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Similarities

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: myname Last modified by: Brown, Mark Created Date: 1/21/2003 2:54:16 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Similarities


1
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2
Similarities
  • The peak of Islams political and military power
  • All based on military conquest
  • All from Turkic nomadic cultures
  • All absolute monarchies

3
Differences
  • All were Muslim but Mughals ruled over a
    predominantly non-Muslim population
  • Ottomans had large Christian minority
  • Safavids were Shiite Muslims

4
BALKAN ISLANDS
2
ANATOLIA (MODERN DAY TURKEY
1
5
NORTH AFRICA
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3
EGYPT
MEDINA AND MECCA
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  • Ottoman Turks began to build power on northwest
    corner of the Anatolian Peninsula.
  • With decline of Seljuk Turks, Ottomans expanded
    and founded the Ottoman dynasty
  • 1300s Ottomans expanded into Balkan Peninsula

Serbian defeat at Battle of Kosovo
7
  • Janissaries young boys taken from the Christian
    population. Boys were converted to Islam and
    trained as elite soldiers or administrators to
    serve the Sultan
  • Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of
    Kosovo
  • Controlled the Balkan Peninsula

Janissaries
8
  • Under the leadership of Mehmet II, the Ottomans
    laid siege to Constantinople
  • Fall of Constantinople in 1453 brought end to
    the Byzantine Empire
  • The Ottomans made the city their capital renaming
    it Istanbul

Mehmet II enters Constantinople
9
  • Under rule of Sultan Selim I, the Ottomans took
    control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Arabian
    Peninsula with holy cities of Mecca and Medina
  • Selim declared himself Caliph
  • Ottoman rule spread across North Africa though by
    1600s this area was semi-independent

10
  • Ottoman attempts to penetrate Eastern Europe were
    stymied by the Hungarians
  • Greatest threat to Europe came under rule of
    greatest of Ottoman rulers, Suleyman I. Under
    his leadership, Ottomans seized Belgrade and won
    victory over Hungarians and occupied the country

Suleyman I
11
  • The Ottomans laid siege to Vienna in 1529
  • Ottoman advance into western Mediterranean
    stopped at Lepanto in 1571 by Western coalition
    led by the Spanish

12
  • In 1600s, the Ottomans attempted to expand into
    Europe again
  • Vienna was besieged
  • Combined European force pushed Ottomans out of
    Austria and Hungary
  • Ottomans would never threaten Central Europe again

Siege of Vienna
13
  • Ottoman rule
  • The Ottomans copied many aspects of Byzantine
    political structure, especially imperial rule
  • A strong centralized government was established
    with the sultan at its head in Istanbul.
  • The position of sultan was hereditary- once in
    power, a sultan would murder all his brothers.
  • The private domain of the sultan was called the
    harem

14
  • The imperial bureaucracy was controlled by the
    sultan through his chief minister, the Grand
    Vizier
  • Most high government officials were Muslim by
    birth and many were chosen based on merit
  • The Ottomans administered their lands through
    local rulers called pashas
  • Pashas collected taxes (giving a percentage to
    the Ottomans) and maintained law and order

15
  • As Caliph, the sultan was the supreme religious
    leader but he delegated many duties to the Ulema,
    who administered the legal system and education
  • Islamic law applied to all Ottoman territory
  • The Ottomans were tolerant of non-Muslims - head
    tax
  • Non-Muslim religions were headed by an official
    who was responsible to the sultan

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  • Women had greater freedom under the Ottomans than
    in other Muslim nations
  • Could own and inherit property, could not be
    forced into marriage, and were permitted to
    divorce

Women in the Ottoman court
18
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19
SAFAVID EMPIRE
MODERN DAY IRAN
20
  • Safavids descended from Turkic tribesmen in
    northern Iran
  • Safavids Shiite Muslims
  • 1501- Safi al-Din Ismail seized much of what is
    today Iran and Iraq
  • Ismail sent missionaries into Ottoman lands
  • Massacred Sunni Muslims when he conquered Baghdad
    in 1508

Safavid soldier
21
  • Selim I, the Ottoman sultan, marched against
    Safavids and won major victory
  • After more attempts by the Safavids to take
    Ottoman lands, the Ottomans forced the Safavid
    leader, Shah Abbas, to sign peace treaty

Selim I
22
  • Safavids reached peak of power under Shah Abbas
  • With help of Europeans, Shah Abbas attempted to
    take more lands from Ottomans
  • Another peace treaty was signed but conflict
    continued for many years

Shah Abbas and wine boy
23
  • The Safavids declined after death of Shah Abbas
    in 1629
  • Afghan tribesmen invaded and captured the Safavid
    capital and forced the royal family to flee to
    Azerbaijan, their original homeland

24
  • Safavid rule comparable to the Ottomans
  • Safavids had vibrant middle class
  • Greatest area of productivity in Safavid Empire
    was textiles
  • Carpets were prized all over the world

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MUGHAL EMPIRE
INDIA
27
  • Founded by Babur, descended from Tamerlane and
    Genghis Khan
  • Invaded India from Kabul and conquered Delhi
  • Using that city as his base, he expanded into the
    subcontinent

Babur
28
  • After Baburs death, his son, Akbar, continued
    the expansion until most of India was under his
    control
  • Although his empire appeared highly centralized
    it was in reality a collection of
    semi-independent states held together by the
    emperor
  • The Mughal Empire was the greatest empire in
    India since the Mauryans

Akbar
29
  • Although Muslim, Akbar adopted a policy of
    religious tolerance
  • Hindus served in lesser positions in his court
    and even Christians were present in the form of
    Jesuit advisors
  • Akbar even took a Hindu bride

30
  • Local officials, called Zamindars, administered
    districts, taking a portion of the taxes as
    salary
  • Political stability and peace period of growth
    in trade and manufacturing
  • Much of the trade was handled by Muslim merchants

31
  • The Mughal dynasty went into decline after death
    of Akbar
  • Akbar succeeded by his son, Jahangir
  • Under Jahangirs reign, the nobility took more
    power through the intrigues of one of his
    Persian-born wives

Jahangir
32
  • Her son, Shah Jahan, succeeded Jahangir
  • In order to secure hold on power, he had all
    rivals murdered
  • Shah Jahans military campaigns and corruption,
    in court impoverished the state
  • His son, Aurangzeb, killed brother and imprisoned
    Shah Jahan
  • Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal for deceased wife

Shah Jahan
33
  • Aurangzeb tried to eliminate many of Indias
    social evils including sati
  • He forced Hindus to convert to Islam and forbade
    the construction of Hindu temples
  • Social unrest resulted in a number of revolts
  • Weakened from within, Delhi was sacked by
    Persians in 1739

34
  • The Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French all
    sought influence in India
  • War between British and French
  • Increasing British influence under the East India
    Company

35
  • Mughals and Hindus created a blended culture
  • Both Muslim and Hindu cultures restricted women
  • Purdah adopted by higher-class Hindus

Full purdah
36
  • Some Hindus forcibly married Muslim women and
    converted them to Hinduism
  • Hindus converting to Islam lost all rights within
    the Indian family
  • Mughals married Hindu women and adopted Indian
    dress

37
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