Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Plants PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6bfffa-MDExZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Plants

Description:

Plants Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:0
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 24 December 2019
Slides: 42
Provided by: lbmassey
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Plants


1
Plants
  • Unit 7 Chapters 22-25
  • Biology

2
Origin of Plants
  • Evolved from organisms similar to green algae
  • First evidence in the fossil record was around
    500 million years ago
  • Did not have any leaves
  • Psilophytes earliest known plant fossil

3
Plant Characteristics
  • A multicellular eukaryote
  • Produce its own food (glucose) by way of
    photosynthesis
  • Use chlorophyll (green pigment)
  • Thick cell walls made of cellulose
  • Cuticle waxy waterproof coating on the stems
    and leaves

4
Needed for survival
  • Sunlight
  • Used in photosynthesis to produce food
  • Water and Minerals
  • Gas exchange
  • Require oxygen for cellular respiration and
    carbon dioxide for photosynthesis
  • Movement of water and nutrients
  • Use specialized tissues (vascular tissue)

5
Plant Life Cycle
  • Alternation of generation
  • Two alternating phases, a diploid phase and a
    haploid phase
  • Sporophyte
  • Diploid phase that reproduces by asexual spores
  • Gametophyte
  • Haploid phase that reproduces sexually by
    producing gametes that fuse together by
    fertilization

6
(No Transcript)
7
Classification of Plants
  • 4 groups that are based on
  • Water-conducting tissues
  • Seeds
  • Flowers
  • Bryophyte (Nonvascular)
  • Ferns and allies (Seedless vascular )
  • Gymnosperm (Seed vascular)
  • Angiosperm (Seed vascular flowering plant)

8
Bryophytes
  • Nonvascular Plants
  • Life cycle depends on water for reproduction
  • Draws up water by osmosis
  • Include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

9
Bryophyte Types
  • Mosses
  • Most common bryophyte
  • Rhizoids long, thin cells that anchor them in
    the ground and absorb water and minerals from the
    soil
  • Liverworts
  • Gemmae small multicellular reproductive
    structures used in asexual reproduction

10
Bryophyte Life Cycle
  • Gametophytes
  • Dominant recognizable stage
  • Carries out most of the plants photosynthesis
  • Antheridia produce the sperm (male)
  • Archegonia produce the egg (female)
  • Sporophyte
  • Depends on the gametophyte for water and nutrients

11
Vascular Plants
  • Contain specialized tissue that conducts water
    and nutrients throughout the plant (vascular
    tissue)
  • Tracheids tubular cells that are specialized to
    conduct water dead at maturity
  • Xylem transport subsystem that carries water
    upward from the roots
  • Phloem transports solutions of nutrients and
    carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis
  • Sieve tube element main phloem cells that are
    surrounded by companion cells

12
Vascular Plants
  • Roots underground organs that absorb water and
    minerals
  • Stems supporting structures that connect roots
    and leaves carry water and nutrients between
    them
  • Leaves photosynthetic organs that contain one
    or more bundles of vascular tissue (veins)

13
Ferns and Allies Seedless Vascular Plants
  • Include club mosses, horsetails, and ferns
  • Ferns
  • Rhizomes creeping or underground stems
  • Fronds large leaves of ferns.
  • Life cycle of ferns
  • Diploid sporophyte is the dominant stage
  • Sporangia tiny containers of haploid spores
  • Sori group or cluster of sporangia

14
(No Transcript)
15
Seed Plants
  • Divided into 2 groups
  • Gymnosperms
  • Bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of
    cones
  • Include conifers, cycads and ginkgoes
  • Angiosperms (Flowering plants)
  • Bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that
    protects the seed
  • Include grasses, flowering trees and shrubs, and
    all wildflowers and cultivated flowers

16
Adaptations of Seed Plants
  • Reproduce free from water by the use of
  • Flowers and cones
  • Cones are the seed bearing structure of
    gymnosperms
  • Flowers are the seed bearing structures of
    angiosperms
  • Transfer of sperm by pollination
  • Pollen grain tiny structure that contains the
    entire male gametophyte
  • Pollination transfer of pollen to the female
    structure can be transferred by wind, insects or
    small animals

17
Adaptations of Seed Plants
  • Protection of embryos in seeds
  • Seed an embryo of a plant that is encased in a
    protective covering (seed coat) and food supply
    (cotyledons) may have structures that aid in its
    dispersal
  • Embryo an organism in its early stage of
    development

18
Angiosperms Flowering Plants
  • Flowers
  • Reproductive organ contains ovaries that
    surround and protect the seed
  • Fruit
  • Wall of tissue surrounding the seed
  • Used to attract animals to disperse their seeds

19
Parts of a Flower
  • Sepals and Petals
  • Outermost floral parts that protect the
    developing bud
  • Petals brightly colored to attract vectors
  • Stamens
  • Male reproductive part
  • Consists of a thin stalk (filament) and an oval
    sac that consist of pollen grains at the top
    (anther)
  • Pistil (carpels)
  • Female reproductive part
  • Consist of a broad base (ovary) that contain one
    or more ovules, the stalk that comes from the
    ovary (style), and a sticky portion at the top
    (stigma) where pollen grains land

20
(No Transcript)
21
Diversity of Angiosperms
  • 2 types named for the number of cotyledons in
    the plants embryo
  • Monocots (monocotyledon)
  • Corn, wheat, lilies, orchids, and palms
  • Dicots (dicotyledon)
  • Roses, clover, tomatoes, oaks, and daisies

22
Comparison of Monocots and Dicots
  • Monocots
  • Single cotyledon
  • Parallel veins
  • Flower parts are multiples of 3
  • Vascular bundles are scattered
  • Fibrous roots
  • Dicots
  • Two cotyledon
  • Branched veins
  • Flower parts are multiples of 4 or 5
  • Vascular bundles are arranged in rings
  • Taproot

23
(No Transcript)
24
Diversity of Angiosperms
  • Life spans are divided into 3 categories
  • Annuals
  • Flowering plant that complete a life cycle within
    one growing season
  • Marigolds, petunias, and pansies
  • Biennials
  • Complete their life cycle in two years
  • Primrose, parsley, and celery
  • Perennials
  • Flowering plants that live for more than two
    years
  • Asparagus, many grasses, palm trees, maple trees,
    and honeysuckle

25
Seed Plant Structure
  • 3 principal organs
  • Roots
  • absorb water and dissolved nutrients
  • anchor plants in the ground
  • Protect the plants against bacteria and fungi
  • Hold plant upright against wind and rain
  • Stems
  • Transports nutrients between the leaves and the
    roots
  • Leaves
  • Photosynthetic systems of the plant

26
Seed Plant Structure
  • 3 plant tissue systems
  • Dermal tissue
  • Outer covering of a plant
  • Consist of a single layer of epidermal cells
  • Vascular tissue
  • transport system
  • composed of xylem and phloem
  • Ground tissue
  • Cells that lie between the dermal and vascular
    tissues
  • Functions in storage, adds flexibility and
    strengthens the plant

27
Plant Growth
  • Most plants have an open or indeterminate type of
    growth
  • i.e. they grow as long as they live
  • Meristems clusters of tissue that are
    responsible for growth throughout the plants life
  • Meristematic tissue undifferentiated cell that
    are produced by the meristems
  • Apical meristem increase the length of stems
    and roots

28
Roots
  • Function anchor the plant and absorb water and
    dissolved nutrients from the soil
  • 2 main types of roots
  • Taproot
  • Found mainly in dicots
  • Primary root is long and thick
  • Secondary roots remain small
  • Example oak and hickory trees
  • Fibrous root
  • No single root grows larger than the rest
  • Help prevent erosion
  • Example grasses

29
Roots
  • Root structure and growth
  • Root hairs tiny cellular projections that
    increase the surface area through which water can
    be absorbed
  • Cortex spongy layer of ground tissue underneath
    the epidermis
  • Root cap protects the root as it forces its way
    through the soil

30
(No Transcript)
31
Stems
  • 3 important functions
  • Produce leaves, branches, and flowers
  • Hold leaves up to the sunlight
  • Transport substances between roots and leaves
  • Nodes point of leaf attachment
  • Internodes regions between nodes
  • Buds contain undeveloped tissue that can
    produce new stems and leaves

32
(No Transcript)
33
Stems
  • Monocot and Dicot Stems

34
Stems
  • Growth of stems
  • Primary growth growth in which the plant
    increase in height occurs at the apical
    meristems takes place in all seed plants
  • Secondary growth growth in which the stem
    increases in width occurs in the lateral
    meristem
  • Vascular cambium produces vascular tissue
  • Cork cambium produces the outer covering of
    stems (bark)

35
Leaves
  • Structure is optimal for absorbing light and
    carrying out photosynthesis
  • Blade thin, flattened sections of the leaf that
    is attached to the stem by a thin stalk (petiole)
  • Functions
  • Photosynthesis, transpiration, and gas exchange

36
Leaves
  • Transpiration the loss of water through the
    leaves
  • Gas exchange occurs in the
  • Stomata porelike opening in the underside of
    the leaf
  • Each stoma consist of two guard cells that
    control the opening and closing of the stomata

37
(No Transcript)
38
Transport in Plants
  • Capillary action
  • The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
  • Adhesion is the attraction between unlike
    molecules property that causes capillary action

39
Plant Hormones
  • Auxins stimulate cell elongation
  • Cytokinins stimulate cell division (growth)
  • Gibberellins produce dramatic increases in size
    in the stems and fruit
  • Ethylene stimulates fruits to ripen

40
Plant Responses
  • Tropisms plant responses to external stimuli
  • Gravitropism plant responses to the forces of
    gravity
  • Phototropism tendency of a plant to grow toward
    light
  • Thigmotropism response of plants to touch

41
Plant Adapted for Specific Habitats
  • Xerophytes plants that live in the desert biome
  • Epiphytes plants that are not rooted in soil
    but grow directly on other plants
About PowerShow.com