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Nuclear Technology

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Ionizing Radiation - radiation detection and measurements Radiation Safety - safety in nuclear technology Nuclear Technology - applications of nuclear technology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nuclear Technology


1
Nuclear Technology
Energy - the driving force of change Natural
Units - atoms, molecules, moles, and electrons
Atoms - the tiny wonders Atomic Nuclei - small
frontier to explore Radioactive Decay -
transmutation of nuclides Particles - frozen
energy states Nuclides - composite particles of
nucleons Nuclear Reactions - changing the hearts
of atoms Nuclear Fission - energy for war and
peace Nuclear Fusion - an ideal energy source
Ionizing Radiation - radiation detection and
measurements Radiation Safety - safety in
nuclear technology Nuclear Technology -
applications of nuclear technology
2
Energy Nuclear Science
The most important aspect of nuclear technology
is the large amount of energy involved in nuclear
changes, radioactivity, nuclear reactions,
radiation effects etc. Thus, the energy concept
is very important before we start to explore
nuclear science. Nuclear energy associates with
mass according to Einsteins formula, E m c
2but what does it mean?
E m c2
3
Energy driving force of change
Change is the only constant in the
universe. Changes winds, rains, storms,
thunders, forest fires, earthquakes, waves, plant
growth, food decay, ocean tides, formation and
melting of ice, combustion, and growing old ...
more example please. What are physical and
non-physical changes? What causes
changes? Heat elasticity gravity electromagnet
ic wave
Identify changes and energy in everyday events
4
Recognizing energy
Energy plays an important partAnd its used in
all this workEnergy, yest energy with power so
great,A kind that cannot shirk. If the farmer
had not this energy,He would be at a loss,But
its sad to think, this energyBelongs to a
little brown horse.   A school verse by
Richard Feynman
Nobel laureate for physics
Photo of Feynman and Murray Gell-Men
5
Mechanical Work
Mass m kg Acceleration a m s-2 Force F m a N
(Newton kg m s-2) Distance s m Work W F s
J (N m or kg m2 s-2) Potential energy Wp m g h
unites? Kinetic energy Wk ½ m v 2 work out
unites
0.1 kg
1 N
Think and deal with quantity of energy
6
Properties of PE and KE
PE and KE are state functions depending on only
the final conditions not on how the conditions
were arrived (path). Changes of PE and KE depend
on only the initial and final conditions, not on
the paths. PE and KE are inter-convertible, but
not destroyed. Do you know any other properties?
Energy in amusement parks
Explain state functions
7
The Temperature Concept
Objective comparison of energy flow potentials
temperature scales. 0th law of thermodynamicsTwo
bodies each equal in temperature to a third body
are equal in temperature to each other. Maxwell
(19th century) Temperature scales led to the
concept of heat The science of heat -
thermodynamics.
8
Hot, Cold and Heat
What are the differences between hot-cold
temperature and heat?
Heat, transfers from object to object, elusive.
When heat is transferred between objects, their
temperatures change. Heat is an extensive
property as are electric charge, length,
mechanical work, mass, mole, time, etc. Heat is
measurable in quantities, units being btu, cal,
kcal, J, kJ, kwh, etc.An amount of heat required
to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of water from
288.5 to 289.5 K is defined as 1.00 calorie or
4.184 J.
Temperatures (hot and cold) indicate potential
for heat flow. They are intensive properties as
are color, electrical potentials, concentrations
heat capacity, pressures, etc. Temperature
scales made hot-cold measurements quantitative,
but they are not quantities to be added or
subtracted.
Differentiate temperature from heat
9
The Concept of Heat
  • Heat is evidently not passive it is an expansive
    fluid which dilates in consequence of the
    repulsion subsisting among its own particles
    Joseph Black (1728-1799)
  • - is a typical additive quantity
  • is different from hot
  • inter-convertible to mechanical work (same units)

10
The Energy Concept
Inter-conversion of Heat and Work
Inter-conversion- discovered unexpectedlyby Ben
Thompson (1753-1814) while making
cannons. Conversion factor was determined by J.
Joule (1818-1889) 1 cal 4.184 J This entity was
called effort, living force, and travail, before
the term energy was coined by Thomas Young
(1773-1829)
Joule in his 20s
11
Energy
Heat and work are really energy being
transferred. Energy stored in a body is neither
heat nor work.Kinetic energies of gases are
proportional to their temperature. Once absorbed,
the nature of heat has changed. Motion of gas
molecules gave rise to pressure - Daniel
Bernoulli (1700-1782). Rudolf J.E. Clausius
(1822-1888), James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), W.
Thomson, and Ludwig E. Boltzmann (1844-1906),
studied the relationship between temperature and
energy of molecular motion. Many elegant theories
have been developed as a result.
12
Forms of Energy
Other driving forces Benefitchideterminationenc
ouragementinspirationlovelawmotivationresolut
ionscarcity
HeatMechanical work Waves (sound
etc) Electromagnetic radiation (waves)Electrical
(charge transfer)ChemicalMass (nuclear)
What are the properties of energy in these forms
and how to evaluate them?
13
Electric Energy
Electric energy, E Joulepotential, V
Voltcharge, q Coulomb E V q E hg m1 J 1
CV 1 N m etc
Be able to evaluate quantities of electric energy
14
Simple electric energy calculations
Electric energy, E Joulepotential, V
Voltcharge, q Coulomb E V q E hg m1 J 1
CV 1 N m etc
Potential difference, V, current i ( q / t )
and resistance R. V i R (Ohms law) Power P,
(I/o) P V q / t V i ( i current )
R i 2 (Joules law) Energy and power E P t
( unit kilo-watt-hour) DC and AC
15
eV a special energy unit
Electron-volt, eV, is a very special energy unit,
although we have not discussed electricity and
electrons yet. Charge of an electron 1.6022e-19
C (one of the fundamental physical
constants). The energy required to increase the
electric potential of an electron by 1 V is 1 eV
1.6022e-19 J (J C V). Other units used in
nuclear energy are keV (1000 eV) MeV (1e6
eV) GeV (1e9 eV)
Be able to inter-convert energy quantities in
various units
16
What is light?
Wave properties? Particle properties? MasslessIn
terferenceNewton ringdiffraction Law of
reflection law of refractionmove in straight
line??
17
Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation is transfer of energy
by EM waves via no medium(?). EM waves travel in
empty space at constant speed (c 2.997925e8
m/s constant). EM waves are characterized by
wavelength ? (or frequency ?) Light is part of
the EM spectrum. EM radiation has a very wide
spectrum (? or ? ).
18
The EM Spectrum
The EM Radiation Spectrum
Long-wave RadioBroadcast radio bandShort
wavelength radioInfraredVISIBLEUltravioletX-ra
ysGamma rays
gt 600 m 600 - 200 m200 m - 0.1 mm0.1 - 0.0007
mm0.7 - 0.4 um0.4 um - 1 nm1 nm - 0.1 pm0.1 nm
Remember the order of these regions
19
The EM Wave Spectrum
20
The Visible Spectrum
Double rainbow
21
Photons, E h?
Max Planck assumption, E h ?, was shown to be
true by Einsteins photoelectric experiment.
Speed of light, c 3e8 m s-1wavelength, ?
frequency of light, ? c / ?Planck constant, h
6.62619e-34 J senergy of a photon E h ?. A
photon is a bundle of energy, and its like a
particle of light. Use wave to show ? and ?.
Max Planck(1858-1947)Nobel Prize (1918)
22
The Photon Story
Max Planck assumption, E h?, was shown to be
true by Einsteins photoelectric experiment.
Explain the photoelectric effect.
23
Photon Energy
Typical red light, ? 4.69e14 s-1 (Hz), ? c
/ ? 3e8 m s-1 / 4.69e14 s-1 640 nm
Wave number 1 / ? 1 / 6.40e11 m
1.56e6 m-1 E h ? 6.62619e-34 J s
4.69e14 s-1 3.1 x 10-19 J (1 eV / 1.6 x
10-19 J) 1.9 eV per photon
find wavelength or frequency of a violet photon
and carry out similar evaluations.
24
Laser
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation (LASER)
25
Chemical Energyenthalpy
 
Understand these terms on energy or enthalpy Bond
energyenergy of reactionenergy related to
temperatureenergy related to states melting,
vaporization, phase transitionmass loss in
chemical reactions
26
Relative and Zero Masses
Special theory of relativity (by Einstein) shows
that mass m of a particle with velocity, v
relates to the mass when v 0, which is called
zero mass, mo.
27
Mass and Energy
Einstein further showed that the relativistic
mass, m, of a particle exceeds its rest mass mo
(?m m - mo). The increase in kinetic energy ?E
and increase in mass are related by ?E ?m c
2 or E m c 2 ImplicationMass and energy are
equivalent. Mass can be expressed in energy unit
and vice versa. 241800 J 241800/c 2
2.7 x 10-12 kg 3 ng
28
Power rate of energy transfer
The SI unit for power P is watt named after James
Watt, 1 watt 1 J s1
Work out by heart 1 kilowatt-hour __ J
__ cal __ BTU
29
The law of Conservation of Energy
Energy converts among various forms without any
loss or gain. Energy cannot be created nor
destroyed. Conversions of energy in various forms
have definite rates. These rates never change,
and we have energy conversion factors.
1 amu 1/12th of mass of a C12 atom
1 amu (12 kg/k mol)/12 (1 kg/k
mol)/(6.022e26 (k mol)-1) 1.661e-27 kg 931.5
MeV
30
Some conversion factors
1 eV 1.602 x 10-19 J1 eV/molecule 23045
cal/mol1 MeV 1.602 x 10-13 J 1 amu 1.66043
x 10-31 J 931.4812 MeV 1 cal 4.184 J 1 atm L
101.3 J 1 J 1 coulomb-volt 1 joule 107
ergs 1 BTU 252 cal
These factors are in the lecture notes. Be able
to do unit conversion.
31
Transmitting Energy by Sound
Sound intensity (I, watt/m2), level (SIL) is
SIL (dB) SILo 10 log (I/Io ) At 1000 Hz,
the threshold SILo  0 dB, I0 10-12 watt
/ m2) When I 1 watt / m2 SIL 120 dB (work
out)
Comfortable hearing is between 50 and 70 dB,
whereas 10 dB is a bel (after A. G. Bell,
1847-1922). A shock wave is due to a sharp
difference in pressure from (nuclear) explosions.
Shock waves cause serious injuries to ears, and
destroy buildings and structures.
32
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics was derived from the Greek words
therme (heat) and dynamis (force), intensely
studied in the 19th century motivated by the need
to convert heat into mechanical work. 0th law if
T of A, TA T B, TB TC, then TA TC 1st law
law of conservation of energy, recognizing
internal energy Ein q w. 2nd law not
possible for a machine to convert all the heat
into work. 3rd law changes are caused be energy
decrease and entropy increase.
These laws govern engineering of energy transfer.
33
Energy Resources and Utilization
What are possible energy resources? Solar
energy Geothermal energy Nuclear energy ???
(class discussion) What technologies are
available to utilize these resources? ??? How
efficient are some of the technologies? ???
34
Energy crisis and social problems
These issues affect us all, and please apply
basics and human natures to solve these problems
so your generation will live happily hereafter.
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