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Crane Safety on Construction Sites Supervision and Management of Crane Operations Standards, Regulations, Certifications

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Title: Crane Safety on Construction Sites Supervision and Management of Crane Operations Standards, Regulations, Certifications


1
Crane Safety on Construction Sites Supervision
and Management of Crane Operations Standards,
Regulations, Certifications
  • Presented by the Construction Institute of ASCE
  • Funded by an OSHA
  • Susan Harwood Training Grant

2
Disclaimers
  • This material was produced under grant
    SH-17794-08-60-F-51 from the Occupational Safety
    and Health Administration, U.S. Department of
    Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views
    and policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor
    does mention of trade names, commercial products,
    or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
    Government.
  • This course is intended to provide general
    information to engineers and managers for use
    in identifying and addressing their responsibiliti
    es with respect to construction worksite
    safety. The program cannot possibly cover
    all safety issues that may be encountered at the
    construction worksite, and it is not a substitute
    for prudent judgment or professional expertise.
    It does not constitute legal advice. The
    information provided in this course should not be
    used without first securing competent advice with
    respect to its suitability for any general or
    specific application. ASCE and the Construction
    Institute disclaim all warranties regarding this
    course, whether implied, express or statutory,
    including without limitation, any implied
    warranty of merchantability, fitness for use, or
    fitness for a particular purpose. ASCE and the
    Construction Institute make no representation conc
    erning the accuracy, completeness, suitability,
    or utility of any information, apparatus,
    method, product, or process discussed in this
    course and assume no liability therefore.  Anyone
    utilizing the information provided in this
    course assumes all responsibility or liability
    arising from such use.

3
Standards, Regulations, Certifications
4
Standards, Regulations, Licensing
  • OSHA (New SubPart N in the works!)
  • ASME
  • INTERNATIONAL
  • GOVERNMENTAL
  • INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • OPERATOR CERTIFICATION AGENCIES
  • STATES
  • CITIES
  • LEGAL
  • REFERENCES

5
Standards
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B
    30.5
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • Power Crane and Shovel Association Standard No. 2
    (PCSA)  

6
ASME B.30 Equipment Listing
  • B30.1 Jacks
  • B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes
  • B30.3 Construction Tower Cranes
  • B30.4 Portal, Tower, and Pedestal Cranes
  • B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes
  • B30.6 Derricks
  • B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists
  • B30.8 Floating Cranes Floating Derricks
  • B30.9 Slings
  • B30.10 Hooks
  • B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes
  • B30.12 Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft
  • B30.13 Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines
  • B30.14 Side Boom Tractors

B30.16 Overhead Hoists (Underhung) B30.17
Overhead and Gantry Cranes B30.18 Stacker Cranes
B30.19 Cableways B30.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting
Devices B30.21 Manually Lever Operated
Hoists B30.22 Articulating Boom Cranes B30.23
Personnel Lifting Systems B30.24 Container
Cranes1 B30.25 Scrap and Material Handlers B30.26
Rigging Hardware1 B30.27 Material Placement
Systems1 B30.28 Balance-Lifting Units1
1 B30.24, B30.26, B30.27 and B30.28 are in the
developmental stage.
7
OSHA General Duty Clause
  • The General Duty Clause of the United States
    Occupational Safety and Health Act states
  • 29 U.S.C. 654, 5(a)1 Each employer shall
    furnish to each of his employees employment and a
    place of employment which are free from
    recognized hazards that are causing or are likely
    to cause death or serious physical harm to his
    employees. Each employee shall comply with
    occupational safety and health standards and all
    rules, regulations and orders issued pursuant to
    this Act which are applicable to his own actions
    and conduct.

8
OSHA Construction Requirements
  • Key Requirements of Subpart N, 29 CFR 1926.550
  • The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's
    specifications and limitations applicable to the
    operation of any and all cranes and derricks.
    Where manufacturer's specifications are not
    available, the limitations assigned to the
    equipment shall be based on the determinations of
    a qualified engineer competent in this field and
    such determinations will be appropriately
    documented and recorded. Attachments used with
    cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or
    scope recommended by the manufacturer.
  • (2) Rated load capacities, and recommended
    operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or
    instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all
    equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be
    visible to the operator while he is at his
    control station.
  • (5) The employer shall designate a competent
    person who shall inspect all machinery and
    equipment prior to each use, and during use, to
    make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any
    deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective
    parts replaced, before continued use.
  • (6) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting
    machinery shall be made by a competent person, or
    by a government or private agency recognized by
    the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall
    maintain a record of the dates and results of
    inspections for each hoisting machine and piece
    of equipment.

9
OSHA Construction Industry
  • Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)
  • 1926 Subpart N, Cranes, derricks, hoists,
    elevators, and conveyors
  • 1926.550, Cranes and derricks
  • 1926.551, Helicopters
  • 1926.552, Material hoists, personnel hoists, and
    elevators
  • 1926.553, Base-mounted drum hoists
  • 1926.554, Overhead hoists
  • 1926.555, Conveyors
  • 1926.556, Aerial lifts

10
Crane and Derrick (CDAC) Proposed Regulations
  • The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational
    Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) held a
    4-day public hearing on the proposed regulations
    March 17-20, 2009
  • A copy of the proposed standard is available on
    OSHA's website at http//www.osha.gov/doc/proposed
    rule/Cranes_Derricks_Proposed_Rule.html
  • The cranes and derricks proposed rule would apply
    to the estimated 96,000 construction cranes in
    the U.S., including 2,000 tower cranes. The
    proposed standard addresses key safety issues
    associated with cranes, including
  • ground conditions
  • the assembly and disassembly of cranes
  • the operation of cranes near power lines
  • the certification and training of crane operators
  • the use of safety devices and signals
  • and inspections of cranes
  • multipurpose machines (i.e. forklifts) when
    configured as a crane will fall under OSHA
    regulations.

11
Crane and Derrick (CDAC) Proposed Regulations
  • Significantly updates existing tower crane
    requirements and more comprehensively addresses
    tower crane safety, with respect both to erecting
    and dismantling, and to crane operations.
  • The proposed standard would establish four
    options for the qualification or certification of
    crane operators
  • certification through an accredited third-party
    testing organization
  • qualification through an audited employer testing
    program
  • qualification issued by the U.S. military and
  • qualification by a state or local licensing
    authority.

12
Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines
  • Cranes are designed for both general use and for
    specific purposes. Similar to the vast automobile
    industry, crane manufacturers produce similar
    models or types of cranes for the same purpose,
    often with different sizes of the same model of
    crane. Each type, model, or size of crane
    manufactured, may have different operating
    controls and require specialized operator
    training, individualized inspection criteria, and
    different preventive maintenance schedules.

13
International Standards
  • German DIN
  • CEN
  • FEM
  • England
  • Australia
  • EN

14
Governmental Standards
  • Naval Facilities Command (NAVFAC)
  • Department of Energy (DOE)
  • US Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE)

15
Corporate Standards
  • Petrochemical
  • Exxon
  • Conoco Phillips
  • Construction companies-
  • Bechtel
  • Fluor
  • Shaw
  • Zachary

16
Individual Entities
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

17
Standards of Jurisdictions
  • Most of the 24 states, Puerto Rico, and Virgin
    Islands that operate their own
  • safety and health programs for private or public
    sector workers have adopted
  • OSHAs standards. Some have developed their own
    regulations concerning
  • specific hazards in certain industries. For
    example, according to OSHAs 2001 report on
    state-plan activities
  • Oregon requires certification for operators of
    cranes that are five tons or more.
  • The California Division of Occupational Safety
    and Health (DOSH) inspects tower cranes ... twice
    a year. DOSH must be notified 24 hours in advance
    whenever a tower crane begins operation, is
    climbed or dismantled and when a mobile tower
    crane begins operation. Subsequently, California
    required certification of crane operators and
    made other changes to its standard.
  • Hawaii, Nevada and New Mexico among others also
    are identified by OSHA in its 2001 report as
    being among state-plan states having their own
    crane regulations. Both Hawaii and New Mexico
    require that hoist machine operators be
    certified, for example.

18
Local Licensure of Crane Operators
  • 16 states and 6 cities have licensing
    requirements for crane operators. Administrative
    procedures change periodically please ensure you
    contact the appropriate authority to ensure you
    have the latest information. 

STATES STATES CITIES
California Connecticut Chicago
Hawaii Massachusetts Los Angeles
Minnesota Montana New Orleans
Nevada New Jersey New York City
New Mexico New York Omaha
Oregon Pennsylvania Washington D.C.
Rhode Island Utah
Washington (2010) West Virginia
19
Certifications
  • Crane Operators
  • National Council for the Certification of Crane
    Operators (NCCCO)
  • Crane Institute Certification (CIC)
  • Signalmen (NCCCO)
  • Riggers (NCCCO)
  • In-House Training

20
Signal Persons (proposed)
  • Under proposed section 1926.1428, signal persons
    qualifications, the employer has two methods to
    ensure the competence of these individuals
  • (1) the signal person would have documentation
    from a third party qualified evaluator showing
    that the evaluator had determined that the signal
    person meets the sections requirements, and
  • (2) an employers own qualified evaluator would
    have determined that a signal person meets the
    qualifications requirements.

21
NCCCO Certification Overview
  • National Commission for the Certification of
    Crane Operators
  • NCCCO currently administers certification
    programs for operators of mobile cranes, tower
    cranes and overhead cranes.
  • Complete description of the crane examinations
    and application process, and handbooks can be
    downloaded from the website http//www.nccco.org/.
  • To ensure CCO examinations are psychometrically
    sound, fair and effective measurements of a crane
    operator's knowledge and skills, NCCCO teams the
    expertise of its subject matter experts with one
    of the nation's leading professional
    credentialing organizations, International
    Assessment Institute (IAI).

22
NCCCO Certification Overview
  • NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF
    CRANE OPERATORS
  • NCCCO certification is designed to assure both
    industry and the general public that Operators
    are skilled and knowledgeable.
  • Features of the NCCCO program are that it is
  • national in scope
  • operated by the private sector
  • independent of labor relations policies
  • tailored to different types of cranes
  • designed so certifications must be renewed every
    5 years
  • tested in three parts medical, written, and
    practical
  • accredited by nationally recognized professional
    credentialing authorities (NCCA and NSSB)
  • officially recognized by Federal OSHA.
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