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The History of health care

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Title: The History of health care


1
The History of health care
  • Unit 1

2
History of Health Care
  • Introduction
  • Why is it important to understand the history
    of health care?

3
History of Health Care
  • Introduction
  • You have an infected finger and the doctor
    orders leeches to treat the infection.

4
History of Health Care
  • Introduction
  • Is this an ancient or modern treatment? Does
    it work?

5
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 4000 BC-3000 BC Primitive Times
  • Illness disease caused by spirits and demons
  • Average life span 20 years

6
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 3000 BC-300 BC Ancient Egyptians
  • Believed body was system of channels (ducts)
  • Bloodletting was used when channels were
    blocked
  • Average life span 20-30 years

7
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 1700 BC-AD 220 Ancient Chinese
  • Used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion
  • Average life span 20-30 years

8
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 1200 BC-200 BC Ancient Greeks
  • Hippocrates Father of Medicine
  • Developed organized method to observe human body
  • Recorded Signs Symptoms

9
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 1200 BC-200 BC Ancient Greeks
  • Hippocrates Father of Medicine
  • Created high standard of ethics The Hippocratic
    Oath used by physicians today.

10
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 1200 BC-200 BC Ancient Greeks
  • Aristotle Dissected animals founder of what is
    known today as anatomy
  • Avg. life span 25-35 years

11
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 753 BC-AD 410 Ancient Romans
  • First to provide medical care for injured
    soldiers
  • Physicians cared for ill people in their homes
  • Hospitals established in religious institutions

12
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 753 BC-AD 410 Ancient Romans
  • Began public health sanitation systems
  • Aqueducts to carry clean water to cities
  • Sewers to carry waste away from cities

13
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 753 BC-AD 410 Ancient Romans
  • Claudius Galen physician body is controlled by
    a balance of fluids (humors), blood, phlegm and
    bile. Imbalance in fluids lead to illness.
  • Average life span 25-35 years

14
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • AD 400- AD 800 Dark Ages
  • Prayer divine intervention used to treat
    illness disease
  • Study of medicine was prohibited
  • Average life span 20-30 years

15
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • AD 800- AD 1400 Middle Ages
  • Medical universities were created
  • Pandemic killed ¾ of the population of Europe
    Asia
  • Arab physicians required to pass exam before
    getting license to practice
  • Average life span 20-35 years

16
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • AD 1350- AD 1650 Renaissance
  • Body dissection was performed
  • Michelangelo Leonardo da Vinci drew human body
  • Printing press allowed for distribution of
    information
  • First anatomy book published

17
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • AD 1350- AD 1650 Renaissance
  • Average life span 30-40 years

18
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 16th 17th Centuries
  • Cause of diseases still not known
  • Ambrose Pare Father of modern surgery
  • William Harvey described circulation to and from
    the heart

19
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 16th 17th Centuries
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented microscope
  • Average life span 35-45 years

20
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 18th Century
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit invented first mercury
    thermometer

21
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 18th Century
  • Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals
  • Edward Jenner developed vaccination for smallpox

22
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 18th Century
  • Average life span 40-50 years

23
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • French barbers acted as surgeons by extracting
    teeth, using leeches for treatment and giving
    enemas

24
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • 1st Blood transfusion (1818)

25
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Rene Laennec invented stethoscope (1819)

26
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Elizabeth Blackwell first female physician in
    the U.S. (1849)

27
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Florence Nightingale Founder of modern
    nursing
  • Began education for nurses (1850s 1860s)

28
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Joseph Lister began use of disinfectants and
    antiseptics in surgery to prevent infection
    (1865)

29
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Louis Pasteur pasteurized milk to kill
    bacteria
  • Created rabies vaccine (1885)

30
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Dimitri Ivanofski discovered viruses (1892)

31
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays (1895)

32
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 19th Century
  • Average life span 40-60 years

33
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Most rapid growth in modern healthcare occurred
    during this time period
  • Many diseases were specifically identified,
    treated and cured

34
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Standards of care were established
  • Technology is integrated into healthcare and is
    used in every aspect of medical care today

35
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Carl Landsteiner Classified ABO blood groups
    (1901)

36
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Sigmund Freud formed the basis for psychology
    psychiatry (early 1900s)

37
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Frederick Banting Charles Best discovered
    used insulin to treat diabetes (1922)

38
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Sir Alexander Fleming discovered the
    antibiotic penicillin (1928)

39
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • George Papanicolaou developed the pap
    smear to detect cervical cancer in females

40
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Jonas Salk developed the polio vaccine using
    dead polio virus (1952)

41
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Francis Crick James Watson discovered the
    structure of DNA, our genetic blue- print (1953)

42
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Christian Barnard Performed 1st heart
    transplant (1968)

43
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • CAT Scan developed (1975)

44
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Louise Brown first test- tube baby, conceived
    in a laboratory (1978)

45
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) first
    identified as a disease (1981) HIV (1984)

46
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Ben Carson First to separate conjoined
    twins has pioneered many new procedures (1987)

47
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Sheep Cloned Dolly the sheep was cloned
    by Dr. Ian Wilmut (1997)

48
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 20th Century
  • Average life span 60-70 years

49
History of Health Care
  • I. Health Care Through Time
  • 21st Century
  • What impact will YOU have on the history of
    health care?
  • What will YOU discover?
  • What will YOU cure?
  • Average life span 100 yrs plus?

50
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Cost Containment

51
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Cost Containment controlling the rising cost
    of health care
  • - Reasons high costs
  • Technological advances
  • Aging population (Rx)
  • Lawsuits (malpractice Ins.)

52
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • B. Diagnostic Related Groups DRGs place a
    limit on the cost of health care. Example (?)
    Surgery 5,000 Limit If hospital costs are less
    than 5,000 then hospital makes , otherwise
    hospital loses

53
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • B. Diagnostic Related Groups
  • 1) Combination of Services health care
    facilities shop for services (laboratory, x-ray,
    etc.) to save .

54
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • C. Outpatient Services Patients receive care
    and are discharged home without being admitted to
    the hospital. Examples Surgical Centers,
    Physical Therapy, etc.

55
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • D. Energy Conservation Energy is a large
    expense for health care facilities.
  • - Energy Efficient Bulbs - Consolidating Work
    Areas - Recycling

56
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • E. Summary The quality of health care should
    not be lowered simply to control costs.
  • - Provider responsibility provide the best
    health care while being conscious of costs

57
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • E. Summary The quality of health care should
    not be lowered simply to control costs.
  • - Personal responsibility take preventative
    measures to avoid or limit injury, illness
    disease

58
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Home Health Care

59
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Home Health Care Created mainly as a result
    of DRGs. History shows that this is not a new
    concept.

60
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Home Health Care Services include
  • - Nursing care
  • - Physical/occupational therapies
  • - Respiratory therapy
  • - Social services
  • - Nutrition food services

61
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Geriatric Care

62
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Geriatric Care Care of the elderly. People
    are living longer.

63
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Geriatric Care Omnibus Budget
    Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Government Act
    which requires states to establish competency
    standards which nursing assistants must meet.
    (Exam)

64
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Geriatric Care Omnibus Budget
    Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Requires
    long-term health care workers to attend
    continuing education courses

65
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Geriatric Care Omnibus Budget
    Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Loss of
    license/certificate can occur if compliance is
    not maintained. Facility can also be fined and
    even shut down.

66
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Geriatric Care Types of Facilities
  • - Adult day care centers
  • - Retirement communities
  • - Assisted living care centers
  • - Long-term care centers

67
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Telemedicine

68
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Telemedicine Involves using technology to
    provide care
  • Methods
  • - Computerized (EKGs) - Remote (robotics)
  • - Video (surgery)
  • - Phone/Fax (Reports)

69
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Wellness

70
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Wellness A state of being in optimum health
    as it relates to physical, mental and social
    health. Preventative measures diet, exercise,
    rest, stress reduction, habit cessation

71
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • Alternative Complementary Methods of Health Care

72
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Alternative Medicine Involves evaluating and
    treating illness and disease in ways which may
    differ from current, modern medical treatment or
    enhance medical treatment being used.

73
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Alternative Medicine Practitioners
  • - Ayurvedic harmonizing body and mind
  • - Chinese Acupressure Acupuncture Life Energy
    (Chi)

74
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Alternative Medicine Practitioners
  • - Chiropractors energy through nerves spinal
    alignment
  • - Homeopaths body can heal itself with immune
    system

75
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. Alternative Medicine Practitioners
  • - Hypnotist trance-like state verbal
    suggestions follow
  • - Naturopaths natural therapies only fasting,
    diets, lifestyle changes

76
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • National Health Care Plan

77
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. National Health Care Plan Nationalizing
    health care is being considered as a result of
    rising health costs.

78
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. National Health Care Plan - Government
    Health Care - taxes to help pay - Health Care
    Co-op
  • - grouping of health care providers which
    provide care at lower costs

79
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. National Health Care Plan - Managed Care -
    employers provide ins. government
    helps pay for poor - State-run Health
    Care
  • - Each state develops plan

80
History of Health Care
  • II. Trends In Health Care
  • A. National Health Care Plan Goal Health Care
    For All Potential Drawbacks - Insured paying for
    uninsured - Limited choices of providers -
    Limited care

81
History of Health Care
  • End of Lecture
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