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Overview:

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Overview: Overview: Morphology Overview: Morphology The subfield of linguistics that studies words and their relationships to other words. Overview: Morphology The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview:


1
Overview
2
Overview
  • Morphology

3
Overview
  • Morphology
  • The subfield of linguistics that studies words
    and their relationships to other words.

4
Overview
  • Morphology
  • The subfield of linguistics that studies words
    and their relationships to other words.
  • Morpheme

5
Overview
  • Morphology
  • The subfield of linguistics that studies words
    and their relationships to other words.
  • Morpheme
  • The smallest unit of meaning

6
Overview
  • Phonetics and Phonology

7
Overview
  • Phonetics and Phonology
  • Study the sounds and sound production of human
    speech

8
Overview
  • Phonetics and Phonology
  • Study the sounds and sound production of human
    speech
  • phoneme

9
Overview
  • Phonetics and Phonology
  • Study the sounds and sound production of human
    speech
  • phoneme
  • unit of sound

10
Overview
  • Syntax

11
Overview
  • Syntax
  • the inherent natural grammar of any human
    language.

12
Overview
  • Syntax
  • the inherent natural grammar of any human
    language.
  • Syntacticians study how the natural grammar works
    in relation to meaning

13
Semantics
14
Semantics
  • Studies the meaning and denotation of language

15
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Speaker meaning

16
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Procrastinate means to put things off
  • Speaker meaning

17
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Procrastinate means to put things off
  • Speaker meaning
  • In saying Its getting late, she meant that we
    should leave

18
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • The meaning of words can change from region to
    region, from speaker to speaker, and circumstance
    to circumstance.

19
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • The meaning of words can change from region to
    region, from speaker to speaker, and circumstance
    to circumstance.
  • Monroe County, PA English
  • I slipped downtown today noon and got my ardick
    fast in a door.

20
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • The meaning of words can change from region to
    region, from speaker to speaker, and circumstance
    to circumstance.
  • Monroe County, PA English
  • I slipped downtown today noon and got my ardick
    fast in a door.
  • When Bill says hes ready, he always means hes
    ready to go home.

21
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • The meaning of words can change from region to
    region, from speaker to speaker, and circumstance
    to circumstance.
  • Monroe County, PA English
  • I slipped downtown today noon and got my ardick
    fast in a door.
  • When Bill says hes ready, he always means hes
    ready to go home.
  • Hes a real dog

22
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning can be broken down this way
  • Language meaning
  • Dialect meaning
  • Social meaning
  • Regional meaning
  • Idiolect meaning

23
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning can be broken down this way
  • Speaker meaning
  • Literal
  • Non-literal
  • Irony
  • Sarcasm
  • Metaphor

24
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Speaker meaning He is a real dog

25
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Speaker meaning He is a real dog
  • Literal Hes a German Shepherd.

26
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Speaker meaning He is a real dog
  • Literal Hes a German Shepherd.
  • Non-Literal
  • Irony After all the guessing, the scientists
    revealed that he is a real dog, not a robot.

27
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Speaker meaning He is a real dog
  • Literal Hes a German Shepherd.
  • Non-Literal
  • Irony After all the guessing, the scientists
    revealed that he is a real dog, not a robot.
  • Sarcasm He is a real dog, but not much of one -
    how much of a dog can a chihuahua be?

28
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Speaker meaning He is a real dog
  • Literal Hes a German Shepherd.
  • Non-Literal
  • Irony After all the guessing, the scientists
    revealed that he is a real dog, not a robot.
  • Sarcasm He is a real dog, but not much of one -
    how much of a dog can a chihuahua be?
  • Metaphor Bill behaves like a real dog.

29
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning

30
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Idiolect meaning Bill acts in a very doggish way

31
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Idiolect meaning Bill acts in a very doggish way
  • Language meaning

32
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Idiolect meaning Bill acts in a very doggish way
  • Language meaning
  • A dog is a canine mammal with four legs and a wet
    cold nose when in good health.

33
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Idiolect meaning Bill acts in a very doggish way
  • Language meaning
  • A dog is a canine mammal with four legs and a wet
    cold nose when in good health.
  • Regional He had to put his dogs up after a long
    days work.

34
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Linguistic meaning
  • Idiolect meaning Bill acts in a very doggish way
  • Language meaning
  • A dog is a canine mammal with four legs and a wet
    cold nose when in good health.
  • Regional He had to put his dogs up after a long
    days work.
  • Social Columbo was dogging his suspect all week
    long (among detectives, police)

35
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories

36
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine animal

37
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine anima
  • Mentalist meaning
  • idea based, but what happens when two ideas
    denote the same meaning?

38
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine anima
  • Mentalist meaning
  • idea based, but what happens when two ideas
    denote the same meaning?
  • Meaning as images

39
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine anima
  • Mentalist meaning
  • idea based, but what happens when two ideas
    denote the same meaning?
  • Meaning as images
  • Fine for dog or cat, but for French or Navajo?

40
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine anima
  • Mentalist meaning
  • idea based, but what happens when two ideas
    denote the same meaning?
  • Meaning as images
  • Fine for dog or cat, but for French or Navajo?
  • Meaning as concepts

41
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • Denotational meaning (D)
  • Dog denotes canine anima
  • Mentalist meaning
  • idea based, but what happens when two ideas
    denote the same meaning?
  • Meaning as images
  • Fine for dog or cat, but for French or Navajo?
  • Meaning as concepts
  • based on the sense the speaker has of meaning

42
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • The Use Theory of meaning (U)

43
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • The Use Theory of meaning (U)
  • meaning is determined by use, the least
    problematic of the theories

44
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Theories
  • The Use Theory of meaning (U)
  • meaning is determined by use, the least
    problematic of the theories
  • However, researchers dont really have a good
    handle on what meaning is...

45
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Properties

46
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Properties
  • Ambiguity He found a bat.

47
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Properties
  • Ambiguity He found a bat.
  • Polysemy What a beautiful table! She tabled the
    motion.

48
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Properties
  • Ambiguity He found a bat.
  • Polysemy What a beautiful table! She tabled the
    motion.
  • Anomaly gradually plummet colorless green idea
    dream diagonally the sun was blue around us the
    sound of silence

49
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Relations

50
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Relations
  • synonymy car, automobile, vehicle

51
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Relations
  • synonymy car, automobile, vehicle
  • meaning inclusion the meaning of kill includes
    the meaning of dead

52
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Relations
  • synonymy car, automobile, vehicle
  • meaning inclusion the meaning of kill includes
    the meaning of dead
  • overlap father, uncle, bull and stallion all
    include the meaning of male

53
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Relations
  • synonymy car, automobile, vehicle
  • meaning inclusion the meaning of kill includes
    the meaning of dead
  • overlap father, uncle, bull and stallion all
    include the meaning of male
  • antonymy small and large share the meaning of
    size, but differ in degree.

54
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • These properties and relations can be extended to
    sentences

55
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • These properties and relations can be extended to
    sentences
  • Synonymy

56
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • These properties and relations can be extended to
    sentences
  • Synonymy
  • His pants were too small.
  • His pants were not big enough.

57
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • These properties and relations can be extended to
    sentences
  • Synonymy
  • His pants were too small.
  • His pants were not big enough.
  • Ambiguity

58
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • These properties and relations can be extended to
    sentences
  • Synonymy
  • His pants were too small.
  • His pants were not big enough.
  • Ambiguity
  • She visited a little girls school.

59
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have communicative potential.

60
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have communicative potential.
  • Declarative The dog is mean.

61
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have communicative potential.
  • Declarative The dog is mean.
  • Imperative Kick the little mean dog!

62
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have communicative potential.
  • Declarative The dog is mean.
  • Imperative Kick the little mean dog!
  • Interrogative Where is the little mean dog?

63
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations...

64
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations
  • If a sentence contradicts itself, it is
    understood to be false

65
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations
  • If a sentence contradicts itself, it is
    understood to be false
  • If John is sick and Mary is sick, John is not
    sick.

66
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations
  • Sentences may have some presupposition

67
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations
  • Sentences may have some presupposition
  • The present king of France is bald.
  • The present king of France is not bald

68
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • Sentences also have truth properties and
    relations
  • Sentences may have some presupposition
  • The present king of France is bald.
  • The present king of France is not bald
  • There is a present king of France.

69
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • What is the goal of semantic theory?

70
Semantics
  • Meaning
  • What is the goal of semantic theory?
  • Essentially to prove and test meaning.
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