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Substance abuse in the workplace and how it

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Title: Workplace Drug Testing Subject: Signs and Symptoms Training Author: Jeff Sims Last modified by: JPSIMS Created Date: 6/13/2000 2:32:47 PM Document presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Substance abuse in the workplace and how it


1
Substance abuse in the workplace and how its
identified
Immediate Past President The Substance Abuse
Program Administrators Association
Jeff Sims, C-SAPA, C-SI
2
How did we get to this point?
  • Most aggressive actions occurred since the late
    1980s - The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986
    (directed U.S. Secretary of Labor to initiate
    efforts to address the issue) - President
    Reagans Executive Order 12564, Drug-Free Federal
    Workplace (made it a condition of employment to
    refrain from using illegal drugs) - Drug-Free
    Workplace Act of 1988 (required federal
    contractors and grantees to have drug-free
    workplaces) - Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1998
    (establish grant programs that assist small
    businesses in developing drug-free workplaces) -
    Omnibus Employee Testing Act of 1991 (required
    transportation industry employers to conduct
    alcohol and drug testing for employees in safety
    sensitive positions) It created a model for
    non-regulated employers now follow.

3
The U.S. drug and alcohol problem
  • In 2006, estimated 20.4 million Americans were
    current illicit drug users, which is a rate of 8
    among all Americans. No significant changes in
    recent years.
  • About 57 million people, or more than one-fifth
    (23.0 ) of the population age 12 and over,
    participated in binge drinking (having five or
    more drinks one the same occasion at least once
    in the past 30 days).

4
The U.S. Drug and Alcohol Problem in the Workplace
  • In 2006, of the 17.9 million current illicit drug
    users age 18 and over, 13.4 million (74.9
    percent) were employed.
  • Similarly, among 54.0 million adult binge
    drinkers, 42.9 million (79.4 percent) were
    employed.
  • Of the 20.6 million adults classified with
    substance dependence or abuse, 12.7 million (61.5
    percent) were employed full-time.

Data provided by the Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration, (2007). Results
from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health National Findings (Office of Applied
Studies, NSDUH Series H-32, DHHS Publication No.
SMA 07-4293). Rockville, MD.
5
Small Businesses Most Vulnerable
  • While about half of all U.S. workers work for a
    small and medium sized businesses (those with
    fewer than 500 employees), and nine in ten
    employed current illicit drug users.
  • Almost nine in ten workers with alcohol abuse
    dependences work for small medium employers.
  • However, smaller firms do not perform testing.

6
Drug Abusers as Employees
  • More likely to be involved in an accident and
    file a workers compensation claim
  • More likely to quit or get fired
  • More likely to steal from workplace
  • More likely to miss work
  • More likely to be in a confrontation
  • Less productive

7
The Impact on Safety
  • Substance abusers are
  • 3.6 times more likely to be involved in a
    workplace accident
  • 5 times more likely to file a workers
    compensation claim
  • As many as 50 of all workers compensation
    claims involve substance abuse

8
The Impact on Safety
  • 80 of those injured in serious
  • drug-related accidents at work
  • are not the drug abusing employees
  • but innocent co-workers
  • and others.

9
ROI
  • Return On Investment
  • How much does s/a cost per drug user?
  • 7,000 (national average)
  • How many drug users do you have?
  • 17 of workforce (national average)
  • Use their figure
  • How many employees do you have?

10
ROI
  • Do the Math!
  • 250 employees
  • multiplied by of drug users in their workplace
    (5)
  • multiplied by 7000
  • equals cost of s/a
  • compare to cost of drug testing
  • (300 tests at 45 per test average)

11
ROI
  • 250 x 5 13
  • 13 x 7,000 91,000
  • 300 (drug tests/year) x 45 (cost per test)
  • 13,500
  • 91,000
  • -13,500
  • 77,500 SAVINGS!

12
5 Key Components
  • A comprehensive drug-free workplace program
    includes
  • Policy
  • Supervisor training
  • Employee education
  • Employee assistance
  • Drug testing (Alcohol testing)

13
Who to Test?
  • Employees
  • All employees
  • Safety-sensitive employees
  • All employees under certain circumstances
  • Temps, contract workers, seasonal hires
  • Union workers

14
When to Test?
  • Traditionally
  • pre-employment
  • post-accident
  • reasonable suspicion
  • Random
  • Return to duty
  • Follow up

15
Federally Mandated Test
The primary drugs of abuse
  • Marijuana
  • Cocaine
  • Opiates 10/1/2010 w/ separate confirm for heroin
  • Amphetamines 10/1/2010 w/separate confirm for
    MDMA
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)

16
SUPERVISORY TRAINING
  • Observe
  • Document
  • Confront
  • Refer
  • Follow through

17
OBSERVE
  • Watch For These Signs
  • Absenteeism
  • On the job absenteeism
  • Accidents
  • Difficulty in concentration
  • Confusion
  • Spasmodic job performance
  • Lowered efficiency
  • Physical behaviors
  • Relationship issues at work

18
DOCUMENT
  • Only observable and verifiable facts allowed -
    not rumors
  • Record all actions and behaviors
  • Include statements or pertinent facts
  • State time, date, location
  • List witnesses

19
CONFRONT
  • Use documentation to outline job performance
    issues
  • Avoid being manipulated by accepting excuses
  • Be firm and honest
  • Do not get personally involved
  • Do not become an armchair diagnostician

20
REFER
  • After any confrontation, a referral system is
    needed
  • Outpatient services
  • Inpatient services
  • Support groups
  • Testing programs

21
FOLLOW THROUGH
  • Return to work contract
  • Explain companys disciplinary policy
  • Set up specific work goals and criteria
  • Evaluate job performance
  • Follow-up drug and alcohol testing
  • Family issues

22
HOW DO DRUGS WORK
  • Speed things up
  • Slow things down
  • Confuse signals
  • Block signals
  • Combination of the above

The brains pleasure centers
23
MARIJUANA
  • Drug Marijuana, Hashish, Hashish Oil
  • Classification Hallucinogen
  • Administration Smoked or swallowed
  • Appearance
  • Dry crushed leaves (marijuana)
  • Hand-rolled cigarettes (joints)
  • Hard chunks of resin (hashish)
  • Dark viscous liquid (hashish oil)
  • Detection time in urine _______?

24
Marijuana - Extent of Use
  • In 2001, over 12 million Americans age 12 and
    older used marijuana at least once in the month
    prior to being surveyed. That is more than three
    quarters (76 percent) of the total number of
    Americans who used any illicit drug in the past
    month in 2001. Of the 76 percent, more than half
    (56 percent) consumed only marijuana 20 percent
    used marijuana and another illicit drug and the
    remaining 24 percent used an illicit drug or
    drugs other than marijuana(1). Although
    marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug
    in the United States, among students in the 8th,
    10th, and 12th grades nationwide its use remained
    stable from 1999 through 2001(2). Among 8th
    graders, however, past year use has decreased,
    from 18.3 percent in 1996 to 15.4 percent in
    2001. Also in 2001, more than half (57.4 percent)
    of 12th graders believed it was harmful to smoke
    marijuana regularly and 79.3 percent disapproved
    of regular marijuana use. Since 1975, 83 percent
    to 90 percent of every 12th grade class surveyed
    has found it "fairly easy" or "very easy" to
    obtain marijuana(3). Data for drug-related
    hospital emergency department visits in the
    continental United States recently showed a 15
    percent increase in the number of visits to an
    emergency room that were induced by or related to
    the use of marijuana from 96,426 in 2000 to
    110,512 in 2001. The 12 to 34 age range was
    involved most frequently in these mentions. For
    emergency room patients in the 12 to 17 age
    range, the rate of marijuana mentions increased
    23 percent between 1999 and 2001 (from 55 to 68
    per 100,000 population) and 126 percent (from 30
    to 68 per 100,000 population) since 1994(4).

25
MARIJUANA EFFECTS
  • Short term memory loss
  • Depth perception issues
  • Dreamy, relaxed feeling
  • Increased senses of sight, smell, taste, and
    hearing leads up to excessive smoking and
    munchies
  • Hallucinations
  • Anxiety
  • Impaired muscle coordination

Sponsored by a TEST consultants, inc., and
funded by the U.S. Small Business Administration
Paul D. Coverdell Drug-Free Workplace Program
26
MARIJUANA OBSERVED BEHAVIORS
  • Rapid, loud talking
  • Sleepiness
  • Lack of motivation
  • Reduced concentration
  • Reduced inhibitions
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Giggly, ridiculous conversation

27
COCAINE
  • Drug Cocaine
  • Classification Stimulant, local anesthetic
  • Administration Snorted, injected, smoked
  • Appearance White crystalline powder, bitter
    numbing taste, odorless, from coca plant leaves
  • Clinical Effects Euphoria, motor and verbal
    hyperactivity, mood swings, inflated self-esteem
  • Detection Time in Urine 2-4 days

28
COCAINE EFFECTS
  • Weight loss
  • Paranoia
  • Anxiety, irritability
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate
  • Sleeplessness-fatigue
  • Psychological problems

29
COCAINE OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR
  • Cold sweats
  • Coma, convulsions
  • Dilated pupils
  • Nose bleeds
  • Depressed or sad
  • Talkativeness
  • Self-confidence lt gt

30
COCAINE - TIME FACTORS
Length of a rush
31
OPIATES
  • Drugs Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Oxycodone
    Hydromorphone
  • Classification Narcotic analgesic
  • Administration Swallowed, smoked or injected
  • Appearance White, brown, or black powder,
    injectable liquids, tablets, capsules (various
    sizes and colors)
  • Detection Time in Urine 3 days

32
OPIATE EFFECTS
  • Euphoria
  • Drowsiness
  • Respiration depressed
  • Pain management
  • Psychological dependence

33
OPIATES OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR
  • Sleepiness
  • Slowed reflexes
  • Confusion
  • Poor concentration
  • Slurred speech
  • Constricted pupils
  • Shaking
  • Diarrhea or cramps

34
MY BREAD HAD POPPY SEEDS ON IT!
  • MROs may request quantitative values of
    codeine/morphine
  • 2000 ng/ml or less suggest poppy seeds or RX
  • 2500 ng/ml or above with codeine present rules
    out poppy seeds, may be a RX, or illegal use of
    morphine or heroin

35
PCP - Angel Dust
  • Drug Phencyclidine
  • Classification Hallucinogen, anesthetic
  • Administration Smoked, swallowed, or injected
  • Appearance Pills, capsules, powders
  • Detection Time in Urine 2 days or 8 days in
    severe overdose

36
PCP EFFECTS
  • Psychedelic reaction
  • Hallucinations
  • Combative behavior
  • Symptoms of insanity
  • Catatonic state
  • Reduced work motivation

37
PCP OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORS
  • Convulsion
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Profuse sweating
  • Slurred speech
  • Involuntary eye movements
  • Inappropriate remarks

38
AMPHETAMINES
  • Drug Methamphetamine, amphetamine
  • Classification CNS stimulant (speed)
  • Administration Swallowed, injected, smoked
  • Appearance Powders, crystals, capsules,
    tablets
  • Detection Time in Urine 24 - 48 hours

39
AMPHETAMINE EFFECTS
  • Palpitations
  • Tachycardia
  • Hypertension
  • Dizziness
  • Insomnia
  • Hallucinations

40
AMPHETAMINE OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORS
  • Euphoria then restlessness
  • Agitation
  • Irritability
  • Extreme paranoia
  • Weight loss
  • Malnutrition
  • Tooth decay

41
Meths Impact on Kids
42
Hotel Rooms Mobile Meth Labs
43
ALCOHOL
  • Drug Ethanol
  • Classification Psychoactive
  • Administration Wine, beer, liquor
  • Appearance Liquid, several colors
  • Detection in Urine Generally 1 ounce of alcohol
    is eliminated per hour
  • Note Urine alcohol testing cannot withstand a
    court challenge

44
ALCOHOL EFFECTS
  • Trembling or DTs
  • Dizziness
  • Staggering
  • Weepy, bloodshot eyes
  • Lethargic behavior
  • Hallucinations, convulsions

45
ALCOHOL OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORS
  • Aggressiveness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Alcohol breath(fruity smell) do not be mistaken
    by a diabetic(acetone)
  • Incoherent (slurred) speech
  • Unconsciousness

46
Thanks!
Any Questions????
  • Contact Jeff _at_ 800.837.8648, Ext 117, or by email
    _at_ jpsims_at_atestinc.com
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