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Body Systems: Skeletal and Muscular

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Body Systems: Skeletal and Muscular – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 10 October 2019
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Title: Body Systems: Skeletal and Muscular


1
Body Systems Skeletal and Muscular
2
Levels of Organization Organ Systems
3
We have a lot in common with Mr. FrogLike
what? you say..
  • Frogs
  • Humans
  • Eukaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Multi-cellular
  • Multi-cellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Heterotrophic

4
Taxonomy (Compare to yourself to Mr. Frog)
  • Frogs
  • Humans
  • DomainEukarya
  • KingdomAnimalia
  • PhylumChordata
  • ClassAmphibia
  • OrderAnura
  • FamilyRanidae
  • Genus Rana or Hyla
  • Species (many)
  • DomainEukarya
  • KingdomAnimalia
  • PhylumChordata
  • ClassMammalia
  • OrderPrimate
  • FamilyHominidae
  • GenusHomo
  • SpeciesSapiens

5
Skeletal System
6
Skeletal Functions (jobs)
  • Gives shape and support
  • Movement
  • Protects internal organs
  • Makes blood cells
  • Stores calcium and other
  • minerals.

7
Skeletal Structures (parts)
  • Marrow- the inner part of the bone that makes red
    blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  • Ligaments- tissue that connects one bone to
    another bone
  • Cartilage- flexible connective tissue that is
    found on the ends of bones to reduce friction

8
JointsWhere 2 bones meet
  • Immoveable (fixed)- does not move (skull)
  • Pivot- movement around a point (neck)
  • Ball and Socket- allows 360 degree motion
    (shoulder and hip)
  • Hinge- allows for open and close motion (knees
    and elbows
  • Sliding- bones glide past one another (hands and
    feet)

What did one bone say to the other bone?
Will you be jointing me tonight for dinner? LOL
9
How about Mr. Frog? Does he have a skeleton?
  • Human

YES!!!!
  • Frog

We both have a skull, ulna, radius, humerus,
tibia, fibula and more.
How is Mr. Frogs skeleton similar to ours?
10
Do all animals have a skeleton like ours?
Nope!
Scorpion
Sea Urchin
Not this guy! His skeleton is an exoskeleton (it
is on the outside of his body)
Not this one either. His skeleton is an
endoskeleton, but much different than ours.
Nope! At least he has a backbone like us.
Nautilus
Not him either! Although he has an endoskeleton,
it is still much different than ours.
Sting ray
11
Homologous (similar) Structures of other organisms
12
HomeostasisBalance in the Body
  • How does the skeletal system maintain balance in
    the body?

It maintains the calcium levels in the blood.
13
Stimulus / Response
  • Give an example of internal and external stimulus
    and response.
  • Internal Stimulus muscles need calcium
  • Response calcium leaves the bones and
    goes to the bloodstream to get to the muscles

2. External Stimulus bone is fractured
Response bones cells and blood begin rebuilding
the fractured bone
14
Systems working together
  • 1. Skeletal and Circulatory
  • 2. Skeletal and Muscular
  • Bone marrow makes red and white blood cells and
    platelets.
  • Muscles contract and relax to make the bones move.

15
Disorders
Osteoporosis -- weakening of bone due to loss of
calcium. Usually in old age.
16
Disorder Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disorder that is most common in
women as they get older. It is the weakening of
bones. People with osteoporosis can easily break
their bones.
START YOUNG!
Men CAN and DO still get it, though, but
the hormones that women produce make them more
susceptible to it.
Even if you dont like milk, you should aim to
get calcium-rich foods into your diet such as
yogurt, cheese, calcium pills, and dark green
veggies like broccoli or spinach. Besides
calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D are nutrients
that are also vital in making your bones strong
and healthy.
YEAH!
17
Our Incredible Skeleton
  • Incredible Skeleton Stories

18
Muscular System --Functions
  1. Stability and Posture
  2. Motion
  3. Heat Production
  4. Circulation
  5. Digestion

19
3 Types of Muscles
Cardiac Muscle- muscle found in the heart
Involuntary
Skeletal Muscle- muscle attached to your bones
and helps you move
Voluntary
Smooth Muscle- lines organs such as blood
vessels, stomach and digestive tract.
Involuntary
Voluntary (control) or Involuntary (no control)??
20
How are our muscles attached to our bones?
Tendons attach our muscle to our bones.
21
The skeletal system and the muscular system work
together for movement
Try this out on your own arm. Bend it. Which
muscle is bulging or shortening? Which one is
lengthening? Straighten it. Now, which muscle is
bulging or shortening? And lenghthening?
22
Muscles help us do WORK.
  • What is work and when is it really done?

Work is done when force is applied over a
distance.
In which picture is work being done?
Force Distance
Force Distance
23
Structures/Types of Muscle, contd.
Skeletal muscles that move your body around come
in two varieties flexors and extensors.
Flexors and extensors usually work in pairs, as
seen here
i. flexor bends a joint (biceps)
ii. extensor straightens a joint (triceps)
24
Involuntary Muscles (not in our control)
Food digestion
25
How about Mr. Frog? Does he have muscles that
help him move like us?
  • Human
  • Frog

YES!!!!
26
How do other organisms move?
Jet Propulsion and Muscular Contractions
Muscular Contractions
Muscular Contractions
Jet Propulsion
27
HomeostasisInternal balance in the Body
  • Give an example of how the Muscular system
    maintains balance.

1. The muscles in your body keep your blood
flowing and breathing going at whatever rate your
body needs at the moment. 2. they allow you
to digest food, eliminate certain wastes, and can
even warm your body up.
28
Stimulus / Response
  • Give an example of internal and external stimulus
    and response.

Internal stimulus- Pituitary Gland releases
hormones Response- muscles get larger or gaining
muscle
External stimulus- Someone stepping on your
foot Response- pull away or flinch
29
Disorders
There are many reasons why someone would be
confined to a wheelchair. Brain or nerve damage
(paralysis) could be one, but another genetic
birth defect that affects thousands around the
country is muscular dystrophy.
Muscular dystrophy is a disease where a persons
muscles weaken after birth and the sick have
little control over them. Over time, people with
M.D. will often end up in wheelchairs as their
muscles fail them. Their minds are completely
healthy, though. No cure currently exists for
this disease. The MDA (Jerrys Kids) is the
most prominent charity searching for a cure.
30
Muscular System Video
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