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New Century Perspectives


New Century Perspectives Athens to New York Prof. Pearson At the end of the last century, America was changing Spanish American and Philippines wars made America and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Century Perspectives

New Century Perspectives
  • Athens to New York
  • Prof. Pearson

At the end of the last century, America was
  • Spanish American and Philippines wars made
    America and Imperial power
  • American immigration was at its height
  • Despite the Panic of 1893, economy was expanding
    in unprecedented ways
  • Age of the Robber Barons
  • Age of peonage, child labor -- and resistance

The Debate about Americas Purpose was Fundamental
  • Economic structure, role in the world
  • Ethnic and racial tension
  • Worries about Materialism
  • Family Structure, Role of Women
  • Role of Technology
  • Education
  • Environment

Economic Structure
  • Largest industrial economy,
  • Largest agricultural economy, the highest per
    capita income
  • Highest level of education
  • For the first time, US is a real economic player
    in the world

The Spanish American War
  • Mc Kinley wanted Philippines as American base for
    Asian markets
  • 1898 Spain defeat took 14 days
  • Debate ensued over whether to free the Philippines

War in the Philippines
  • Mc Kinley told church leaders
  • "I am not ashamed to say that I went down on my
    knees and prayed to Almighty God for light and
    guidance....And one night it came to me that
    there was nothing left to do but take the
    Philippines and educate the Filipinos, and
    uplift and civilize them...

A Brutal War
  • American soldier, had been found murdered
    outside this village with his stomach slit open.
    And the American commander immediately orders
    that everyone in this Filipino village be
    executed... a thousand men, women, and children
    were executed in reprisal for the murder of this
    one American soldier
  • -- Walter LeFaber, historian, referring to a
    story related in an American soldiers letter

Brutality sparks US protest
  • Anti Imperialist movement draws support from
    suffragettes, civil rights leaders and even
    industrialists such as Andrew Carnegie, who
    offers to buy islands and free them

Ethnic and Racial Tension
  • Most African Americans in 1900
    were "still serfs bound to the soil or house
  • Radical action needed.
  • W.E.B. DuBois

Du Bois Phila Negro
  • First work in urban sociology, published in 189,
    example of scientism9
  • Blacks migrated to Philadelphia to escape racial
    violence, found segregation, disease and death.
  • Small middle class of entrepreneurs church as
    central cultural, political and economic

  • 1882-1930 height of lynching era90 of victims
  • Time of disfranchisement
  • Failure of the Populist movement
  • The Cape Fear Massacre
  • "The white south had always used violence to
    control the slaves and continued to use it to
    control the freedmen
  • Source http//

Ethnic tensionImmigration
  • Largest period 1880-1920
  • 15,000 Chinese immigrants in San Francisco alone
  • By 1900, nearly one-third of NY people
  • foreign-born

Hard times
  • Immigrants crowded into ghettos, working 12-16
    hour days, 6 days/week, for as 1.25/day. Child
    labor common
  • Coal companies and others send agents to various
    European countries to recruit. They pay for
    passage and make promises, but on arrival, the
    promises go unkept.
  • United Mine Workers, other unions start

Despite the turmoil
  • Democratic Presidential candidate William
    Jennings Bryan is unable to get support for his
    campaign to curb American imperialism and reign
    in corporate trust. The rich worry that their
    wealth will be threatened and working people
    worry that their jobs will be threatened.

Women are changing
  • The Gibson Girl was a new feminist icon, but
    women are still dependent on men. Charles Dana
    Gibson (1867-1944) used his wife as a model for
    these images, drawn for Life magazine.

Female pioneers
  • Ida Wells Barnett, (1867-1931) anti-lynching
    pioneer and suffragette, publishes The Red Record

Female pioneers
  • Frances Benjamin Johnston - White House
    photographer --her photo Civics class at the
    Hampton institute is at right

Role of technology
  • Cross-country travel in 6 days common
  • Telephone more common
  • Electricity spreading, but feared
  • X-rays
  • Most inventions in 15-20 years

Role of Technology
  • Motion pictures
  • Indoor plumbing
  • Sound recording

  • Land grant colleges growing
  • More women, people of color getting undergraduate
    and graduate degrees
  • Disciplines of economics, sociology, political
    science, anthropology and psychology emerging
  • Scientism as the cure for all social problems

EnvironmentThe Conservation Movement
  • Rapid industrialization destroyed wilderness
  • Advocates such as John Muir (1838-1914), a
    pantheist, spurred Back to Nature movement
  • 5 national parks by 1900