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Developmental Standards for Preschool Children With Disabilities


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Title: Developmental Standards for Preschool Children With Disabilities

Developmental StandardsforPreschool
ChildrenWith Disabilities

  • MATH

  • Daily living skills are basic to becoming an
    individual who can negotiate his/her way through
    the social world while developing independence.
    Daily living skills foster social appropriateness
    both at school and home. It is essential that
    teachers and family members promote independent
    living skills by structuring intervention and
    strategies to develop the skills needed to
    appropriately function within the classroom and
    home environments.

Personal Hygiene
  • Students will
  • DL.P.1 Wash and dry hands without assistance
  • DL.P.2 Indicate the need to toilet independently
  • DL.P.3 Toilet independently
  • DL.P.4 Brush teeth independently
  • DL.P.5 Cover mouth and nose when sneezing and

  • Students will 
  • DL.P.6 Manipulate clothing/fasteners for
  • Example button/unbutton,
    zip/unzip, snap/unsnap
  • DL.P.7 Put on/take off coat, socks, and

  • Students will
  • DL.P.8 Drink from an open cup
  • DL.P.9 Eat with a spoon or fork
  • DL.P.10 Open a food/drink container
  • Example child opens milk carton,
    boxed drink, zip lock bags, etc.
  • DL.P.11 Follow mealtime routines and
  • Example wait in line, carry tray, make
    food choices, clean area

  • Social relationships that young children form
    with peers and adults are important in forming
    constructive images of themselves and others.
    Positive social settings, interactions, and
    images of self provide children with healthy
    social/emotional growth. Relationships created
    during early childhood serve as models for future
    relationships. Early social emotional competence
    is the foundation for later development. It is
    essential that teachers and family members
    promote strategies to develop skills needed to
    cope with the social stress and challenges
    children encounter as they mature.

Self Concept
  • Students will
  •  S/E.P.1 Display a healthy self image
  • Example identifies self in mirror or
  • Example shows pleasure in being included
    in play activities
  • S/E.P.2 Demonstrate awareness of attributes of
    self (abilities, characteristics and
  • Example refers to self by name and as
    a girl or boy
  • Example child says, I have brown eyes
    and brown hair.
  • S/E.P.3 Identify and label feelings
  • Example child says, Im excited
    because my dad is coming home

  • Students will
  • S/E.P.4 Make and express choices, plans and
  • Example chooses and returns toys
  • Example selects a CD or video and
    operates the player
  • Example child chooses center when
    given encouragement
  • S/E.P.5 Choose and complete challenging tasks
  • Example chooses and finishes a puzzle
    or task once it is started
  • Example child makes choices from a
    choice board
  • S/E.P.6 Initiate play with other children
  • Example joins other children playing in
    activity areas

  • Students will
  •  S/E.P.7 Understand and follow rules and routines
  • Example come to circle time, snack
    time, nap, or other routine activities
  • Example follow expectations such as
    sitting in the circle and listening
    when someone is speaking
  • S/E.P.8 Recognize and manage feelings and
  • Example child exhibits impulse
    control by developing turn-talking skills
  • S/E.P.9 Understand how actions affect others and
    begin to accept consequences
  • Example listens when an adult offers
    suggestions to solve a problem
  • Example asks the teacher for help when
    trying to resolve a conflict
  • Example accepts redirection after throwing
  • Example child says, If we run in the
    classroom, we can get hurt.
  • S/E.P.10 Demonstrate the ability to move from
    place to place with class or group
  • Example child stays in line when
    walking to the playground

Social Relationships
  • Students will
  • S/E.P.11 Sustain interaction with peers by
    helping, playing and interacting
  • Example joins a playmate in making
    sand construction (one
    scooping the sand into a truck and one hauling it
  • Example participates in group
    activities such as singing
  • S/E.P.12 Accept changes in plans and schedules
  • Example using a picture or daily
    schedule child will transition from
    one activity to another
  • Example child follows tornado and
    fire drill routines
  • S/E.P.13 Separate easily from family
  • Example says goodbye to parent
    without undue distress when parent
    leaves, and gets involved in classroom activities

  • Early in life, children begin to acquire the
    foundations of literacy through daily exposure to
    oral and written language. Children communicate
    ideas and feelings through gestures, words,
    pictures, body movements and sounds. Oral
    expression in all of these areas help children to
    experience success, to develop competence, and to
    acquire self-confidence. The abilities to listen,
    speak, read and write emerge interdependently.

Receptive Language
  • Students will
  •  LL.P.1 Follow two step directions (LA.K.15,
  • Example child complies to directions,
    Put your book bag in your
    cubby and go to the red carpet.
  • LL.P.2 Listen attentively to stories or group
    conversations (LA.K.1,14,15, R.K.4,5)
  • Example child sits with a group as
    teacher reads The Very Hungry

Expressive Language
  • Students will
  •  LL.P.3 Express wants and needs (LA.K.17,
    R.K.4, SS.K.5)
  • Example pointing to a desired
    object, nodding head,
  • LL.P.4 Respond to questions using verbal
    communication (LA.K.17, R.K.5)
  • LL.P.5 Identify a variety of pictures/objects
    and actions (LA.K.1,17, R.K.4)
  • Example Child points to a ball and
    says, I throw ball.
  • LL.P.6 Initiate conversations with peers and
    adults (LA.K.17, R.K.5)
  • Example child tells
    peers/teacher that his dog had puppies
  • LL.P.7 Speak in 3-4 word sentences (LA.K.17,
  • LL.P.8 Imitates simple songs/nursery
    rhymes/finger plays
  • LL.P.9 Retell simple stories (LA.K.1,7,8,
  • Example retell Brown Bear, Brown
    Bear by looking at pictures in
    the book

Phonological Awareness
  • Students will
  •  LL.P.10 Discriminate and identify sounds in
    spoken language
  • (LA.K.4,6, R.K.1,2)
  • Example Child says /s/ when teacher
    asks, what is the beginning sound
    in the word sock?
  • LL.P.11 Identify rhyming words (LA.K.4,8,
  • Example Child says, Hat and cat
    sound the same.
  • Example While reading Dr.
    Seuss Hop on Pop, the teacher asks,
    What rhymes with hop? and the child
    responds, pop.
  • LL.P.12 Recognize common sounds at the
    beginning of a series of
  • words (LA.K.4,6, R.K.1,2)
  • Example Child says, Baby and bat
    start the same.
  • LL.P.13 Identify syllables in words (LA.K.4,
  • Example Child claps syllables in
    a classmates name, such as An- na.

Print Awareness and Concepts
  • Students will
  •  LL.P.14 Use emerging reading skills to explore
    the use of print and to construct
    meaning (LA.K.2,7, R.K.4)
  • Example Child recognizes example of
    environmental print
    such as Cheerios and McDonalds logo
  • Example Child finds own name card in
    a basket filled with name cards.
  • LL.P.15 Understand that writing is a form of
    communication for a variety of
    purposes (LA.K.9,12, R.K.4,5)
  • Example Child brings a news
    story that features her uncles
    basketball team.
  • Example Child points to
    writing on bulletin board and
    pretends to read
  • LL.P.16 Orients picture book correctly and turns
    pages one by one (LA.K.3,10, R.K.4,5)

Early Writing
  • Student will
  •  LL.P.17 Experiment with a variety of writing
    tools and materials (LA.K.19)
  • Example Child independently
    chooses to use pencil,
    pens, crayons, markers, computer
    keyboards and other writing tools.
  • LL.P.18 Write some recognizable letters,
    especially those in own name
    (LA.K.20,21, R.K.2,3)
  • Example child copies,
    traces, or independently writes letters
    and/or name

Alphabet Knowledge
  • Students will
  •  LL.P.19 Demonstrate awareness of letters in
    print (LA.K.2,3,5,8)
  • Example Child matches
    letters in puzzles and games.
  • Example Child picks up
    magnetic A and says, This is in
    my name.
  • LL.P.20 Relate at least 10 letters to the
    specific sounds they represent
  • Example Matt is writing at the
    writing center, writes the letter M and
    says, Michael, M starts your name too.

  • Preschoolers are beginning to construct working
    concepts of numbers through interactions with
    people and materials. They are developing an
    understanding of the essential and fundamental
    properties of the number system and underlying
    assumptions about the nature and function of
    numbers. Appropriate classroom activities should
    capitalize on childrens natural curiosity and
    the need to understand the world around them by
    placing emphasis on numbers, shapes, sizes and
    patterns made meaningful through interactive

Number and Operations
  • Students will
  • M.P.1 Demonstrate the use of number concepts,
    such as one to one correspondence
  • Example child gives one napkin and
    one snack to another child
  • M.P.2 Demonstrate mathematical vocabulary
  • Example child says, You have
    more blocks than me.
  • Example child says, I am first in
    line, he is second.

Geometry and Spatial Sense
  • Students will
  • M.P.3 Recognize, describe and name common shapes
  • Example child points to a clock
    when asked to show
  • something in the
    room that is a circle
  • Example child uses fingers to draw
    shapes in shaving cream
  • M.P.4 Understand common positional concepts
  • Example a teacher directs child to
    place the block in
    front of him, under his foot, etc.

  • Students will
  • M.P.5 Sort and classify objects by
    characteristics (M.K.5,6)
  • Example child makes groups of
    red bears, blue bears, red
    frogs, and blue frogs,
    sorting by color and/or animal
  • M.P.6 Describe and extend patterns (M.K.5,6,7)
  • Example child uses beads to make
    a circle-square- circle-square
    necklace. After stringing a
    circle bead, child states, Now I
    need a square one.

  • Students will
  •  M.P.7 Use terms to compare objects (M.K.8)
  • Example child says, I need a bigger
  • Example child uses terms such
    as taller/shorter
    heavier/lighter larger/smaller slower/faster
  • M.P.8 Use standard and nonstandard measurement
    tools (M.K.8)
  • Example child uses his hand as a unit to
    measure a table top
  • Example child uses a growth chart on wall
    to measure her own height and that of a
  • Example child chooses a cup to measure
    flour when cooking
  • M.P.9 Demonstrate an understanding of
    measurable concepts of time and sequence
  • Example child describes the next step in
    the daily routine
  • Example child says, After music, we go
  • Example child says, We drink chocolate
    milk on Friday.

  • Children are immersed in science in their daily
    lives. For preschoolers, science is a time of
    discovery, a natural process of learning in which
    young children are engaged at all times. Through
    observations, classification, and
    experimentation, preschoolers gather information
    about how the world around them works and draw
    conclusions for future interactions and
    acquisition of knowledge. Classroom activities
    for preschoolers should capitalize on childrens
    natural curiosity as they develop a foundation of
    scientific concepts and knowledge on which to
    build an understanding of their environment.

  • Students will
  • S.P.1 Demonstrate basic knowledge of computer
    skills (T.K.1,2)
  • Example child is able to point
    and click with the mouse to play a
    simple matching game
  • Example child is able to make
    choices using adaptive technology

Scientific Skills and Methods 
  • Students will
  •  S.P.2 Participate in simple investigations
  • Example child identifies scent
    containers using the sense of smell
  • Example child compares taste of
    different types of fruit, and the
    class records responses on a large
  • S.P.3 Participate in scientific exploration and
    prediction (S.K.1,7)
  • Example child collects and sorts
    leaves by size and/or color
  • Example child will predict what
    happens when water and gelatin
    powder are mixed
  • Example child describes what will
    happen when ice is placed in
    a bucket on a warm day

Scientific Knowledge
  • Students will
  • S.P.4 Observe, describe, and discuss the natural
    world and living things (S.K.2,9, SS.K.8)
  • Example child cares for plants
    and animals in the classroom
  • Example child notices seasonal
    changes in environment
  • S.P.5 Demonstrate knowledge of concepts and
    language related to time and temperature
    (S.K.3,9, SS.K.1, H.K.4)
  • Example child uses terms such
    as yesterday, tomorrow,
    morning, night, and day appropriately
  • Example child discusses differences
    between seasons/weather and
    the clothes to wear at that time
  •  S.P.6 Demonstrate knowledge of and respect for
    their body (H.K.3,6,12)
  • Example child washes hands after
    toileting and before eating
  • Example child brushes teeth after
  • Example child points to head and
    says, This is my head.

  • The arts encourage the imagination and creative
    spirit as children seek meaning and reason about
    their world. The arts invite children to discover
    more about individual expression, and to develop
    ways to express and represent their ideas,
    theories, and emotions. An appreciation of the
    aesthetic dimensions of daily life fosters
    understanding of cultural diversity.

Music, Movement, Drama and Art
  • Students will
  •  CA.P.1 Use a wide variety of musical elements
    for creative expression (AE
  • Example child participates in finger
    plays, repeats songs and
    nursery rhymes
  • Example child has fun creating sounds
    with musical
  • CA.P.2 Participate in music and movement
  • (AE Dance.K.4, AE Music.K.
    1,11, SS.K-9)
  • Example child moves to the beat of
    the song
  • Example child sings and does motions
    to the Wheels on
    the Bus
  • Example child uses props from
    various cultures
    to represent new experiences

Music, Movement, Drama and Artcont
  • CA.P.3 Participate in dramatic play (AE
    AE-Dance.K.12,13,14, AE Music.K.17, SS.K.4)
  • Example child pretends to eat, drink,
    cook, and put
    up the dishes in the kitchen
  • Example child pretends to be a fireman
    putting out a fire
  • Example child dances and uses props to
    various forms of music that are part
    of community diversity.
  • CA.P.4 Use different art media and materials in
    a variety of ways for creative expression
    (AE Visual Arts.K. 4,9,17)
  • Example child explores a variety of
    materials such as
    paper, paint, crayons, glue, markers, etc
  • Example child molds with clay or

  • Physical Development should be integrated into
    all areas of learning. Motor development is
    basic to the achievement of cognitive skills, the
    promotion of agility and strength, neural
    processing, kinesthetic confidence, and general
    body competence.
  • Gross motor development is gained through regular
    play and movement. It involves the large muscles
    of the body. Preschool activities such as
    running, throwing, catching, jumping, climbing,
    and balancing enhance the development of gross
    motor skills.
  • Fine motor skills involve the use of small
    muscles such as those in the wrist and hand.
    Control and coordination of small, specialized
    motions, using the eyes, mouth, hands and feet
    enhance the development of fine motor skills.
    Activities for developing fine motor skills
    include building with blocks, molding clay or
    play dough, using scissors or tongs, stringing
    beads, placing pegs in boards, drawing with
    crayons or markers and painting.

Gross Motor
  • Students will
  • PD.P.1 Demonstrate strength and
    coordination of large muscles
  • (PE.K.1,2,3,4,5,6,7, AE
  • Example walk, run, jump, hop,
    climb, throw, catch, balance

Fine Motor
  • Students will
  •  PD.P.2 Demonstrate strength and coordination of
    small muscles (LA.K.19,20,21, R.K.2,3)
  • Example button/unbutton, snap/unsnap,
    zip/unzip, pre- writing,
    cutting, stringing beads, stacking
    blocks, play dough
  • Example child writes the first letters
    of his name using a three-finger or
    tripod grasp pattern when
    holding writing utensils
  • Example child rolls, pounds, and
    squeezes playdough
  • PD.P.3 Coordinate eye-hand movements in a
    purposeful way (PE.K.3,6)
  • Example child completes a
  • Example child hits a target with a
    beanbag or ball