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Recombinant DNA and Cloning The Impact of Biotechnology

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Recombinant DNA and Cloning The Impact of Biotechnology Honors Genetics Ms. Susan Chabot Lemon Bay High School ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Recombinant DNA and Cloning The Impact of Biotechnology


1
Recombinant DNA and CloningThe Impact of
Biotechnology
  • Honors Genetics
  • Ms. Susan Chabot
  • Lemon Bay High School

2
Terms to Know
  • Restriction enzymes allow the DNA to be cut and
    spliced at VERY specific locations.
  • Vectors carriers of DNA molecules usually
    bacteria.
  • Plasmid circular DNA found in bacteria.
  • Recombinant DNA original carrier DNA
    introduced sections of DNA.
  • Clones when the bacteria divide, millions of
    copies of the original recombinant DNA are made.

3
Impact of Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology use of modified organisms or
    their products to enhance our lives.
  • Ethical Dilemmas
  • Patenting genes for ownership.
  • Patents offer scientists a chance to fund further
    research.
  • Limited availability of seeds to farmers.
  • Concentrates crop ownership to biotech companies,
    out of farmers hands.
  • Impact of GM foods in our own bodies.
  • Enough testing to identify risks/benefits?
  • Biotech and Medicine
  • Too much information too early?
  • Inability to get medical insurance.

4
Genetically Engineered Organisms Synthesize a
Wide Range of Biological and Pharmaceutical
Products
Figure 24.1
5
Genetically Modified Plants
  • Resistance to insects, weeds, and viruses.
  • Enhanced oil content.
  • Delayed ripening.
  • GM foods can also be modified to increase the
    nutritional content of foods.
  • GM rice (golden rice) has been modified to
    contain more of the building blocks needed to
    produce Vitamin A.
  • Reduced blindness in poorer nations.
  • Over a dozen genetically modified crops approved
    to grow in the US.
  • 45 of US corn crop.
  • 85 of soybean crop.
  • 60 of processed food contains GM foods.

6
GM Animals
  • Embryo splitting has created commercially cloned
    GM organisms for 25 years.
  • Dont have to wait until adulthood to see if
    desired traits were inherited.
  • Cloned for desirable traits such as
  • High milk production.
  • Speed in race horses.
  • Transgenic animals.
  • Transgenic animals are produced when one animals
    desired traits are recombined into another
    animal.
  • Human genes transferred into sheep for production
    of human proteins.

7
Table 24.1
8
Recombinant DNA Approaches for Vaccine Production
and Transgenic Plants with Edible Vaccines
Figure 24.2
9
During the past 10 year s, transgenic crops have
been rapidly adopted in both industrialized and
developing countries.
10
Roundup-Ready GM soybeans
  • Gene for enzyme embedded into plasmid.
  • Plasmid inserted into bacteria.
  • Bacteria inserts plasmid into plant nucleus.
  • The gene for the enzyme is inserted into the
    plant chromosome.
  • The gene is expressed and the plant will be
    resistant to the herbicide Roundup.

11
GM Roundup resistant soybean plants. Allows
Roundup to be applied to the crop to kill weeds
but not harm the soybean.
12
  • Golden Rice
  • genetically modified to produce ? -carotene, a
    precursor to vitamin A.
  • Many children in countries where rice is a
    dietary staple lose their eyesight because of
    diets deficient in vitamin A.

13
Transgenic Atlantic salmon (bottom)
overexpressing a growth hormone (GH) gene .
14
GloFish, marketed as the worlds first GM-pet
15
Chorionic villi Sampling Performed at 10 -12
weeks.
Genetic Engineering and Genomics Are Transforming
Medical Diagnosis
16
  • Genetic Engineering and Genomics Are Transforming
    Medical Diagnosis
  • Performed at 14 20 weeks

Needle is inserted through the abdominal and
uterine walls to recover amniotic fluid and fetal
cells for genetic or biochemical analysis.
17
A single cell from an early-stage human embryo
created by in vitro fertilization can be removed
and subjected to pre-implantation genetic
diagnosis (PGD).
18
Text Reading
  • On own, read Model Organisms to understand how
    genetics can be studied through the use of model
    organisms.
  • What are examples of Model Organisms?
  • What makes a good Model Organism?

19
Chapter 1 Essential Points
  • Page 4 1 Mendels Work.
  • Page 5 2 Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
  • Page 8 3 Central Dogma of Biology
  • Page 12 4 Biotech has revolutionized
    agriculture and pharmaceutical industries.
    Genetic testing and gene therapy has impacted how
    we treat and diagnose genetic diseases.
  • 5 Recombinant DNA
    technology has given rise to several new fields
    in science.
  • Page 14 6 Using model organisms allows us to
    use genetics and biotech to understand human
    health.
  • 7 Policies and regulations that
    pertain to genetic technology is lagging behind
    the technologies that are being introduced.
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