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Title: POST-WWI FOREIGN POLICY AND WORLD WAR II


1
POST-WWI FOREIGN POLICY AND WORLD WAR II
  • Unit VIIIC
  • AP U.S. History

2
Fundamental Questions
  • How did the United States foreign policy change
    from 1920 to 1945?
  • How did World War II expand the United States
    government?

3
Foreign Policy After World War I
  • Wilsons Fourteen Points and League of Nations
    disregarded by Irreconcilables and
    Reservationists in the Senate
  • The horrors of WWI and the domestic turmoil led
    the American public to return to isolationism
  • The U.S. during the 1920s pursued policies and
    initiatives to preserve and expand its global
    economic interests and world peace

4
Foreign Policy in 1920s
  • Washington Naval Conference (1921)
  • Four-Power Treaty
  • Status quo in Pacific
  • Five-Power Treaty
  • USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy
  • 5531.751.75
  • Nine-Power Treaty
  • Reaffirming Open Door Policy
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
  • Renounced aggressive military action
  • No provision for direct action against war
  • Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
  • Prevented economic recovery for European nations
    devastated by WWI
  • Dawes Plan (1924)
  • Cycle of payments between U.S. banks, German
    reparations, Allied war debts

5
Building an Axis of Totalitarianism
  • Desperate times called for desperate measures in
    some nations providing opportunities for
    fascists, dictators, and ultranationalists
  • Japan
  • Ultranationalists controlled Japan and pursued
    aggressive expansion in the Far East
  • Manchuria Invasion Manchukuo (1931)
  • Stimson Doctrine (1932)
  • Italy
  • Mussolini and Fascism
  • National solidarity over civil liberties and
    individualism
  • Dictatorship and single party system
  • State corporatism
  • Germany
  • Hitler and Nazism
  • Fascism with Jews and other minorities as
    scapegoats

6
FDRs Good Neighbor Policy
  • Pan-American Conference (1933, 1936)
  • Ended interventionist policies justified through
    Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy
  • Mutual defense against aggressive European
    nations
  • Treaty of Relations (1934)
  • Nullified Platt Amendment
  • Kept Guantanamo Bay naval base

7
FDRs Foreign Policy of the Great Depression
  • London Economic Conference (1933)
  • Global economic policies to stabilize currencies
    and thwart Depression
  • FDR withdrew to avoid impact on New Deal
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements
  • Reciprocated tariff decreases
  • Recognize the Soviet Union
  • Open up a new market in the wake of the Depression

8
American Isolationists
  • Characteristics
  • Midwest region
  • Rural sectors
  • Republicans and conservatives
  • Nye Committee
  • Determined reason for U.S. entry into WWI was for
    industrialists, corporations, banks (merchants
    of death)
  • Neutrality Acts (1935-1937)
  • Oppose or prohibit assistance and trading with
    belligerent nations
  • America First Committee
  • Avoid possible entanglements with European
    affairs in WWII
  • Promote isolationism across the nation

9
The Axis Assaults and Appeasement
  • Italy
  • Invasion of Ethiopia (1935)
  • Japan
  • Invasion of China (1937)
  • Germany
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland (1936)
  • Anschluss and the Sudetenland (1938)
  • Global Response
  • Violations of Open Door Policy and Treaty of
    Versailles
  • League of Nations powerless
  • Munich Conference (1938)
  • Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-Aggression Pact (1939)
  • German invasion of Poland begins World War II in
    Europe (1939)

10
FDR and Preparedness
  • Preparedness
  • FDR worried about further Axis expansion, but
    Americans preferred isolationism
  • FDR convinced Congress to raise military budget
  • Cash and Carry (Neutrality Act of 1939)
  • Nations could buy American arms if paid in cash
    and used own transports
  • Selective Service Act of 1940
  • First ever peacetime draft of males 21-35
  • Destroyers-for-Bases (1940)
  • Old American destroyers for U.S. military bases
    on British Caribbean territories

11
Election of 1940
  • Republicans
  • Wendell Willkie
  • Democrats
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt for unprecedented third
    term
  • Economic expansion and threat of war

12
Arsenal of Democracy
  • Four Freedoms
  • Defense of speech, religion, from want, from fear
  • Lend-Lease Act (1941)
  • Provide arms to Great Britain on credit and
    decisively pro-British neutrality
  • Atlantic Charter
  • FDR and Churchill meet
  • Promote and secure self-determination and free
    trade
  • No pursuit of territorial expansion
  • Shoot on site
  • American naval escorts authorized to defend
    against German u-boat attacks

13
Empire of Japan and Pearl Harbor
  • Japans aggressive expansion threatened American
    investments and interests in Pacific
  • Embargoes on Japan
  • Prohibited trade of steel and oil
  • Required Japans halt on expansion and removal
    from China
  • December 7, 1941
  • Japanese surprise attack on U.S. naval base at
    Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
  • 2,400 Americans killed
  • Pacific Fleet badly damaged
  • a date that will live in infamy
  • U.S. Enters WWII
  • U.S. declares war on Japan (12/8/41)
  • Germany and Italy declare on U.S.
  • German invasion of Soviet Union (1942)
  • Allies
  • U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union
  • Axis
  • Germany, Italy, Japan

14
WWII Economic Impact
  • Production levels skyrocketed and essentially
    ended the Great Depression
  • GDP 1933 56.4 BILLION
  • GDP 1941 126.7 BILLION
  • GDP 1945 223.1 BILLION
  • National debt skyrockets even beyond Depression
    spending
  • 1929 16.9 billion
  • 1935 28.7 billion
  • 1941 48 billion
  • 1945 247 billion
  • Employment
  • Unemployment 1.2 in 1944
  • Labor unions significantly grew in membership
  • Agriculture
  • Federal government demanded crop/food production
  • Farm incomes rose dramatically and tenant farming
    significantly decreased
  • Some farmers migrated toward industries/cities
  • 17 decline in farm population by 1945
  • Industry
  • War-based production

15
War bonds helped the government finance the war
16
WWII Expands the Federal Government
  • FDR and executive agencies given broad powers to
    facilitate the war efforts
  • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943)
  • Allowed government to nationalize industries
    threatened with strikes
  • Federal Bureaucracy Expands and Evolves
  • Civilian employment 1 million to 4 million
  • Business and manager types hired into agencies
  • War Agencies
  • War Production Board (WPB)
  • Virtual nationalization of industries which
    transformed production for war use
  • Office of Price Administration (OPA)
  • Prices, wages, and rents locked and frozen for
    consumer goods to avoid war inflation
  • Rationing of goods to supply war efforts
  • Ration books
  • Mandated national speed Limit 35 MPH
  • Limited consumerist society
  • Office of Censorship
  • Absolute discretion to limit or prohibit certain
    war-related information and communication
  • Office of War Information (OWI)
  • Similar to Committee of Public Information (WWI)

17
War Productions Board
18
Office of War Information
19
OPA and Ration Books
20
WWII in American Society
  • WOMEN
  • Women assumed jobs left by men
  • 5 million women entered the workforce, including
    industrial employment
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Women in the military
  • Womens Army Corps (WACs), Women Appointed for
    Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES), Womens
    Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFs)
  • 200,000 women assumed non-combatant roles as
    nurses, typists, communication operators
  • BLACKS
  • Great Migration continues
  • Factory jobs opened up for blacks and more left
    the South heading north and west
  • Resentment based on racism led to some violence
    and race riots
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (1942)
  • Initiated sit-ins and boycotts
  • Smith v. Allwright (1944)
  • Prohibited all-white primaries
  • MEXICANS
  • Braceros
  • Guest worker program for Mexican farmers to work
    on farms
  • Zoot suit riots due to white resentment

21
Japanese in World War II U.S.
  • Americans of Japanese descent remained loyal to
    U.S. as civilians and soldiers
  • 442nd Infantry of Nisei servicemen became the
    most highly decorated group during WWII
  • Japanese internment camps
  • Irrational fear of Japanese infiltration
  • Executive Order 9066
  • Over 100,000 Japanese immigrants and Americans
    forced from homes and businesses to internment
    camps around western region
  • Germans and Italians were placed in separate
    camps but nowhere near the number of Japanese
  • Korematsu v. United States (1944)
  • Supreme Court ruled internment camps
    constitutional in wartime

22
Election of 1944
  • Republicans
  • Thomas E. Dewey
  • Campaigned against New Deal elements
  • Democrats
  • Unprecedented 4th term due to war and popularity
  • Selects Harry S. Truman as VP to ensure party
    unity
  • Assumes presidency upon FDRs death in April 1945

23
Atlantic Theater
  • Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
  • Operation Torch (1942)
  • North Africa
  • Operation Avalanche (1943)
  • soft underbelly of the Axis
  • Operation Overlord/D-Day (June 6, 1944)
  • Allied Western front opens
  • Battle of the Bulge (1944-1945)
  • V-E Day (May 7, 1945)

24
Pacific Theater
  • Japan controlled most of Far East and Southeast
    Asia
  • Battle of Midway (June, 1942)
  • Destroyed most of Japanese fleet and turning
    point
  • Island-hopping
  • Not without a fight
  • Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944)
  • kamikazes
  • Iwo Jima (Feb-Mar 1945)
  • Okinawa (Apr-June 1945)

25
Atomic Bombs
  • Manhattan Project
  • Why the Bomb?
  • Prevent massive loss of American troops
  • Soviet Union problem
  • August 6, 1945 on Hiroshima
  • 70,000-80,000 killed
  • 4.7 sq. mi. destroyed
  • August 9, 1945 on Nagasaki
  • 50,000-75,000 killed
  • V-J Day (September 2, 1945)

26
War Conferences
  • Teheran (Nov 1943)
  • Agree to open western front against Germany
    (Operation Overlord)
  • Yalta (Feb 1944)
  • German unconditional surrender and occupation
    zones
  • Soviet Union conditional plans against Japan
  • New peace organization - United Nations
  • Potsdam (July-Aug 1945)
  • Japanese unconditional surrender
  • War crimes trial - Nuremberg Trials
  • Disputes over spheres of influence between U.S.
    and Soviet Union

27
World War II Costs
  • 70 million deaths or 4 of world population
  • 25 million military
  • 45 million civilians
  • Genocides
  • Holocaust
  • Nanking Massacre
  • United States
  • Over 300,000 casualties
  • 320 billion cost
  • Government spending soared with 250 billion debt

28
World War II Legacy
  • World War II was deadlier and costlier than World
    War I
  • United Nations established with U.S.A. membership
  • Superpowers
  • War devastated old European powers and Japan
    China recommenced civil war
  • UNITED STATES and SOVIET UNION
  • Capitalism and Communism
  • Individualism and Collective Society
  • Soon engage in the Cold War
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