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Title: Sui

Sui Tang Song
Review Early Dynasties
  • Shang Dynasty1766-1122
  • Zhou Dynasty1122-221
  • Last 400yrs - warring states
  • Qin Dynasty 221 -206 BCE
  • Shi huangdi (1st emperor)
  • Legalist philosophy
  • First coinage, writing system,
  • Censorship
  • Lasts 15 years
  • China- in 2,000 years - 23 dynasties - 9
    important ones

Han Dynasty
  • Han Dynasty
  • (classical era)
  • Confucian based society
  • Merit system-bureaucrats
  • Paper porcelain invented
  • For 400 years after fall of Han - time of great
  • Buddhism becomes popular in this period

Sui Dynasty (588-618)
  • Sui unite China - rule for 30 years
  • Wendi
  • Revival of Confucianism
  • Yangdi
  • Grand Canal

Tang Dynasty (618 907)
  • Tang
  • Increased boundaries
  • Heavy dependence on Militarism
  • Rise of Tang
  • First emperor minister (Wei Zheng)- model of
    good rule
  • Imperial power and moral restraint in theory - in
    practice hard to maintain

  • Trade commerce grow
  • Printing
  • Arts- focus on landscape/nature
  • Gun powder
  • Woodblock printing
  • Capital city Changan (eternal peace) 24 mile
    walled city
  • Artistic / commercial invention continues in
    Song era

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Empress Wu
  • Ruled for 50 years - 705
  • Biggest challenge deal with scholar/gentry and
    old aristocrats
  • Economy remained strong!
  • Econ- equal land system
  • Civil exam system
  • Blow to noble class
  • Social mobility
  • Confucianism as official philosophy cultural
    literacy uniting China
  • Buddhism - why the backlash?
  • Around 845...

Tang Xuanzong (The Profound Emperor) and Consort
Decline of Tang - Losing the Mandate of Heaven
  • Xuanzong
  • (Empress Wus grandson)
  • Patron of Arts
  • Decline due to lack of morality?
  • Blame consort - during rebellion, soldiers want
    her head - he gives it to them
  • He abdicates
  • Overextension
  • Rebellions
  • Changan overran (755 763)
  • Uighurs (nomadic) help Tang restore order, dont
    leave and gain influence in China
  • Northern nomads attacking, mass migration of
    Chinese to the sout
  • Dynasty can not recover and ends in 907
  • Other reasons for decline
  • 751 - loss to Arabs at Talas
  • Equal land system breaks down
  • Poor attention to canal irrigation systems
  • Nomadic attacks
  • Moral Chinas view
  • Centralization unity peace (stability)
  • Decentralization civil war
  • The years 907 960 saw the fragmentation of
    China into five northern dynasties and ten
    southern kingdoms until Song unify

Nomadic Relationships
  • Two successor nomadic groups attempted to
    establish control
  • Liao Empire (916 1121(decline))
  • Relatives of Mongolians
  • Established rule in the north.
  • Khitan people
  • Linked China with societies to the north and west
  • They encouraged and allowed Chinese culture to
    remain in their region.
  • Buddhism flourished rulers were seen as
    bodhisattvas or Buddhist kings
  • Minyak (related to Tibetans) established
    control in the west. Tried to relate to the Tang
    by calling themselves Tangguts.

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Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)
  • Emphasis on administration, industry, education,
    the arts
  • Military not emphasized
  • Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r.
    960-976 CE)
  • Former military leader
  • Made emperor by troops
  • Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil
    servants, expanded meritocracy

The Song dynasty, 960-1279 C.E.
Song Dynasty 960-1279
  • Scholar-gentry class dominates
  • abuses in civil service exam develop
  • Paper money
  • Arts commerce
  • 11C Needle compass (3rd century - South pointer)

Splintering of North and Southern Song
  • Heavy dependence on growth of civilian government
    at expense of military
  • By 1127, the Song court could not push back the
    Northern nomadic invaders
  • Surrounded by north empires (Jurchin)
  • Invasion of Mongols from North 1279
  • Start of Yuan (Mongol Dynasty)

Splintering of North and Southern Song
  • 1125 Jurchens take the last of the Liao and
    establish the Jin Empire in north China
  • Jin lay siege to Song capital (Kaifeng) and
    forced the Song south of the Yellow River
    Jurchen establish control of north and central
  • Song make annual payments to Jin to avoid warfare
  • This period is known as the Southern Song (1127

Northern and Southern Song
Song Weaknesses
  • Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy
  • Two peasant rebellions in 12th c.
  • Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy
  • Civil service leadership of military
  • Lacked military training
  • Unable to contain nomadic attacks
  • Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou,
    southern China (Southern Song)

Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song
  • Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops
    per year
  • Technology iron plows, use of draft animals
  • Soil fertilization, improved irrigation
  • Water wheels, canals
  • Terrace farming

Population Growth
  • Result of increased agricultural production
  • Effective food distribution system
  • Transportation networks built under Tang and Song

  • Changan worlds most populous city 2 million
  • Southern Song capital Hangzhou over 1 million
  • Several cities over 100,000
  • By the end of the Song, 2/3 of the Chinese
    population is concentrated below the Yangtze.

Urbanization rise of mercantile class
  • The Grand Canal, built during the Sui Dynasty,
    connects the Yangtze and the Yellow rivers,
    facilitating the transport of agricultural
    production from the south to the north and
    helping to unify the economy of China.

Patriarchal Social Structures
  • Increased emphasis on ancestor worship
  • Elaborate grave rituals
  • Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased
  • Footbinding gains popularity
  • Increased control by male family members

Technology and Industry
  • Porcelain (Chinaware)
  • Increase of iron production due to use of coke,
    not coal, in furnaces
  • Agricultural tools, weaponry
  • Gunpowder invented
  • Earlier printing techniques refined
  • Moveable type by mid-11th century
  • Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block
    technique easier
  • Naval technology

Emergence of a Market Economy
  • Flying cash letters of credit developed to
    deal with copper coin shortages
  • Promissory notes, checks also used
  • Development of independently produced paper money
  • Not as stable, riots when not honored
  • Government claims monopoly on money production in
    11th century

Persecution of Buddhists
  • Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late
    Tang dynasty
  • 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist
    temples, expulsions
  • Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well
  • Economic motive seizure of large monastic

  • The Song Neo-Confucian philosophers, finding a
    certain purity in the originality of the ancient
    classical texts, wrote commentaries on them. The
    most influential of these philosophers was Zhu Xi
    ( b1130-1200), whose synthesis of Confucian
    thought and Buddhist, Taoist, and other ideas
    became the official imperial ideology from late
    Song times to the late nineteenth century.
  • As incorporated into the examination system, Zhu
    Xi's philosophy evolved into a rigid official
    creed, which stressed the one-sided obligations
    of obedience and compliance of subject to ruler,
    child to father, wife to husband, and younger
    brother to elder brother.
  • The effect was to inhibit the societal
    development of premodern China, resulting both in
    many generations of political, social, and
    spiritual stability and in a slowness of cultural
    and institutional change up to the nineteenth
  • Neo-Confucian doctrines also came to play the
    dominant role in the intellectual life of Korea,
    Vietnam, and Japan.
  • Army Area Handbook on China, written by Rinn-Sup
    Shinn and Robert L. Worden.

Tang and Song Influence on East Asia
  • The influence of Chinese civilization spreads
    throughout East Asia as neighboring countries
    study and borrow from Chinese civilization
  • Korea, Japan, and what is today Vietnam
  • Confucian thought and social and political values
  • Buddhism
  • Literary Chinese and its writing system which
    becomes the language of government and that used
    by the elites of these societies to communicate
    among themselves.

China and Korea
  • Silla Dynasty Tang armies withdraw, Korea
    recognizes Tang as emperor
  • Technically a vassal state, but highly
  • Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

China and Vietnam
  • Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture,
  • But ongoing resentment at political domination
  • Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in
    10th century

China and Early Japan
  • Chinese armies never invade Japan
  • Yet Chinese culture pervasive
  • Imitation of Tang administration
  • Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence Nara
    Japan (710-794 CE)
  • Adoption of Confucian and Buddhist teachings
  • Retention of Shinto religion

Heian Japan (794-1185 CE)
  • Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto)
  • Emperor is a figurehead, real power in hands of
    Fujiwara clan
  • Pattern in Japanese history weak emperor, power
    behind the throne (feudal society)
  • Helps explain longevity of the institution

Japanese Literature
  • Influence of Chinese kanji characters
  • Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese
  • Development of hiragana, katakana syllabic
  • Court life The Tale of Genji
  • Written by woman with weak command of Chinese,
    becomes classic of early Japanese literature

Institution of the Shogun
  • Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in
    12th century
  • Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE
  • Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to
    continue in Kyoto

Medieval Japan
  • Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573
    CE) periods
  • Decentralized power in hands of warlords
  • Military authority in hands of samurai
  • Professional warriors

China and the Hemispheric Economy
  • Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese
  • Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases
    local demands for imported luxury goods

Cultural Change in Tang and Song China
  • Declining confidence in Confucianism after
    collapse of Han dynasty
  • Increasing popularity of Buddhism
  • Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam
    also appear
  • Clientele primarily foreign merchant class

  • Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western
    China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE
  • Buddhist temples, libraries
  • Economic success as converts donate land holdings
  • Increase popularity through donations of
    agricultural produce to the poor

Conflicts with Chinese Culture
  • Buddhism
  • Text-based (Buddhist teachings)
  • Emphasis on Metaphysics
  • Ascetic ideal
  • Celibacy
  • isolation
  • Confucianism
  • Text-based (Confucian teachings)
  • Daoism not text-based
  • Emphasis on ethics, politics
  • Family-centered
  • Procreation
  • Filial piety

Chan (Zen) Buddhism
  • Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate
  • Dharma translated as dao
  • Nirvana translated as wuwei
  • Accommodated family lifestyle
  • one son in monastery for ten generations of
  • Limited empahsis on textual study, meditation