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Specialized Strength Training

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Specialized Strength Training * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Specialized Strength Training


1
Specialized Strength Training
  • ???

2
Introduction
  • Research supported the principles
  • Relatively infrequent workouts
  • 2 or 3 sessions per week
  • Relatively brief workouts
  • One set of 812 reps for 812 exs
  • Relatively slow movement speed
  • 6 or more seconds per repetition
  • Relatively full movement range
  • Through extended and flexed joint positions
  • Relatively small progressions
  • 13 pound weightload increases

3
Estimated Reps at Percent of 1 Repetition Maximum
Reps Reps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15
1RM Brzycki 100 95 90 88 86 83 80 78 76 75 72 70
1RM Baechle 100 95 93 90 87 85 83 80 77 75 67 65
1RM dos Remedios 100 92 90 87 85 82 75 70 65 60
4
Basic strength program for average adults
5
Resistance training
  • An integral part of an adult fitness program
  • A sufficient intensity to enhance strength,
    muscular endurance, and maintain fat-free mass
  • Progressive, individualized, and provide a
    stimulus to all the major muscle groups

6
Resistance training programs
  • One set of 8-10 ex that conditions the major
    muscle groups 2-3days a week is recommended
  • Multiple-set regimens may provide greater
    benefits (if time allows)
  • 8-12 reps of each ex
  • Older and frail persons(50-60 y/o and above),
    10-15 reps may be more appropriate

7
Results
  • American College of Sports Medicine exercise
    guidelines

Westcott and Guy 1996
8
The results means
  • As good as those attained using more demanding
    and complex ex protocols
  • A brief strength training program can be highly
    effective for muscle conditioning

9
Basic strength training program
  • 12 ex
  • Pair exercise for opposing muscles
  • Staring with the legs and progressing to the
    upper body, arms, midsection, and neck groups
  • 1 set each ex
  • Weightload 8-12 RM

10
Basic strength training program
  • moderate movement speed (about 6 secs)
  • full range
  • 12 reps can be completed, weightload increased by
    5 or less
  • 2 or 3 days a week (90 as much benefit from
    twice a week as three-day-a-week training)

11
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12
Strict training procedures
  • ACSM 1998, Sudy 1991, Westcott 1987

13
12 reasons to strength train
  • Avoid muscle loss
  • Avoid metabolic rate reduction
  • Increase muscle mass
  • Increase metabolic rate
  • Reduce body fat
  • Increase bone mineral density
  • Improve glucose metabolism
  • Increase gastrointestinal transit speed
  • Reduce resting blood pressure
  • Improve blood lipid levels
  • Reduce low back pain
  • Reduce arthritic pain

14
Strength training guidelines
  • Frequency
  • Every-other-day VS. Back-to-back
  • Duration
  • 8-12 reps on each machine, 6 secs per rep.
  • Intensity
  • Heavy enough to fatigue the target m. group
    within 8-12 rep.
  • Speed
  • 6 secs per rep. , 2 secs to lift, 4 secs to lower

15
Strength training guidelines
  • Range
  • Full range of pain free jt movement
  • Greater m. effort, jt flexibility, and
    performance power
  • Progression
  • Adding 13 pounds
  • Progressive resistance is the key to continued
    strength development
  • Continuity
  • Machine to machine in order
  • Works the muscles from larger to smaller groups

16
Recommendations for safe and effective exercise
participation
  • Treat exercise as positive rather than negative
  • Maintain regular workouts
  • Discontinue your workout in the event of illness
    or injury
  • Record important information regarding each
    training session

17
Recommendations for safe and effective exercise
participation
  • Wear specifically-designed athletic shoes and
    lightweight exercise clothing
  • Drink plenty of water before, during, and after
    exercise
  • Wait 2 hours after a large meal to engage in
    vigorous exercise
  • Eat nutritionally sound meals

18
Implementation options for the basic strength
training
  • Aerobic activity (moderate effort level) does not
    interfere with strength development (McCarthy et
    al 1995)
  • Adding stretching exercise may have dual
    benefits, enhancing flexibility and strength
    development

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21
Workout for weight loss
22
Muscle mass and energy
  • At rest a pound of muscle requires over 35
    calories a day for ongoing remodeling process
    (Campbell et al. 1994)
  • Inactive individuals lose about 5 pounds of
    muscle every decade of adult life
  • Lack of strength ex ? less muscle
  • ? reduced metabolic rate ? reduced energy need
    ? more calories store in fat cells

23
Fat loss
  • Endurance training does not replace muscle tissue
    that has been lost or prevent further muscle loss
  • Strength training and dieting may be the best way
    to simultaneously add muscle and lose fat
    (Darden 1987)

24
Study 1 (Role of strength exercise in weight loss
program)
25
Study 2 (Role of diet in weight loss program)
26
Weight loss program
  • 12 basic Nautilus exercises
  • Endurance ex
  • Stationary cycling and treadmill walking
  • Begins at present fitness level and progresses
    gradually to 25 mins of continuous aerobic
    activity
  • Warm up, steady-state, cool down
  • Does not elicit more than 75 HR max

27
Weight loss program
  • No response differences whether the strength
    training is performed before or after the
    endurance exercise
  • (Westcott and La Rosa Loud 1999)

28
Participant motivation
  • Over weight individuals experienced
  • Diet programs (most)
  • Exercise programs (few)
  • Misconception that strength training increases
    bodyweight

29
Participant motivation
  • Clear training objectives
  • Concise instruction and precise demonstration
  • Attentive supervision
  • Appropriate assistance
  • One task at a time
  • Gradual progression
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Specific feedback
  • Careful questioning
  • Pre and post exercise dialogue

30
Weight loss marketing model
  • Nautilus weight loss program
  • 80 members per session
  • Total 320 participants per year
  • The program fee is 250 per person
  • 80,000 in annual income

31
Basic strength program for cellulite
  • 1 set of 10-15 rep. , slow speed, full range
  • Hip and thigh muscles
  • Leg curl, leg extension, hip add., hip abd., leg
    press
  • 10 minutes for completion

32
Basic endurance program for cellulite
  • 10 minutes of continuous ex on a treadmill,
    cycle, stepper, etc
  • 2 mins warm up
  • 2 mins cool down
  • 70 HR max
  • 3 days a week
  • 8 weeks

33
Extended program
  • 5 more ex for the upper body and midsection
    muscles
  • Recommended machines
  • Bench press
  • Compound row
  • Overhead press
  • Abdominal
  • Low back
  • 20 mins strength, 20 mins endurance

34
Senior strength
35
Small class format
  • 10-week senior exercise program
  • 6 person class with 2 instructors
  • 25-30 minutes strength training(12 ex)
  • 20-25 minutes aerobic activities
  • 1 set of 8-12 rep. in each ex
  • Increase weightload 2-3 pounds
  • Slow speed (6 secs per rep.), full range

36
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38
Training exercises for shorter session
39
Training frequency and set
  • 2 and 3 training sessions per week to be equally
    effective
    (DeMichele et al. 1997)
  • Single and multiple-set training protocols have
    proven effective for increasing muscle strength
    and mass in senior men and women (Frontera et al.
    1988)
  • Compare 1 and 3 sets of ex have found no
    difference during the first few months
  • (Starkey et al. 1996)

40
Training resistance
  • 6090 of max resistance
  • Under 60
  • Light and provide less muscle building stimulus
  • Over 90
  • Heavy and may present more injury risk
  • 7080
  • Safe and effective weightload range

41
Training repetitions
  • 8 repetitions with 80 max resistance
  • 12 repetitions with 70 max resistance
  • Frail older adult
  • Somewhat lighter weightloads that permit about 15
    rep. per set (Feigenbaum and
    Pollock 1999)

42
Training technique
  • Body stability and back support
  • Avoid unnecessary blood pressure elevation
  • Exhale during concentric
  • Inhale during eccentric
  • Never hold their breath

43
Elderly strength training study
44
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45
Youth strength
46
Damage or not??
  • We were led to believe that resistance training
    would damage the bone growth plates and retard
    their musculoskeletal development
  • In fact, there has never been a case reported
    (NSCA 1995)
  • Strength training influences on bone formation
    (Morris et al.
    1997)

47
Study 1
  • 10 y/o boys and girls made overall strength gains
    of 74 after 2 months of twice-a-week training

48
Study 2
  • Changes in chest press strength for ex and
    control subjects over 8-week training and 8-week
    detraining periods(24 subjects, mean age 10 years)

49
Study 3
  • Changes in body composition for exercisers and
    controls after 8-week training period (42
    subjects, mean age 11 tears)

50
Strength training guidelines
  • Ex selection
  • 8-10 basic strength ex (major m. groups)
  • Ex frequency
  • 2 or 3 non-consecutive days per week
  • Ex sets
  • 1 or more sets of each ex
  • Ex repetitions
  • 8-12 rep. per set

51
Strength training guidelines
  • Ex resistance
  • 75 of max resistance
  • Ex progression
  • 5 or less
  • Ex speed
  • Minimum momentum
  • Ex range
  • Full range, moderate muscle stretch to full
    muscle contraction
  • Ex breathing
  • continuously

52
Program considerations
  • A pre participation physical exam
  • Emotional maturity to accept coaching
  • Adequate supervision by coaches
  • Should be a part of an over all comprehensive
    program
  • Warm-up and cool-down
  • Dynamic concentric and eccentric contraction
  • Full ROM
  • Competition is prohibited
  • No maximum lift should ever be attempted

53
High rep. low load VS. low rep. high load in
youth strength training
54
Studies
55
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58
Advanced strength training
59
Design for high intensity strength training
  • 1-set training is highly effective
    (Feigenbaum 1999)
  • Multiple-set training is more productive for
    advanced exercisers???
  • A less time consuming approach
  • High-intensity strength training

60
High intensity training
  • Extend the length of ex repetition
  • Slow down the repetition speed

61
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62
High intensity training
  • Extend the length of ex set
  • Increase the strength building stimulus by
    fatiguing more muscle fiber

63
Pre-exhaustion training
  • For example
  • 8-12 chest cross to fatigue the pectoralis major
  • Move as quick as possible perform 4-6 rep. to
    push a deeper level pectoralis major
  • Highly effective
    (Westcott 1996)
  • No more than 2 sessions per week

64
Combined procedures program
65
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66
Upper body strength program for wheelchair users
67
SCI individuals
  • Better fitness level
  • Higher quality of life
  • More easily accomplishing daily tasks
  • Developing greater skill and challenge in sport
  • Decrease cardiovascular disease
  • Reduce m. atrophy
  • Increase resting metabolic rate
  • Psychological and social benefit

68
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69
Exercise protocol
  • Overview of the equipment
  • Physical considerations when developing a fitness
    program for SCI members
  • The physiology of an SCI injury
  • Common medical conditions resulting from SCI
  • Physical considerations during exercise
  • Automatic nervous system impairment
  • Additional staff training and education

70
Types of machines
  • Weight stack machine
  • Hydraulic machine
  • Pneumatic machine

71
Merit Demerit of Weight Training
  • Merit
  • Visual feedback increase the motivation
  • Suitable for strengthening gross muscle
  • Simple
  • Demerit
  • Usually done with low speed and put too much
    resistance
  • joint can be easily damaged
  • Doing the training with high speed, inertia
    causes impact force
  • and joint get too much stresses.
  • Weight stack machine is intimidating because of
    its shape, size and looks. User feel that they
    are controlled by machine..

72
Merit Demerit of pneumatic machine
  • Merit
  • Resistance can be adjusted with ramp resistance
  • Not so much stress on joints
  • Speed training
  • You can train both main and opposing muscle
  • No intimidating, small and light
  • Silent
  • Demerit
  • No visual feedback from the machine (there are
    no weight stacks so you can not see how much work
    you are doing.
  • Cannot see how hard worker you are).

73
Merit Demerit of hydraulic machine
  • Merit
  • Not so much stress on joints.
  • Speed training is possible
  • Small and no intimidating
  • Silent
  • Demerit
  • Only concentric contraction training
  • No visual effects

74
Pneumatic training machines
  • set the resistance by pushing the button
  • increase resistance stepless
  • Both low and high speed training is possible, no
    stress on joints, soft feeling
  • Safe and no extra stress(no inertia)
  • Noiseless (no sounds of iron weight stack..)
  • Small and light

75
Resistance curves
Impulse force
Resistance escapes
Speed is approx. 5rpm
Stable Torque curve (safe and
effective)
When you train fast, resistance changes because
of inertia
76
Pneumatic machines
Adduction/Abduction
Leg Press Incline
Leg extension/curl
Lat Pull
Abdomen/back
77
Nature transmission design
78
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