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The Nazification of Germany

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The Nazification of Germany January 30, 1933: Hindenburg appoints Hitler as chancellor of Germany February 27, 1933: the Reichstag building mysteriously went up in flames – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nazification of Germany


1
The Nazification of Germany
January 30, 1933 Hindenburg appoints Hitler as
chancellor of Germany February 27, 1933 the
Reichstag building mysteriously went up in flames
The source of the fire is still not known Many
feel that the Nazis set the fire to create more
chaos The Nazis blame the fire on the Communists
2
The Nazification of Germany
Hitler persuades Hindenburg to issue an
emergency decree in which Hitler and the Nazis
gain much power
3
The Nazification of Germany
4
The Nazification of Germany
  • With the burning of the Reichstag, many Germans
    began to fear Communists acts of aggression
  • Hitler was able to get government support to let
    the SAs roam the street and break up suspected
    Communist meetings
  • Many Communists, Socialists, and outspoken labor
    leaders were arrested
  • They were transported to Dachau Concentration
    Camp which was created just months after Hitler
    became chancellor
  • Dachau became the training center for
    concentration camp guards
  • They were also trained in using terror tactics to
    dehumanize prisoners and inflict torture

5
The Nazification of Germany
6
The Nazification of Germany
  • Enabling Act passed March 23, 1933
  • This act ended Parliamentary democracy in Germany
  • Allowed the German government (under influence
    from Hitler) to make laws without the legislative
    process of the Reichstag
  • Special courts were set up to punish and imprison
    political dissenters
  • Civil laws were passed that banned Jews from
    holding positions in the civil service, legal and
    medical professions, and in teaching and
    university positions

7
The Nazification of Germany
  • Nazis begin book burnings of Jewish authors and
    others who are not approved by the Reich (German
    Nazi Government)

8
The Nazification of Germany
  • Nazis were encouraged to boycott Jewish owned
    shops and businesses

9
The Nazification of Germany
The Nazis began anti-Semetic legislation and
propaganda that began to further isolate Jews
from the rest of German society
Youth Serves the Führer" is the title of this
Hitler Youth recruiting poster. This organization
mobilized boys into the National Socialist
community through sport and hiking, and later
prepared them for combat in war
10
The Nazification of Germany
Part of the propaganda was a group known as the
Hitler Youth The Hitler Youth played a major role
in ensuring a steady flow of ideologically
correct recruits to positions within the Third
Reich
Hitlers Youth were trained in many ways which
would help their future military experiences
11
The Nazification of Germany
"My program for educating youth is hard. Weakness
must be hammered away. In my castlesa youth will
grow up before which the world will tremble. I
want a brutal, domineering, fearless, cruel
youth. Youth must be all that. It must bear pain.
There must be nothing weak and gentle about it.
The free, splendid beast of prey must once again
flash from its eyes...That is how I will
eradicate thousands of years of human
domestication...That is how I will create the New
Order." -- Adolf Hitler, 1933.
Older members of the Hitler Youth throw mock
grenades ("potato mashers") during a sports
festival. June 1936. Ullstein Bilderienst
12
The Nazification of Germany
13
The Nazification of Germany
  • SAStorm Troopers (akaBrown Shirts)
  • This was the Nazi Partys main instrument for
    undermining democracy
  • Street Thugs
  • They were the terrorizing arm of the Nazi Party
  • By 1934, there were 2.5 million SA
  • Compared to the 100,000 in the regular army
    (treaty)

14
The Nazification of Germany
Night of the Long Knives Hitler feared that the
regular army was going to attempt to force him
out of office Hitler had long promised to restore
the regular German army from the shackles of the
Treaty of Versailles which limited them to
100,000 The regular army saw the SA as a threat
to the traditional German army Ernst Rohm
leader of the SA He helped Hitler gain power by
controlling the German streets and squashing
Hitlers political opponents Hitler no longer
needed the SA as he had gained popular support,
and he did need the support of the regular army
15
The Nazification of Germany
  • Hitler informed Rohm that the SA would be limited
    to a political role in Germany rather than a
    military role
  • Rohm wanted the SA to have an active
    revolutionary role
  • Hitler was told by the army leaders that the SA
    problem must be solved
  • SS Special Protection squad led by Himmler
  • Hitler and Himmler made a secret contract with
    the army
  • The army was placed on alert and the troops were
    confined to their barracks

16
The Nazification of Germany
Hitler ordered the arrest and execution of SA
leader Ernst Rohm and other SA leaders His SS
group fulfilled this mission WHY? To gain favor
with the regular army
17
The Nazification of Germany
SSProtection Squad (special unit of the SA)
Schutzstaffel Heinrich Himmler is the leader of
the SS The SS now takes control of the police
and security systems within Germany The SS is the
main instrument for racial terror for the Nazis
18
The Nazification of Germany
August 2, 1934 President Hindenburg dies Hitler
says it was Hindenburgs last wish to combine the
offices of chancellor and president This is very
likely not true, although Hindenburg was ailing
for weeks before his death, and Hitler spent a
lot of time with him It is likely that Hitler
created this idea Nonetheless, Hitler is able
to convince the government that Hindenburg wanted
to merge the two offices Hitler becomes fuhrer
(absolute leader) of Germany
19
The Nazification of Germany
20
The Nazification of Germany
  • Nuremberg Laws of 1935
  • Stripped German Jews of their civil rights (Reich
    Citizenship Law)
  • The Law for the Protection of German Blood and
    Honor
  • Defined Jews as a separate race
  • Being Jewish was determined by ancestry and not
    by religious beliefs or practices
  • Forbade marriages and sexual relations between
    Jews and Germans
  • Penalty was imprisonment
  • Hitler announced that if this law did not resolve
    the Jewish Problem he would turn to the Nazi
    Party for a final solution

21
The Nazification of Germany
  • More than 120 laws and decrees sprang from the
    Nuremberg Laws
  • Each taking away more and more Jewish civil rights

22
The Nazification of Germany
23
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24
The Nazification of Germany
  • 1936 Olympics
  • Held in Berlin
  • Hitler wanted to promote a favorable worldwide
    image of Nazism
  • Hitler used propaganda (exaggerate truth or even
    make up lies to further ones cause)
  • Built great facilities

25
The Nazification of Germany
There was much international unrest before the
Games The Olympic Charter guarantees
unrestricted participation not limited by class,
creed, or race There were calls for a U.S.
boycott of the games this didnt occur The
Nazis guaranteed that they would allow German
Jews to participate -Two did (not world
class) Hitler wanted to show Aryan Superiority
in Athletics But the hero of the games was Jesse
Owens, an African-American
26
The Nazification of Germany
"German sport has only one task to strengthen
the character of the German people, imbuing it
with the fighting spirit and steadfast
camaraderie necessary in the struggle for its
existence."-- Joseph Goebbels, Minister of
Propaganda, April 23, 1933
27
The Nazification of Germany
28
The Nazification of Germany
The establishment of "Olympic training courses"
for Jewish athletes in 1935 was a sham, part of
the Nazis' effort to deflect international
criticism about discrimination against Jewish
athletes. No one from this course at Ettlingen or
any other participated in the Olympics. Gretel
Bergmann, world class high-jumper, is in
forground, 1935. Courtesy of Dr. George Eisen
29
The Nazification of Germany
Two weeks before the Olympics began, German
officials informed Gretel Bergmann, a Jewish
athlete who had equaled the German women's record
in the high jump, that she was denied a place on
the team. As the winning jump at the Olympics had
been attained by Bergmann earlier, the Germans
sacrificed a chance for a gold medal with this
action.
30
The Nazification of Germany
31
The Nazification of Germany
Jesse Owens, "the fastest human being," captured
four gold medals and became the hero of the
Olympics. In the long jump he leaped 26 feet
5-1/2 inches, an Olympic record.
The American press reported widely on the
friendship that developed between Owens and his
German competitor in the long jump, Carl Ludwig
("Luz") Long. Long was killed in action during
World War II.
32
The Nazification of Germany
The United States high jump team swept their
event at the Olympics. From left to right Delos
Thurber (bronze), Cornelius Johnson (gold), and
David Albritton (silver). Johnson cleared the bar
at 6 feet, 8 inches, an Olympic record. August 2,
1936. UPI/Corbis-Bettmann, New York
33
The Nazification of Germany
Show 330 of Jesse Owens
34
The Nazification of Germany
  • Lebensraum living space for Germans

This was the basic principle of Nazi foreign
policy Hitler believed that eastern Europe
(Poland, Russian plains) was to be conquered by
the Germans to allow them to support their
population Germans were forced to relocate and
live on conquered farms This is the idea Hitler
uses to expand German territory
35
The Nazification of Germany
Auschluss the unification of Germany and
Austria (March 1938) With overwhelming support of
the Austrian people (many Germans) Hitler takes
his first step in trying to unite all
German-speaking people with a bloodless takeover
of the Austrian government This is a violation of
the Treaty of Versailles, but no nations step up
to formally protest this action
36
The Nazification of Germany
37
The Nazification of Germany
  • Sudetenland northwestern area of Czechoslovakia
  • Over 750,000 German-speaking citizens

Appeasement giving into the demands of an
aggressor to avoid hostilities
38
The Nazification of Germany
  • Great Britain and France followed the policy of
    appeasement
  • They wanted to avoid war at almost all costs
  • Memories of World War I still close in mind
  • Munich Conference Hitler was able to convince
    Great Britain, France, and Italy that he should
    be allowed to enter the Sudetenland
  • He promised that this would be his final
    annexation
  • October, 1938 Germany occupies the Sudetenland

39
The Nazification of Germany
40
The Nazification of Germany
  • Anti-Semitism is becoming more and more accepted
    in Germany and its occupied territories
  • Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) November
    9, 1938
  • Over 1000 synagogues set afire (76 destroyed)
  • Over 7000 Jewish businesses and homes looted
  • Nazis reported over 100 Jewish deaths (very
    likely more)
  • About 30,000 Jews and political opponents
    arrested and sent to concentration camps
  • Within days, all Jewish children were expelled
    from public schools
  • Jews were forced to accept responsibility for
    Kristallnacht and pay for all damages

41
The Nazification of Germany
42
The Nazification of Germany
  • September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland
  • Hitler and his generals developed blitzkreig
    which was an invasion based on heavy aerial
    bombardments followed by fast-moving armored land
    invasions
  • This was his method to overcome trench warfare
  • This is the official start of World War II
  • Great Britain and France declare war on Germany
    (based on the treaty)

43
The Nazification of Germany
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The Nazification of Germany
The Danzig Corridor separated Germany Hitler made
a secret agreement with Stalin from USSR to agree
to take back territory that was taken from the
countries following World War I
45
The Nazification of Germany
46
The Nazification of Germany
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