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NASA Environmental Programs

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NASA Environmental Programs Aviation Emissions: A Perspective from Academia Professor Ian A. Waitz Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4th Environmental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NASA Environmental Programs


1
NASA Environmental ProgramsAviation Emissions
A Perspective from Academia
  • Professor Ian A. Waitz
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 4th Environmental Compatibility Assessment
    Workshop
  • Colorado Springs, CO
  • August 12-13, 1999

2
OUTLINE
  • Recasting the question
  • NASAs Ultra Efficient Engine Program
  • General comments
  • Does it respond to prior ECoA recommendations?
  • Guidance for strategic planning and
    implementation
  • Goal-driven implementation, entertain grow new
    ideas
  • Prioritize based on importance and uniqueness of
    NASA contribution

3
RECASTING THE QUESTION
  • As posed
  • What opportunities exist that current NASA
    programs are not addressing?
  • Difficulty lies in finding funding, not
    opportunities
  • Funding is not sufficient to effectively respond
    to all needs/opportunities
  • As recast
  • How can limited funding be used most
    effectively to respond to needs for emissions
    reduction?

4
Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology
  • Program Goals
  • Increased performance to enable and enhance a
    wide range of revolutionary aircraft from small
    to large, and over a wide range of flight speeds
  • Address local air quality concerns as well as
    addressing potential ozone depletion by
    developing technology for 70 NOx emissions
    reduction at take-off and landing conditions, and
    also technology to enable aircraft to not impact
    the ozone layer during cruise operation
  • Address long term aviation growth potential
    without impact on climate by providing technology
    for dramatic increases in efficiency to enable
    reductions in CO2 based on an overall fuel
    savings goal of at least 8
  • Technology Readiness to the Component Level

5
INVESTMENT AREAS
Ultra Efficient Engine Technology
Combustion
Turbomachinery
Propulsion System Integration Assessment
Materials Structures
  • Ultra-Low NOx Combustors research and analysis
  • FlameTube
  • Sector
  • Full Annular
  • Core Engine?
  • Particulates/ Aerosols other Emittents
  • CMC Liner _at_ 10 Cooling
  • 2400F Uncooled CMC materials
  • Adv. Materials to enable 3100F Turbine Rotor
    Inlet Temp. w/ 15 Cooling (3100F T41 _at_ 15
    Wac/Wa3)
  • Disk
  • Airfoils
  • Blade
  • Vane
  • Light Weight Nozzle Structure
  • Environmentally Friendly PMC with 600F
    capability
  • Fans, 3.5 PR at 1500 ft/sec
  • Highly Loaded Compressors
  • 161 in 4 stages
  • 55 OPR/3100F TRIT
  • Highly Loaded/ Coupled HP/LP Turbines
  • Analytical and Experimental solutions for
    Propulsion/Airframe Integration to Enable UHBPR
    and Advanced Concepts
  • Simulations to Reduce Testing
  • Assessment including Environmental Impact

6
COMMENTS ON NASA UEETP
  • An engine program, not an emissions reduction
    program
  • Propulsion is not the only key to finding
    solutions for noise, emissions and reliability
    (see waterfall chart, also IPCC report)
  • Parallel programs at other centers?
  • Contracts, but limited not the best way to
    achieve objectives
  • Open all research to competition and peer review,
    allow free-market to work
  • Thus, increase the quality of the research (more
    for the )
  • Why not investigate design for retrofit,
    closed-cycle cooling concepts, oil-free
    bearings, robust design, better costing
    methods, etc.?
  • By what mechanisms will new ideas be admitted?

7
325 PAX CONVENTIONAL SUBSONIC TRANSPORT
2-Engine, 6500 nmi Design Range, 10000 ft Field
Length Fuel Burn Waterfall - Scenario-Based
Vehicle Technologies
Fuel Burn 205,800 lbs 1995 EIS Technology
-124,100 lbs (-60)
Fuel Burn 81,700 lbs
Mark Guynn, NASA LaRC
8
COMMENTS ON NASA UEETP
  • Many consensus recommendations from prior ECoA
    Workshops are apparent in UEETP planning document
    (3/99)
  • Near-term vs. long term balance
  • Global and local effects
  • Some consensus recommendations not strongly
    expressed in planning document
  • Continuing communication/coordination between
    stakeholders
  • Consideration of market acceptance, economics,
    etc.
  • System-level analysis
  • Fuel efficiency and operations are low hanging
    fruit for near-term

9
GUIDANCE FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
  • Funding is limited, need to prioritize and
    leverage
  • Suggested bases for prioritization
  • Importance
  • Uniqueness of NASA role/contribution
  • Cost/benefit
  • Core competencies

10
PRIORITIZING FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION - Importance
-
  • Aero, structures, operations -- same order of
    importance as propulsion for overall efficiency
    benefits
  • Focus on most significant market segment
  • Stop all research on supersonic biz jets, general
    aviation, perhaps even commuter and helicopters
  • Human resource development
  • Many new ideas will come from people trained in
    universities
  • People (as product) more important than research
    (as product) from universities
  • 30 of aeronautics funding at MIT is from NASA
  • of grad students is set by funding
  • feedstock for the industry/NASA
  • Must recognize and capitalize on NASAs role in
    education

11
PRIORITIZING FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION - Uniqueness
of NASA role/contribution -
  • Industry focus is near-term, profit-driven
  • NASA funds limited
  • NASA must focus on areas not addressed by
    industry
  • Understanding/assessing potential impacts
  • Education
  • Feedstock to meet future challenges
  • Far-term game-changing concepts
  • New configurations
  • Aspirated compressors/turbines
  • Design for retrofit?
  • Closed-cycle cooling?
  • Etc. ...
  • Communication and coordination

12
UNDERSTANDING/ASSESSING POTENTIAL IMPACTS
  • Uncertainty is high relative to impacts and
    trade-offs
  • Potential to do the wrong thing
  • Ineffective regulations, poorly invested
    technology , international discord, etc.
  • Industry must respond only to profit incentive
  • NASA must ensure that understanding is sufficient
    so that EPA/FAA/ICAO rules are not arbitrary,
    capricious, ineffective, etc.
  • With appropriate rule-making industry,
    communities, etc. will respond to reduce
    emissions
  • Very high leverage work
  • Most technology development held in industry -
    need to have these used appropriately and
    effectively

13
SUMMARY
  • NASA Emissions Reduction Programs
  • NASA taking lead role
  • Need for prioritization is even greater as
    funding is reduced
  • Currently engine-centric
  • Greater focus on important items where NASA role
    is unique
  • Address most significant market segment only
    (short and long-haul commercial transport)
  • Long-term, high-risk solutions
  • Assessment and understanding of impacts is
    high-leverage activity
  • Education
  • Coordination and communication
  • Goal-driven implementation, entertain grow new
    ideas
  • Increase competition to increase research quality
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