913 she was elected second to Thomas Edison
    in Independent magazine's poll for "Who Was the
    Most Useful American"

25
Accomplishments
  • She helped work for legislation to protect
    immigrants from exploitation, limit the working
    hours of women, mandate schooling for children,
    recognize labor unions, and provide for
    industrial safety
  • She produced eleven books and numerous articles,
    as well as maintaining an active speaking
    schedule nationwide and throughout the world
  • In 1915 she organized the Women's Peace Party and
    the International Congress of women
  • She was elected the first president of the
    Women's International League for Peace and
    Freedom in 1919
  • In 1931 she was the first American female and
    only social worker awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

26
HULL-HOUSE
27
Hull-House
  • Hull-House was founded in Chicago, Illinois in
    1989
  • One of the first settlement houses in the United
    States
  • Influenced by Toynbee Hall in the east end of
    London
  • Settlement houses provided welfare for a
    neighborhood's poor and a center for social reform

28
Hull-House
  • Its facilities included a night school for
    adults kindergarten classes clubs for older
    children a public kitchen an art gallery a
    coffeehouse a gymnasium a girls club a
    swimming pool a book bindery a music school a
    drama group and a library
  • By 1900 Hull-House activities had broadened to
    include the Jane Club (a cooperative residence
    for working women), the first Little Theater in
    America, a Labor Museum and a meeting place for
    trade union groups
  • At its height, Hull-House was visited each week
    by around two thousand people

29
Hull-House
  • Residents of Hull-House included Jane Addams,
    Florence Kelley, Dr. Alice Hamilton, Julia
    Lathrop, Ellen Gates Starr, Sophonisba
    Breckinridge, and Grace and Edith Abbott
  • The Hull-House residents and their supporters
    forged a powerful reform movement
  • Among the projects that they launched were the
    Immigrants' Protective League, The Juvenile
    Protective Association, the first juvenile court
    in the nation, and a Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic
    (later called the Institute for Juvenile
    Research)
  • Through their efforts, the Illinois legislature
    enacted protective legislation for women and
    children and in 1903 passed a strong child labor
    law and an accompanying compulsory education law

30
Frances Perkins What a Legacy she left
1880-1965
31
Background young girl
  • Didnt grow up in poverty-stricken home
  • Her childhood best friend lived in poverty
  • Perkins wondered why?
  • Her parents answer idleness and alcohol

32
Background young woman
  • Mount Holyoke College for Chemistry
  • history assignment required her to research
    factory conditions
  • found horrifying working conditions
  • -men, women and children working long hours for
    very little pay
  • -no safety precautions, no insurance policies

33
More influences
  • Read Jacob Riiss book, How the Other Half Lives
  • Heard Florence Kelley speak, who would later
    become her good friend and mentor
  • - her speech first opened my mind to the
    necessity for and the possibility of the work
    which became my vocation

34
Francis Perkins as a social worker
  • quits teaching to take up social work
  • -no social work education
  • social work is new profession
  • takes the field by storm

35
Francis Perkins as a Social Worker
  • Earned masters in Political Science
  • Learned as she worked. Worked a number of social
    work jobs
  • Busting in New York
  • -N.Y.C. Consumers League executive secretary
  • -investigated over a hundred bakeries, found
    appalling conditions
  • -brought findings to Board of Health and
    regulations were changed and enforced
  • -investigated factories fire safety
  • -tried to get policies changed, no one listened,
    until Triangle Shirtwaist Company burned down
  • -committees finally formed Committee on Safety
    in N.Y.C. N.Y. State Factory Investigating.
  • -Perkins advised them both
  • -laws got passed
  • -From committees and her work, they made N.Y.
    one of the top states in improving sanitation,
    safety, and work conditions

36
Administrative jobs
  • Asked by Al Smith, friend and Governor of N.Y. to
    be part of the Industrial Commission of the State
    of N.Y.
  • Uproar wanted a man appointed
  • Smith re-elected 1 term later
  • -Perkins became Commissioner of the State
    Industrial Board

37
Winning Favor
  • Roosevelt becomes Governor of N.Y.
  • Appointed also by Roosevelt as Commissioner of
    the State Industrial Board
  • Told Roosevelt, she would only take the job, if
    he supported her efforts to propose legislation
    to reduce working hours, improve workmens
    compensation, restrict child labor, abolish
    sweatshops, and establish more safety codes

38
Commissioner of the State Industrial Board
  • created committee to study and lower unemployment
  • studied ways to put people back to work
  • traveled to England to study unemployment
    insurance
  • pushed legislation protect women and children
    workers and lower unemployment

39
FDR Elected President Perkins as Madame Secretary
  • Appointed Secretary of Labor on FDRs cabinet
  • First female cabinet member this is huge!!!
  • Perkins
  • -reorganized Bureau of Labor
  • -created U.S. employment service assisted
    people looking for jobs

40
Perkins as Madame Secretary
  • Great Depression hits
  • Perkins creates countless programs for relief
    efforts
  • -CCC -FERA -NRA, and many more
  • Steel codes established good wages, hours and
    working conditions
  • Made it legal to form unions
  • Division of Labor Standards cooperated with
    States in all problems of health, safety, and
    working conditions

41
Perkins as Madame Secretary
  • Headed Committee on Economic Security (social
    security insurance)
  • -researched and created social security
    insurance for unemployment and old age
  • Congress approved Social Security Act Aug. 10,
    1935
  • -covered unemployed, blind, disabled, elderly,
    and children of single parents (ADC)
  • BIG VICTORY!!!

42
Perkins as Madame Secretary
  • Perkins worked to get 2 major bills passed
  • Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 8-hour day,
    minimum wage, no child labor under the age of 16,
    for all services and goods purchased by
    Government
  • Wages Hours Act
  • -for all companies who conduct business in more
    than one state
  • -ended employment of children under 16
  • -minimum wage .40/hour
  • -40 hour work week
  • -time and a half for over time
  • Still have these regulations today!!!

43
Perkins as Madame Secretary
  • Served 3 full terms with FDR
  • She tried to resign, but he wouldnt let her go
  • She wrote about FDR, I am bound to him by ties
    of affection, common purpose, and joint
    undertakings.
  • completely changed social welfare by changing
    policies and getting laws and regulations passed

44
Perkins Legacy
  • Perkins accomplished so much for the United
    States social welfare system
  • many of the programs she started are still around
    today
  • social welfare in the United States would not be
    the same without her influence
  • our nation would have completely different ideas
    about unemployment, child labor, minimum wage,
    ect
  • changed social welfare by changing policies and
    getting laws and regulations passed
  • role model for women
  • left a legacy of ideas that we still uphold
    today
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