ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE


1
ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE
  • An Introduction to Engineering
  • A Comprehensive Approach

2
CHAPTER 1
  • The History of Engineering

3
1.1 Introduction
  • Definition of Engineering
  • The profession in which knowledge of the
    mathematical and natural sciences, gained by
    study, experience, and practice, is applied with
    judgment to develop ways to use, economically,
    the materials and forces of nature for the
    benefit of mankind.

4
  • Definition of Engineering
  • The first issue (1866) of the English Journal
    Engineering defines engineering as
  • The art of directing the great sources of power
    in nature, for the use and convenience of man.
  • In the old definition, it is defined as an art.

5
Prehistoric Culture
  • Individuals involved in activities which we
    recognize today as
  • Engineering problem solving,
  • tool-making, etc.
  • Had no knowledge of
  • mathematical principles or
  • natural science as we know it today.
  • They designed and built needed items by trial and
    error and intuition.
  • They built some spears that worked and some that
    failed,
  • But in the end they perfected weapons that
    allowed them to bring down game animals and feed
    their families.

6
Prehistoric Culture
  • Physical limitations of prehistoric cultures
  • They had no written language.
  • Their verbal language was very limited.
  • They had no means of transportation.
  • They had no separate concept of education or
    specialized methodology to discover new things.
  • They lived by gathering food and trying to bring
    down game with primitive weapons.
  • Improvement of the material aspects of life came
    about very slowly, with early, primitive
    engineering.

7
Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Some 4 to 6,000 years ago, due to the growth of
    cities and new demands such as power, a
    significant change took place.
  • People with special aptitude in certain areas
    were assigned to ever more specialized tasks.
  • This labeling and grouping was a scientific
    breakthrough.
  • It gave toolmakers the time and resources to
    dedicate themselves to building and innovation.
  • This new social function created the first real
    engineers, and for the first time innovation
    flourished rapidly.

8
1.4 The Overview Approach
  • Engineering the Temples of Greece
  • The Roman Roads and Aqueducts
  • The Great Wall of China

9
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages
  • 1200 B.C. A.D. 1
  • Quality of wrought iron is improved
  • Swords are mass produced
  • Siege towers are perfected
  • Greeks develop manufacturing
  • Archimedes introduces mathematics in Greece
  • Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads and
    aqueducts in Rome.

10
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages A.D. 1-1000
  • Chinese further develop the study of mathematics
  • Gunpowder is perfected
  • Cotton and silk manufactured

11
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1000-1400
  • Silk and glass industries continue to grow
  • Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval mathematician,
    writes the first Western text on algebra

12
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1400-1700
  • First toilet is invented in England
  • Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
    which he observes the rotation about the sun
  • Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence
    of a vacuum
  • Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
    telescopes
  • Boyles Gas Law, stating pressure varies
    inversely with volume, is first introduced.

13
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1700-1800
  • Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
  • James Watt patents his first steam engine
  • Society of Engineers, a professional engineering
    society, is formed in London
  • First building made completely of cast iron built
    in England

14
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1800-1825
  • Machine automation is first introduced in France
  • First railroad locomotive is designed and
    manufactured
  • Chemical symbols are developed, the same symbols
    used today (Au, He)
  • Single wire telegraph line is developed

15
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1825-1875
  • Reinforced concrete is first used
  • First synthetic plastic material is created
  • Bessemer develops his process to create stronger
    steel in mass quantities
  • First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
  • Typewriter is perfected

16
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1875-1900
  • Telephone is patented in the US by Alexander
    Graham Bell
  • Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the
    phonograph
  • Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler
  • Automobile introduced by Karl Benz

17
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1900-1925
  • Wright brothers complete first sustained flight
  • Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors
  • First commercial flight between Paris and London
    begins
  • Detroit becomes center of auto production industry

18
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1925-1950
  • John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of
    television
  • The VW Beetle goes into production
  • First atomic bomb is used
  • The transistor is invented

19
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1950-1975
  • Computers first introduced into the market, and
    are common by 1960
  • Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
    into space by USSR
  • First communication satelliteTelstaris put into
    space
  • The U.S. completes the first ever moon landing

20
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1975-1990
  • The Concord is first used for supersonic flight
    between Europe and the U.S.
  • Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel
  • First artificial heart is successfully implanted

21
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1990-Present
  • Robots travel on Mars
  • The Chunnel between England and France is
    finished
  • GPS is used to predict and report weather
    conditions, as well as many other consumer
    applications

22
2.2 Engineering FunctionsConsulting
  • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that
    does not directly manufacture products
  • Consulting engineers might be involved in design,
    installation, and upkeep of a product
  • Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where he/she
    works

23
2.1 Introduction
  • Several characteristics of students that might
    have an interest in engineering are
  • Proficient skills in math and physical science
  • An urging from a high school counselor
  • Knows someone who is an engineer
  • Knows that engineering offers literally dozens,
    if not hundreds of job opportunities
  • Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
    lucrative

24
2.1 Engineers and Scientists
  • Scientists seek technical answers to understand
    natural phenomenon
  • Engineers study technical problems with a
    practical application always in mind
  • For example
  • Scientists study atomic structure to understand
    the nature of matter engineers study atomic
    structure to make smaller and faster microchips

25
2.2 Engineering Functions Research
  • Research engineers are knowledgeable in
    principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and
    mathematics
  • Computer know-how is also recommended
  • A Masters Degree is almost always required, and a
    Ph. D is often strongly recommended

26
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDevelopment
  • Development engineers bridge the gap between the
    laboratory and the production facility
  • They also identify problems in a potential
    product
  • An example is the development of concept cars for
    companies like Ford and GM

27
2.2 Engineering FunctionsTesting
  • Testing engineers are responsible for testing the
    durability and reliability of a product, making
    sure that it performs how it is supposed to,
    every time. T.E.s simulate instances and
    environments in which a product would be used
  • Crash testing of a vehicle to observe effects of
    an air bag and crumple zone are examples of a
    testing engineers duties

28
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design aspect is where largest number of
    engineers are employed
  • Design engineers often work on components of a
    product, providing all the necessary specifics
    needed to successfully manufacture the product
  • Design engineers regularly use computer design
    software as well as computer aided drafting
    software in their jobs

29
2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design engineers must also verify that the part
    meets reliability and safety standards required
    for the product
  • A concern always on the mind of design engineers
    is how to keep the development of a part cost
    effective, which is taken into account during a
    design process

30
2.2 Engineering FunctionsAnalysis
  • Analysis engineers use computational tools and
    mathematic models to enrich the work of design
    and research engineers
  • Analysis engineers typically have a mastery of
    heat transfer, fluid flow, vibrations, dynamics,
    acoustics, and many other system characteristics

31
2.2 Engineering FunctionsSystems
  • Responsible on a larger scale for bringing
    together components of parts from design
    engineers to make a complete product
  • Responsible for making sure all components of a
    product work together as was intended by design
    engineers

32
2.2 Engineering FunctionsManufacturing
Construction
  • Work individually or in teams
  • Responsible for molding raw materials into
    finished product
  • Maintain and keep records on equipment in plant
  • Help with design process to keep costs low

33
2.2 Engineering FunctionsOperations
Maintenance
  • Responsible for maintaining production line
  • Must have technical know-how to deal w/ problems
  • Responsible for inspecting facility and
    equipment, must be certified in various
    inspection methods

34
2.2 Engineering FunctionsTechnical Support
  • Works between consumers and producers
  • Not necessarily have in depth knowledge of
    technical aspects of product
  • Must have good interpersonal skills

35
2.2 Engineering FunctionsCustomer Support
  • Often have more of a technical knowledge than
    Tech. Support, because they must be able to work
    with basic customers
  • Evaluate whether or not a current practice is
    cost effective via feedback from customers

36
2.2 Engineering FunctionsSales
  • Sales engineers have technical background, but
    are also able to communicate effectively w/
    customers
  • Job market for sales engineers is growing, due to
    the fact that products are becoming more and more
    technically complex

37
2.2 Engineering FunctionsConsulting
  • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that
    does not directly manufacture products
  • Consulting engineers might be involved in design,
    installation, and upkeep of a product
  • Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where he/she
    works

38
Profile of a Biomedical EngineerSue H. Abreu,
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
  • Occupation
  • Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
    Army
  • Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack Army
    Medical Center
  • Education
  • IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
  • MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
    Sciences, 1982
  • Studying Engineering
  • Was planning to be a teacher.
  • Because of taking an elective class in athletic
    training, developed an interest in sports
    medicine.
  • Ended up taking most of the classes in
    aeronautical engineering to study the lightweight
    structures and materials that could be used to
    design artificial limbs or protective equipment
    for sports.
  • Ended up graduating from college with an
    interdisciplinary engineering degree.

39
Profile of a Biomedical EngineerSue H. Abreu,
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
  • Career Life
  • After medical school, specialized in nuclear
    medicine. Perform three-dimensional studies and
    quantify results. Is a consultant to other
    physicians Help them decide what tests might be
    helpful and discuss the meaning of the results
  • Ended up in a field she never had heard of when
    started college, but found it as kept exploring
    areas that intrigued her.
  • Tried new classes and looked for opportunities
    that interested her, even if they didnt fit the
    paths most students followed.
  • Now doing a great deal of teaching within the
    specialty of nuclear medicine and in her current
    work in quality assurance.
  • So, be sure to follow your dreams if you can take
    something you love doing and find a way to earn a
    living doing it, you will end up much happier
    than if you set money or prestige as your goals.
  • Life Outside of Work
  • Outside of work
  • Skydiving.
  • Volunteer as the team doctor for the U.S.
    Parachute Team and have traveled all over the
    world with them.

40
Profile of a Computer EngineerRaymond C.
Barrera, Gaithersburg, MA
  • Education
  • BS, Electrical and Computer Engineering 1989
  • MS, Software Engineering 1999
  • Studying Engineering
  • Was very fortunate during high school to work for
    an archaeologist and her husband who were great
    mentors. Dr. Bernice McAllister taught him the
    scientific methodology an archaeologist needs to
    base sound conclusions on evidence. Probably
    would have been happy had him become an
    archaeologist, but
  • He really enjoyed building things.
  • His dads training as an electronic technician
    had gotten him interested in electronics since
    very young.
  • Some encouragement from Dr. McAllisters husband,
    Capt. James McAllister, USN (ret) helped convince
    him to select Electrical Engineering as his
    specialty.

41
Profile of a Computer EngineerRaymond C.
Barrera, Gaithersburg, MA
  • Career Life
  • Work at a research, development, test and
    evaluation laboratory for the US Navy.
  • Involved in testing and system engineering of
    command and control systems.
  • Command and control systems are used by tactical
    commanders for decision making and direction.
  • Perhaps even more important than the technical
    work is the ability to communicate. Not very many
    engineers work alone.
  • Often the most difficult engineering challenge is
    to share an idea with others in oral and written
    presentations, but that is the only way these
    ideas can come to life.

42
Profile of a Mechanical EngineerBeverly D.
Johnson, Waterloo, Iowa
  • Occupation
  • Supervisor in Wheel Operations at John Deere
    Waterloo Works
  • Education
  • BSME MS, Engineering Management
  • Studying Engineering
  • BS in Mechanical Engineering from the United
    States Military Academy
  • MS in Engineering Management from the University
    of Missouri, Rolla,
  • Current study in the Executive Masters Degree
    Program at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  • Engineering is a very rewarding career because
    you can see the results of your effort every day.
  • Engineering offers opportunities to create,
    build, design, and sometimes even destroy.
  • The analytical tools you develop in your
    engineering coursework make studying other
    subjects easier, and they are applicable to
    everyday life.
  • Truly enjoys her career in engineering. It is a
    dynamic career field that has taken her to many
    different jobs and many different places.

43
Profile of a Mechanical EngineerBeverly D.
Johnson, Waterloo, Iowa
  • Career Life
  • Has been with the John Deere Waterloo Works for
    two years, working in various engineering
    assignments such as
  • quality engineering,
  • project management,
  • and process redesign.
  • Her current assignment as a supervisor in Wheel
    Operations is focused in production.
  • Is responsible for the assembly processes
    pertaining to the tires and wheels for the 7000
    and 8000 series tractors.
  • Is also responsible for the daily supervision of
    the wage department personnel. Thinks her job is
    sometimes hectic, but also very rewarding as she
    watches what her department is able to accomplish
    every day.
  • Prior to joining John Deere she spent nine years
    as a military officer in the U.S. Army Corps of
    Engineers. Her primary responsibilities included
    the construction of buildings and roads, and the
    development and training of other engineers.

44
Profile of a Civil Engineer James L. Lammie, New
York
  • Occupation
  • Board of Directors, Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc.
  • Education
  • BS, Civil Engineering, 1953 MS, Civil
    Engineering, 1957
  • Career Life
  • His father worked in a steel mill in Pittsburgh,
    the City of Bridges. He was fascinated with the
    many different bridges and what could be done
    with steel. He knew that I wanted to build
    things. He was fortunate to win an appointment to
    West Point, which was founded as the first
    engineering school in the U.S.
  • After graduation, He spent 21 years in the Army
    Corps of Engineers working on a wide variety of
    military and civil engineering projects all over
    the world.
  • After retiring from the Army he knew I wanted to
    be a Project Manager on big projects, so he
    joined Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. and spent seven
    years as a consultant Project Manager for design
    and construction on the Metropolitan Atlanta
    Rapid Transit project (MARTA), the most rewarding
    period of his professional career.
  • After MARTA, he had the pleasure of serving as
    the CEO of Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., the
    largest transportation design firm in the U.S.,
    for the next fourteen years. Today, as a member
    of the Board of Directors of their employee-owned
    firm, he is still involved in some of their mega
    projects the Central Artery Highway project in
    Boston, the new Taiwan High-Speed Rail system,
    the Bay Area Rapid Transit extension to the San
    Francisco Airport, and many others.
  • The high point of his job is getting involved in
    critical project decisions and being able to
    kick the tires of work under construction.

45
Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • Occupation
  • Director of Hardware Development, Lucent
    Technologies
  • Education
  • BS MS MBA
  • Studying Engineering
  • In high school trying to decide which career to
    pursue, he had a number of criteria
  • I wanted a job that Id look forward to each day,
  • that offered continuous learning, and
  • that offered a reasonable level of financial
    stability
  • Engineering satisfied those criteria for him.
  • He enjoyed math and science (the foundations of
    engineering) in high school, but engineering is
    more than number crunching.
  • The field of engineering rewards creativity,
  • the ability to find a better way to solve a
    problem.
  • If he had to do it over again, he would still
    choose engineering, but he would also have bought
    more shares of Wal-Mart, Lucent, and Yahoo when
    they were first offered.

46
Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • In his career, he has advanced through a number
    of levels of technical management, and currently
    have about 130 engineers reporting to him
  • His job is no longer at the level of designing
    integrated circuits. he guide his teams progress
    on a number of new product development
    activities.
  • He works to make sure they have the right people
    working on the right things at the right time.
  • He set priorities among the competing needs of
    the business, and evaluate new business
    opportunities.
  • To do his lob, he uses a combination of business
    and technical judgment
  • What are the future customer needs,
  • What are the available and soon-to-be-available
    technologies, what are the competitors doing and
    what may they do next,
  • Who can do the work and work well together, and
    can we get the work done in time and at a
    reasonable cost.
  • The end results are new products introduced into
    the marketplace that turn a profit for the
    business. That goal can only be achieved through
    others.
  • A good part of my job is getting his teams to
    achieve more than they thought possible.

47
Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • This is the best time in history to be an
    engineer.
  • There are more available alternatives than ever
  • From startup companies to large established
    firms,
  • From full-time to part-time work hours.
  • There are more opportunities for continuing
    education and
  • Fhere is the potential for significant financial
    reward for those willing to take a risk.
  • His organization is spread across three states
    and I have customers and suppliers all over the
    world. His job requires travel and long hours,
    and he couldnt do his job and have a family
    without the support of my wife, Reem.
  • But they do it together and the kids are a joy
    (even when they dont always obey).
  • He enjoy a number of activities outside of work
    such as basketball, traveling, and dining out.

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  • Nikolai Dimitrievich Kondratiev was born on 4
    March 1892 in the province of Kostroma, north of
    Moscow, into a peasant family. He was tutored at
    the University of St. Petersburg before the
    revolution by Mikhail Tugan Baranovsky. A member
    of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, his initial
    professional work was in the area of agricultural
    economics and statistics and the problem of food
    supplies. On 5 October 1917, at the age of 25, he
    was appointed Minister of Supply of the last
    Alexander Kerensky government, which lasted for
    only a few days.
  • After the revolution, he dedicated his attention
    to academic research. In 1919, he was appointed
    to a teaching post at the Agricultural Academy of
    Peter the Great, and in October 1920 he founded
    the Institute of Conjuncture, in Moscow. As its
    first director, he developed the institute, from
    just a couple of scientists, into a large and
    respected institution with 51 researchers by
    1923.
  • In 1923, Kondratiev intervened in the debate
    about the "Scissors Crisis", following the
    general opinion of his colleagues. In 1923-5, he
    worked on a five-year plan for the development of
    the Soviet agriculture. In 1924, after publishing
    his first book, presenting the first tentative
    version of his theory of the major cycles,
    Kondratiev travelled to England, Germany, Canada
    and the United States, and visited several
    universities before returning to Russia.
  • A proponent of the Soviet New Economic Policy
    (NEP), Kondratiev favored the strategic option
    for the primacy of agriculture and the industrial
    production of consumer goods, over the
    development of heavy industry. Kondratievs
    influence on economic policy lasted until 1925,
    declined in 1926 and ended by 1927. Around this
    time, the NEP was dissolved by a political shift
    in the leadership of the Communist Party.
  • Kondratiev was removed from the directorship of
    the Institute of Conjuncture in 1928 and arrested
    in July 1930, accused of being member of an
    illegal and probably non-existent Peasants
    Labour Party. As early as August 1930, Soviet
    Premier Joseph Stalin wrote a letter to Prime
    Minister Vyacheslav Molotov asking for the
    execution of Kondratiev.
  • Convicted as a "kulak-professor" and sentenced to
    8 years in prison, Kondratiev served his
    sentence, from February 1932 onwards, at Suzdal,
    near Moscow. Although his health deteriorated
    under poor conditions, Kondratiev continued his
    research and decided to prepare five new books,
    as he mentioned in a letter to his wife. Some of
    these texts were indeed completed and were
    published in Russian.
  • His last letter was sent to his daughter, Elena
    Kondratieva, on 31 August 1938. Shortly
    afterwards, on 17 September during Stalin's Great
    Purge, he was subjected to a second trial,
    condemned to ten years without the right to
    correspond with the outside world however,
    Kondratiev was executed by firing squad on the
    same day it was issued. Kondratiev was 46 at the
    time of his execution and was only rehabilitated
    almost fifty years later, on 16 July 1987.
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Title: ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE


1
ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE
  • An Introduction to Engineering
  • A Comprehensive Approach

2
CHAPTER 1
  • The History of Engineering

3
1.1 Introduction
  • Definition of Engineering
  • The profession in which knowledge of the
    mathematical and natural sciences, gained by
    study, experience, and practice, is applied with
    judgment to develop ways to use, economically,
    the materials and forces of nature for the
    benefit of mankind.

4
  • Definition of Engineering
  • The first issue (1866) of the English Journal
    Engineering defines engineering as
  • The art of directing the great sources of power
    in nature, for the use and convenience of man.
  • In the old definition, it is defined as an art.

5
Prehistoric Culture
  • Individuals involved in activities which we
    recognize today as
  • Engineering problem solving,
  • tool-making, etc.
  • Had no knowledge of
  • mathematical principles or
  • natural science as we know it today.
  • They designed and built needed items by trial and
    error and intuition.
  • They built some spears that worked and some that
    failed,
  • But in the end they perfected weapons that
    allowed them to bring down game animals and feed
    their families.

6
Prehistoric Culture
  • Physical limitations of prehistoric cultures
  • They had no written language.
  • Their verbal language was very limited.
  • They had no means of transportation.
  • They had no separate concept of education or
    specialized methodology to discover new things.
  • They lived by gathering food and trying to bring
    down game with primitive weapons.
  • Improvement of the material aspects of life came
    about very slowly, with early, primitive
    engineering.

7
Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Some 4 to 6,000 years ago, due to the growth of
    cities and new demands such as power, a
    significant change took place.
  • People with special aptitude in certain areas
    were assigned to ever more specialized tasks.
  • This labeling and grouping was a scientific
    breakthrough.
  • It gave toolmakers the time and resources to
    dedicate themselves to building and innovation.
  • This new social function created the first real
    engineers, and for the first time innovation
    flourished rapidly.

8
1.4 The Overview Approach
  • Engineering the Temples of Greece
  • The Roman Roads and Aqueducts
  • The Great Wall of China

9
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages
  • 1200 B.C. A.D. 1
  • Quality of wrought iron is improved
  • Swords are mass produced
  • Siege towers are perfected
  • Greeks develop manufacturing
  • Archimedes introduces mathematics in Greece
  • Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads and
    aqueducts in Rome.

10
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages A.D. 1-1000
  • Chinese further develop the study of mathematics
  • Gunpowder is perfected
  • Cotton and silk manufactured

11
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1000-1400
  • Silk and glass industries continue to grow
  • Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval mathematician,
    writes the first Western text on algebra

12
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1400-1700
  • First toilet is invented in England
  • Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
    which he observes the rotation about the sun
  • Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence
    of a vacuum
  • Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
    telescopes
  • Boyles Gas Law, stating pressure varies
    inversely with volume, is first introduced.

13
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1700-1800
  • Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
  • James Watt patents his first steam engine
  • Society of Engineers, a professional engineering
    society, is formed in London
  • First building made completely of cast iron built
    in England

14
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1800-1825
  • Machine automation is first introduced in France
  • First railroad locomotive is designed and
    manufactured
  • Chemical symbols are developed, the same symbols
    used today (Au, He)
  • Single wire telegraph line is developed

15
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1825-1875
  • Reinforced concrete is first used
  • First synthetic plastic material is created
  • Bessemer develops his process to create stronger
    steel in mass quantities
  • First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
  • Typewriter is perfected

16
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1875-1900
  • Telephone is patented in the US by Alexander
    Graham Bell
  • Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the
    phonograph
  • Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler
  • Automobile introduced by Karl Benz

17
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1900-1925
  • Wright brothers complete first sustained flight
  • Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors
  • First commercial flight between Paris and London
    begins
  • Detroit becomes center of auto production industry

18
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1925-1950
  • John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of
    television
  • The VW Beetle goes into production
  • First atomic bomb is used
  • The transistor is invented

19
1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1950-1975
  • Computers first introduced into the market, and
    are common by 1960
  • Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
    into space by USSR
  • First communication satelliteTelstaris put into
    space
  • The U.S. completes the first ever moon landing

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1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1975-1990
  • The Concord is first used for supersonic flight
    between Europe and the U.S.
  • Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel
  • First artificial heart is successfully implanted

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1.5 Traveling Through the Ages 1990-Present
  • Robots travel on Mars
  • The Chunnel between England and France is
    finished
  • GPS is used to predict and report weather
    conditions, as well as many other consumer
    applications

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsConsulting
  • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that
    does not directly manufacture products
  • Consulting engineers might be involved in design,
    installation, and upkeep of a product
  • Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where he/she
    works

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2.1 Introduction
  • Several characteristics of students that might
    have an interest in engineering are
  • Proficient skills in math and physical science
  • An urging from a high school counselor
  • Knows someone who is an engineer
  • Knows that engineering offers literally dozens,
    if not hundreds of job opportunities
  • Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
    lucrative

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2.1 Engineers and Scientists
  • Scientists seek technical answers to understand
    natural phenomenon
  • Engineers study technical problems with a
    practical application always in mind
  • For example
  • Scientists study atomic structure to understand
    the nature of matter engineers study atomic
    structure to make smaller and faster microchips

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2.2 Engineering Functions Research
  • Research engineers are knowledgeable in
    principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and
    mathematics
  • Computer know-how is also recommended
  • A Masters Degree is almost always required, and a
    Ph. D is often strongly recommended

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsDevelopment
  • Development engineers bridge the gap between the
    laboratory and the production facility
  • They also identify problems in a potential
    product
  • An example is the development of concept cars for
    companies like Ford and GM

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsTesting
  • Testing engineers are responsible for testing the
    durability and reliability of a product, making
    sure that it performs how it is supposed to,
    every time. T.E.s simulate instances and
    environments in which a product would be used
  • Crash testing of a vehicle to observe effects of
    an air bag and crumple zone are examples of a
    testing engineers duties

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design aspect is where largest number of
    engineers are employed
  • Design engineers often work on components of a
    product, providing all the necessary specifics
    needed to successfully manufacture the product
  • Design engineers regularly use computer design
    software as well as computer aided drafting
    software in their jobs

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsDesign
  • Design engineers must also verify that the part
    meets reliability and safety standards required
    for the product
  • A concern always on the mind of design engineers
    is how to keep the development of a part cost
    effective, which is taken into account during a
    design process

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsAnalysis
  • Analysis engineers use computational tools and
    mathematic models to enrich the work of design
    and research engineers
  • Analysis engineers typically have a mastery of
    heat transfer, fluid flow, vibrations, dynamics,
    acoustics, and many other system characteristics

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsSystems
  • Responsible on a larger scale for bringing
    together components of parts from design
    engineers to make a complete product
  • Responsible for making sure all components of a
    product work together as was intended by design
    engineers

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsManufacturing
Construction
  • Work individually or in teams
  • Responsible for molding raw materials into
    finished product
  • Maintain and keep records on equipment in plant
  • Help with design process to keep costs low

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsOperations
Maintenance
  • Responsible for maintaining production line
  • Must have technical know-how to deal w/ problems
  • Responsible for inspecting facility and
    equipment, must be certified in various
    inspection methods

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsTechnical Support
  • Works between consumers and producers
  • Not necessarily have in depth knowledge of
    technical aspects of product
  • Must have good interpersonal skills

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsCustomer Support
  • Often have more of a technical knowledge than
    Tech. Support, because they must be able to work
    with basic customers
  • Evaluate whether or not a current practice is
    cost effective via feedback from customers

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsSales
  • Sales engineers have technical background, but
    are also able to communicate effectively w/
    customers
  • Job market for sales engineers is growing, due to
    the fact that products are becoming more and more
    technically complex

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2.2 Engineering FunctionsConsulting
  • Are either self-employed, or work for a firm that
    does not directly manufacture products
  • Consulting engineers might be involved in design,
    installation, and upkeep of a product
  • Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where he/she
    works

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Profile of a Biomedical EngineerSue H. Abreu,
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
  • Occupation
  • Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
    Army
  • Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack Army
    Medical Center
  • Education
  • IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
  • MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
    Sciences, 1982
  • Studying Engineering
  • Was planning to be a teacher.
  • Because of taking an elective class in athletic
    training, developed an interest in sports
    medicine.
  • Ended up taking most of the classes in
    aeronautical engineering to study the lightweight
    structures and materials that could be used to
    design artificial limbs or protective equipment
    for sports.
  • Ended up graduating from college with an
    interdisciplinary engineering degree.

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Profile of a Biomedical EngineerSue H. Abreu,
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
  • Career Life
  • After medical school, specialized in nuclear
    medicine. Perform three-dimensional studies and
    quantify results. Is a consultant to other
    physicians Help them decide what tests might be
    helpful and discuss the meaning of the results
  • Ended up in a field she never had heard of when
    started college, but found it as kept exploring
    areas that intrigued her.
  • Tried new classes and looked for opportunities
    that interested her, even if they didnt fit the
    paths most students followed.
  • Now doing a great deal of teaching within the
    specialty of nuclear medicine and in her current
    work in quality assurance.
  • So, be sure to follow your dreams if you can take
    something you love doing and find a way to earn a
    living doing it, you will end up much happier
    than if you set money or prestige as your goals.
  • Life Outside of Work
  • Outside of work
  • Skydiving.
  • Volunteer as the team doctor for the U.S.
    Parachute Team and have traveled all over the
    world with them.

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Profile of a Computer EngineerRaymond C.
Barrera, Gaithersburg, MA
  • Education
  • BS, Electrical and Computer Engineering 1989
  • MS, Software Engineering 1999
  • Studying Engineering
  • Was very fortunate during high school to work for
    an archaeologist and her husband who were great
    mentors. Dr. Bernice McAllister taught him the
    scientific methodology an archaeologist needs to
    base sound conclusions on evidence. Probably
    would have been happy had him become an
    archaeologist, but
  • He really enjoyed building things.
  • His dads training as an electronic technician
    had gotten him interested in electronics since
    very young.
  • Some encouragement from Dr. McAllisters husband,
    Capt. James McAllister, USN (ret) helped convince
    him to select Electrical Engineering as his
    specialty.

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Profile of a Computer EngineerRaymond C.
Barrera, Gaithersburg, MA
  • Career Life
  • Work at a research, development, test and
    evaluation laboratory for the US Navy.
  • Involved in testing and system engineering of
    command and control systems.
  • Command and control systems are used by tactical
    commanders for decision making and direction.
  • Perhaps even more important than the technical
    work is the ability to communicate. Not very many
    engineers work alone.
  • Often the most difficult engineering challenge is
    to share an idea with others in oral and written
    presentations, but that is the only way these
    ideas can come to life.

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Profile of a Mechanical EngineerBeverly D.
Johnson, Waterloo, Iowa
  • Occupation
  • Supervisor in Wheel Operations at John Deere
    Waterloo Works
  • Education
  • BSME MS, Engineering Management
  • Studying Engineering
  • BS in Mechanical Engineering from the United
    States Military Academy
  • MS in Engineering Management from the University
    of Missouri, Rolla,
  • Current study in the Executive Masters Degree
    Program at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  • Engineering is a very rewarding career because
    you can see the results of your effort every day.
  • Engineering offers opportunities to create,
    build, design, and sometimes even destroy.
  • The analytical tools you develop in your
    engineering coursework make studying other
    subjects easier, and they are applicable to
    everyday life.
  • Truly enjoys her career in engineering. It is a
    dynamic career field that has taken her to many
    different jobs and many different places.

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Profile of a Mechanical EngineerBeverly D.
Johnson, Waterloo, Iowa
  • Career Life
  • Has been with the John Deere Waterloo Works for
    two years, working in various engineering
    assignments such as
  • quality engineering,
  • project management,
  • and process redesign.
  • Her current assignment as a supervisor in Wheel
    Operations is focused in production.
  • Is responsible for the assembly processes
    pertaining to the tires and wheels for the 7000
    and 8000 series tractors.
  • Is also responsible for the daily supervision of
    the wage department personnel. Thinks her job is
    sometimes hectic, but also very rewarding as she
    watches what her department is able to accomplish
    every day.
  • Prior to joining John Deere she spent nine years
    as a military officer in the U.S. Army Corps of
    Engineers. Her primary responsibilities included
    the construction of buildings and roads, and the
    development and training of other engineers.

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Profile of a Civil Engineer James L. Lammie, New
York
  • Occupation
  • Board of Directors, Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc.
  • Education
  • BS, Civil Engineering, 1953 MS, Civil
    Engineering, 1957
  • Career Life
  • His father worked in a steel mill in Pittsburgh,
    the City of Bridges. He was fascinated with the
    many different bridges and what could be done
    with steel. He knew that I wanted to build
    things. He was fortunate to win an appointment to
    West Point, which was founded as the first
    engineering school in the U.S.
  • After graduation, He spent 21 years in the Army
    Corps of Engineers working on a wide variety of
    military and civil engineering projects all over
    the world.
  • After retiring from the Army he knew I wanted to
    be a Project Manager on big projects, so he
    joined Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. and spent seven
    years as a consultant Project Manager for design
    and construction on the Metropolitan Atlanta
    Rapid Transit project (MARTA), the most rewarding
    period of his professional career.
  • After MARTA, he had the pleasure of serving as
    the CEO of Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., the
    largest transportation design firm in the U.S.,
    for the next fourteen years. Today, as a member
    of the Board of Directors of their employee-owned
    firm, he is still involved in some of their mega
    projects the Central Artery Highway project in
    Boston, the new Taiwan High-Speed Rail system,
    the Bay Area Rapid Transit extension to the San
    Francisco Airport, and many others.
  • The high point of his job is getting involved in
    critical project decisions and being able to
    kick the tires of work under construction.

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Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • Occupation
  • Director of Hardware Development, Lucent
    Technologies
  • Education
  • BS MS MBA
  • Studying Engineering
  • In high school trying to decide which career to
    pursue, he had a number of criteria
  • I wanted a job that Id look forward to each day,
  • that offered continuous learning, and
  • that offered a reasonable level of financial
    stability
  • Engineering satisfied those criteria for him.
  • He enjoyed math and science (the foundations of
    engineering) in high school, but engineering is
    more than number crunching.
  • The field of engineering rewards creativity,
  • the ability to find a better way to solve a
    problem.
  • If he had to do it over again, he would still
    choose engineering, but he would also have bought
    more shares of Wal-Mart, Lucent, and Yahoo when
    they were first offered.

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Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • In his career, he has advanced through a number
    of levels of technical management, and currently
    have about 130 engineers reporting to him
  • His job is no longer at the level of designing
    integrated circuits. he guide his teams progress
    on a number of new product development
    activities.
  • He works to make sure they have the right people
    working on the right things at the right time.
  • He set priorities among the competing needs of
    the business, and evaluate new business
    opportunities.
  • To do his lob, he uses a combination of business
    and technical judgment
  • What are the future customer needs,
  • What are the available and soon-to-be-available
    technologies, what are the competitors doing and
    what may they do next,
  • Who can do the work and work well together, and
    can we get the work done in time and at a
    reasonable cost.
  • The end results are new products introduced into
    the marketplace that turn a profit for the
    business. That goal can only be achieved through
    others.
  • A good part of my job is getting his teams to
    achieve more than they thought possible.

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Profile of an Electrical EngineerMark Allen
Pashan, Red Bank, New Jersey
  • This is the best time in history to be an
    engineer.
  • There are more available alternatives than ever
  • From startup companies to large established
    firms,
  • From full-time to part-time work hours.
  • There are more opportunities for continuing
    education and
  • Fhere is the potential for significant financial
    reward for those willing to take a risk.
  • His organization is spread across three states
    and I have customers and suppliers all over the
    world. His job requires travel and long hours,
    and he couldnt do his job and have a family
    without the support of my wife, Reem.
  • But they do it together and the kids are a joy
    (even when they dont always obey).
  • He enjoy a number of activities outside of work
    such as basketball, traveling, and dining out.

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  • Nikolai Dimitrievich Kondratiev was born on 4
    March 1892 in the province of Kostroma, north of
    Moscow, into a peasant family. He was tutored at
    the University of St. Petersburg before the
    revolution by Mikhail Tugan Baranovsky. A member
    of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, his initial
    professional work was in the area of agricultural
    economics and statistics and the problem of food
    supplies. On 5 October 1917, at the age of 25, he
    was appointed Minister of Supply of the last
    Alexander Kerensky government, which lasted for
    only a few days.
  • After the revolution, he dedicated his attention
    to academic research. In 1919, he was appointed
    to a teaching post at the Agricultural Academy of
    Peter the Great, and in October 1920 he founded
    the Institute of Conjuncture, in Moscow. As its
    first director, he developed the institute, from
    just a couple of scientists, into a large and
    respected institution with 51 researchers by
    1923.
  • In 1923, Kondratiev intervened in the debate
    about the "Scissors Crisis", following the
    general opinion of his colleagues. In 1923-5, he
    worked on a five-year plan for the development of
    the Soviet agriculture. In 1924, after publishing
    his first book, presenting the first tentative
    version of his theory of the major cycles,
    Kondratiev travelled to England, Germany, Canada
    and the United States, and visited several
    universities before returning to Russia.
  • A proponent of the Soviet New Economic Policy
    (NEP), Kondratiev favored the strategic option
    for the primacy of agriculture and the industrial
    production of consumer goods, over the
    development of heavy industry. Kondratievs
    influence on economic policy lasted until 1925,
    declined in 1926 and ended by 1927. Around this
    time, the NEP was dissolved by a political shift
    in the leadership of the Communist Party.
  • Kondratiev was removed from the directorship of
    the Institute of Conjuncture in 1928 and arrested
    in July 1930, accused of being member of an
    illegal and probably non-existent Peasants
    Labour Party. As early as August 1930, Soviet
    Premier Joseph Stalin wrote a letter to Prime
    Minister Vyacheslav Molotov asking for the
    execution of Kondratiev.
  • Convicted as a "kulak-professor" and sentenced to
    8 years in prison, Kondratiev served his
    sentence, from February 1932 onwards, at Suzdal,
    near Moscow. Although his health deteriorated
    under poor conditions, Kondratiev continued his
    research and decided to prepare five new books,
    as he mentioned in a letter to his wife. Some of
    these texts were indeed completed and were
    published in Russian.
  • His last letter was sent to his daughter, Elena
    Kondratieva, on 31 August 1938. Shortly
    afterwards, on 17 September during Stalin's Great
    Purge, he was subjected to a second trial,
    condemned to ten years without the right to
    correspond with the outside world however,
    Kondratiev was executed by firing squad on the
    same day it was issued. Kondratiev was 46 at the
    time of his execution and was only rehabilitated
    almost fifty years later, on 16 July 1987.
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