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The Circulatory System:

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The Circulatory System: Blood 3 Functions of Blood 1. Transport transports CO2 & O2 Nutrients metabolic waste (urea & lactic acid) hormones enzymes plasma proteins 3 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Circulatory System:


1
The Circulatory System
  • Blood

2
3 Functions of Blood
  • 1. Transport
  • transports CO2 O2
  • Nutrients
  • metabolic waste (urea lactic acid)
  • hormones
  • enzymes
  • plasma proteins

3
3 Functions of Blood
  • 2. Regulation
  • body temperature
  • pH in body tissues
  • fluid electrolyte balance

4
3 Functions of Blood
  • 3. Protection
  • prevents excessive bleeding
  • antibodies detect foreign material
  • prevents infection (WBC)

5
Composition of Blood
  • Blood made of plasma and formed elements
  • 8 of body wgt
  • pH 7.4
  • 5x more viscous than water

6
Blood Composition Separated by Centrifugation
Hematocrit?
7
Blood Plasma
  • plasma ? nonliving fluid part straw-colored
  • 90 water plasma proteins (8)
  • Albumin shuttles molecules through blood
    buffer helps maintain plasmas osmotic pressure
  • Fibrogen helps repair damaged tissue
  • Dissolved solutes (nutrients, gases, hormones,
    wastes, ions, proteins, etc.) (2)
  • 55 of blood volume

8
Blood Plasma
9
Formed Elements in Blood
  • Formed elements ? living blood cells
  • -45 of blood
  • -platelets (thrombocytes) ? clotting
  • -red blood cells (RBC erythrocytes) ?carry
    oxygen
  • -white blood cells (WBC leukocytes)
  • ?fight infection

10
Blood cell formation
  • Hematopoiesis (aka hemopoiesis)
  • Occurs in
  • Red bone marrow stem cells
  • Vertebrate, ribs, hips, sternum, skull
  • Lymph tissue in nodes, tonsils, spleen thymus
    make small amounts

11
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12
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13
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
  • Plasma membrane anucleate
  • Hemoglobin- protein that transports oxygen/CO2
  • Erythropoiesis
  • EPO
  • Hemolysis 120 days
  • Phagocytocis

14
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15
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
16
Excessive RBC
  • polycythemia abnormal excess of erythrocytes
    that increases blood viscosity
  • Blood thickens, flows sluggishly

17
Leukocytes (WBCs)
  • Complete cells (nuclei organelles)
  • 5 Types of WBC
  • Granulocytes contain granules
  • Types neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
  • 2. Agranulocytes lack granules
  • Types lymphocytes and monocytes

18
Leukocytes (WBCs)
19
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
  • Essential for clotting occurs in plasma when
    blood vessels are ruptured or injured
  • Form plug that helps seal break when they stick
    to damaged site
  • Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
  • Thrombopoietin

20
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
21
Coagulation (blood clotting)
  • Hemostasis
  • Procoagulants (clotting factors) enhance clot
    formation
  • Anticoagulants factors that inhibit clotting
    heparin

22
Hemostasis
  • 4 phases
  • Constrict blood vessel reduce blood loss
  • Platelet plug hole attract more platelets
  • Platelet plug injury and coagulate thrombin and
    fibrogen form fibrin mesh
  • - traps blood cells, seals hole until blood
    vessel can be fully repaired
  • 3. Blood clot formation and retraction

23
Coagulation (blood clotting)
24
Blood Type
  • antigen chemical that stimulates cells to
    produce antibodies
  • antibody protein immune system produces in
    presence of nonself antigen reacts with antigen
  • antibodies made limit receiving blood from
    certain types
  • Rh factor or - Rh exposure forms antibodies
    to it

25
  • Blood Type Antigen Antibody
  • A A anti-B
  • B B anti-A
  • AB A and B neither anti-A nor
    anti-B
  • O neither Both anti-A
  • A nor B and anti-B
  • AB is universal recipient
  • O is universal donor

26
RBC Disorders
  • anemia blood has extremely low
  • oxygen-carrying capacity due to low number of
    RBCs, low hemoglobin content, or abnormal
    hemoglobin

27
Leukocyte Disorders
  • leukemia (white blood) rapid, uncontrolled
    production of clones of cancerous leukocyte
    impairs normal bone marrow function
  • Named after
  • Abnormal cell type involved (i.e. lymphocytic
    leukemia lymphocytes)
  • Speed it advances
  • acute quickly advances (blast-type cells)
  • chronic slowly advances (later cell stages)

28
Leukocyte Disorders
  • Infectious mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus
    makes excessive atypical agranulocytes
  • No cure with rest, virus runs its course and
    recovers in a few weeks
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