Environmental and Economic Implications of Phasing Out Direct Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Environmental and Economic Implications of Phasing Out Direct Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking

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Environmental and Economic Implications of Phasing Out Solid Fuels Used for Cooking in China Eric D. Larson Research Engineer/Associated Faculty – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental and Economic Implications of Phasing Out Direct Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking


1
Environmental and Economic Implications of
Phasing Out Solid Fuels Used for Cooking in China
Eric D. Larson Research Engineer/Associated
Faculty Princeton Environmental
Institute Princeton University, USA
Mitigation of Air Pollution and Climate Change in
China 17-19 October 2004 Oslo Norwegian Academy
of Science and Letters
2
Outline
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Global warming
  • Challenge of replacing solid cooking fuels
  • Prospects for increasing LPG use
  • Prospects for dimethyl ether (DME)

3
Pollution from Cooking Stoves/Fuels (measured
emissions to room air from flue-less stoves in
China)
PIC Products of Incomplete Combustion
Source Zhang, J., Smith, K.R., et al., 2000,
Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants
from household stoves in China a database for
emission factors, Atmos. Environ. 34 4537-4549.
4
Approximate Total Global Human Exposure to
Particulate Air Pollution
As cited by Reddy, Williams, Johansson, 1997,
Energy After Rio, UNDP, New York.
5
Global Warming Potentials of Combustion Products
(relative to CO2)
Source Bond, Venkataraman, and Masera, 2004,
Global atmospheric impacts of residential
fuels, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
6
Global Warming Commitment of Cooking
Fuels/Technologies (estimates)
Source Bond, Venkataraman, and Masera, 2004,
Global atmospheric impacts of residential
fuels, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
7
Indicative Change in Radiative Impact Compared
with Traditional Fuels
Averages taken from previous GWC estimates
Traditional stoves average of 3 traditional
cases Improved stoves average of 3 improved
cases Charcoal average of 2 charcoal cases
Clean fossil fuels average of kerosene, LPG,
and natural gas.
Source Bond, Venkataraman, and Masera, 2004,
Global atmospheric impacts of residential
fuels, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
8
Solving the Problem
9
Pollution from Cooking Stoves/Fuels (measured
emissions to room air from flue-less stoves in
China)
PIC Products of Incomplete Combustion
Source Zhang, J., Smith, K.R., et al., 2000,
Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants
from household stoves in China a database for
emission factors, Atmos. Environ. 34 4537-4549.
10
Efficiencies of Cooking Stoves/Fuels (from
standardized meal cooking tests)
Source Dutt, G. S., and N. H. Ravindranath,
1993, Bioenergy direct applications in
cooking, Renewable Energy, H. Kelly, T.B.
Johansson, A.K.N. Reddy, and R.H. Williams
(eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC, pp.
653-697.
11
How easily can the dirty cooking problem be
solved?
  • Goldemberg et al. (2004) indicate that 2.6
    billion people cook with solid fuels today
    worldwide. They estimate 35 kg/capita/year of LPG
    (liquefied petroleum gas) could meet basic
    cooking needs.
  • 35 kg LPG x 46 MJ/kg 1.61 GJ/year/cap.
  • 1.61 GJ/yr/cap x 2.6 billion 4.2 billion
    GJ/year (or 100 million toe, 143 million tce).
  • This is 1 of global commercial energy use in
    2003.
  • The corresponding figure for China is 2.6.

12
What is the value of clean cooking fuel?
WB has estimated rural indoor air pollution
costs 4 - 11 billion/year. This is 22 -
63/GJ of fuel required. Retail price of LPG in
rural China is 50-60 Yuan RMB for a 15 kg bottle.
(US8.8 to 10.6/GJ).
Johnson, Liu, Newfarmer, Clear Water, Blue
Skies, Chinas Environment in the New Century,
World Bank, 1997.
13
Barriers to Cleaner Cooking
  • Natural progression up the energy ladder
    (dung/crop residues ? fuelwood ? charcoal ?
    kerosene ? LPG ? NG/electricity) follows
    increasing incomes very slow process.
  • Low/zero private cost for biomass/coal use.
    External costs (e.g., health damages) not
    reflected in private price of solid fuels, so
    difficult to compete with cleaner fuels that
    carry higher private cost.
  • Cooking is womens domain, but women are not
    generally the decision makers regarding cooking
    fuels.
  • Dirty fuels are not politically consequential.
    (In recent Indian elections, roads, water, and
    electricity were swing issues. Cooking fuel was
    not.)
  • Governments of industrialized countries may not
    appreciate the links between dirty fuels in
    developing countries and impacts on their own
    countries.
  • Most energy-related development assistance over
    the past 30 years has focused on electrification,
    and this continues to be the case.
  • Where heating is done with solid fuels, adopting
    clean cooking fuel will only partially improve
    the situation.

14
Fuel Options for Cleaner Cooking in China
  • Fossil-derived fuels
  • Liquefied petroleum gas, LPG
  • Town gas (gasified coal)
  • Natural gas
  • Kerosene
  • Dimethyl ether (from coal)
  • Electricity
  • Biomass-derived fuels
  • Producer gas
  • Biogas
  • Dimethyl ether
  • Ethanol/ethanol gel
  • Electricity

15
LPG Use in Developing Countries
Source Annual Statistical Review of LP Gas, LP
Gas Association, Paris.
16
Chinas LPG Sources
Supplying 800 million people with 35 kg/cap/yr of
LPG would require 28 million tons of LPG (double
current consumption). Much of the additional
supply would need to be imported.
Source Annual Statistical Review of LP Gas, LP
Gas Association, Paris.
17
?????????????Chinese Oil Imports since 1988
Source Tony Cui (BP China), personal
communication, July 2004.
18
??????????LPG and Crude Oil Prices
Source Tony Cui (BP China), personal
communication, July 2004.
19
DME (CH3OCH3) is Similar to LPG
  • DME used today as ozone-safe aerosol propellant.
    Current global production is 150,000 tons/year
    (from methanol).
  • DME is also a good diesel-engine fuel high
    cetane , no sulfur, no C-C bonds so no soot,
    lower NOx emissions.
  • New DME manufacturing capacity under
    construction/planned
  • From nat. gas 110,000 t/y (Sichuan, China, 2005
    on-line) 800,000 t/y (Iran, 2006 on-line)
  • From coal 840,000 t/y project approved (Ningxia,
    China, construction not yet started)

20
Making DME from Coal
  • Gasify coal in O2/H2O to produce synthesis gas
    syngas (mostly CO, H2).
  • Increase H/C ratio (from 0.8 for coal to 3 for
    DME) via water gas shift reaction (CO H2O ? H2
    CO2).
  • Remove acid gases (H2S and CO2) from syngas.
  • Convert syngas to DME in a slurry-phase synthesis
    reactor.
  • Separate DME product from unconverted syngas.
  • Produce exportable electricity with unconverted
    syngas.

Source Larson and Yang, 2004, Dimethyl Ether
(DME) from Coal as a Household Cooking Fuel in
China, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
21
Growing Global Gasification Capacity Will Reach
61 GWth in 2004
  • In 2004
  • By activity
  • 24 GWth chemicals
  • 23 GWth power
  • 14 GWth synfuels
  • By region
  • 9 GWth China
  • 10 GWth N America
  • 19 GWth W Europe
  • 23 GWth Rest of world
  • By feedstock
  • 27 GWth pet. residuals
  • 27 GWth coal
  • 6 GWth natural gas
  • 1 GWth biomass
  •  


Source Dale Simbeck, SFA Pacific Inc., Mountain
View, California.
22
Slurry-Phase Synthesis of Liquids
  • Basic overall reactions
  • Commercial status

Liquid-phase reactors have much higher one-pass
conversion of COH2 to liquids than traditional
gas-phase reactors, e.g., liquid-phase
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has 80 one-pass
conversion, compared to lt40 for traditional
technology.
Fischer-Tropsch MeOH DME
Commercial units in operation ?
Demonstrated at commercial scale ?
Demonstrated at pilot-plant scale ?
China, Japan, USA
23
Energy Balance for DME from Coal
Bituminous coal typical of Yanzhou area, Shandong Province (dry weight ) Bituminous coal typical of Yanzhou area, Shandong Province (dry weight )
C 63.7
H 4.3
O 6.8
S 4.0
N 1.1
Ash 20.2
Moisture (as recd) 7.1
HHV (MJ/kg as recd) 24.54
LHV (MJ/kg, as recd) 23.49
Energy Balance Summary Energy Balance Summary
Coal feed (MW) 2203
DME (MW) 600
Net electricity (MW) 490
Source VENT case in Celik, F. Larson, E.D.,
and Williams, R.H., 2004, Transportation Fuel
from Coal with Low CO2 Emissions, Proceedings of
the 7th International Conference on Greenhouse
Gas Control Technologies, held Sept. 2004
(proceedings forthcoming).
24
Estimated Retail Cost/Price of DME from Coal in
China
Source Larson and Yang, 2004, Dimethyl Ether
(DME) from Coal as a Household Cooking Fuel in
China, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
25
LPG, DME Retail Price Comparisons
Source Larson and Yang, 2004, Dimethyl Ether
(DME) from Coal as a Household Cooking Fuel in
China, Energy for Sustainable Development,
VIII(3) 115-126
26
Summary/Conclusions
  • Environmental/health problems associated with
    cooking/heating with solid fuels are significant
    in China.
  • From a societal perspective, the cooking problem
    can be solved cost-effectively and without
    significant global energy impacts.
  • Major institutional, financial, political,
    social, and other barriers exist, however. (I
    have not addressed these in this talk!)
  • LPG is attractive for China, but concerns over
    energy security and crude-oil linked price may
    limit future expansion potential.
  • DME from coal (with co-production of electricity)
    is an attractive additional option.
  • DME could be made in large quantities in many
    areas of China, including in some of the poorest
    Western provinces.
  • Low costs compared to prospective future LPG
    prices.
  • Total coal use for cooking and electricity could
    be reduced by about 25 compared to cooking
    directly with solid coal and generating the
    electricity from a stand-alone coal-IGCC power
    plant.
  • CO2 capture and storage during DME production may
    be long term option.
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