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The Lexile Framework An Introduction for Educators Thomas Schnick and Mark Knickelbine Forward by A.J. Stenner


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Title: The Lexile Framework An Introduction for Educators Thomas Schnick and Mark Knickelbine Forward by A.J. Stenner

The Lexile FrameworkAn Introduction for
EducatorsThomas Schnick and Mark
KnickelbineForward by A.J. Stenner
  • An overview created by the
  • Clair E. Gale JHS
  • Professional Learning Team
  • Members
  • Kass Cornish, Terry Felts, Heath Jackson,
  • Margie Kennedy, Dusty Johnson.

Table of ContentsClick book icon to link to each
  • Chapter 1The Dynamics of Reading Engagement
  • Chapter 2 Matching Readers and Texts
  • Chapter 3 The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
  • Chapter 4 Why Lexiles Work
  • Chapter 5 Reader, Text, Context Using Lexiles
    in Common Reading Situations
  • Chapter 6 Lexiles and Content Reading

Contents Continued
Table of ContentsClick book icon to link to each
  • Chapter 7 Lexiles in the Media Center
  • Chapter 8 Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • Chapter 9 Using Lexiles to Communicate with the
  • Chapter 10 Standard Setting with Lexiles
  • Lesson Plans and Additional Resources

Chapter 1The Dynamics of Reading Engagement
  • Twenty-two percent of high school seniors fail to
    reach the level of basic reading competency.
  • The educational careers of 25 to 40 percent of
    American children are imperiled because they do
    not read well enough, quickly enough or easily
    enough to ensure comprehension in their content
    courses in middle and secondary school. Although
    some men and women with reading disability can
    and do attain significant levels of academic and
    occupational achievement, more typically poor
    readers, unless strategic interventions in
    reading are afforded them, fare more poorly on
    the educational and, subsequently, the
    occupational ladder. Although difficult to
    translate into actual dollar amounts, the costs
    to society are probably quite high in terms of
    lower productivity, underemployment, mental
    health services, and other measures.
  • When students find it difficult to read, they
    read less, and its clear that students distaste
    for reading grows as they get older.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1The Dynamics of Reading Engagement
  • Reading Engagement
  • People read for a reason
  • The key to reading engagement, is to help each
    student discover literacy as a means of
    fulfilling ones desires, of achieving ones
    purposes, and of satisfying ones curiosity.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1The Dynamics of Reading Engagement
  • Fifth-Grade Shoes
  • There is no such thing as a pair of fifth grade
    shoes. When purchasing a pair of shoes, one
    might ask the following questions.
  • What will the shoes be used for (athletics,
    dress, hiking, etc)
  • What size of foot does the person have
  • What color or style does the person like
  • Just as it is impossible to assume that all 5th
    graders wear the same size shoe, it is also
    impossible to assume that they all read at the
    same level.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1The Dynamics of Reading Engagement
  • Conclusion
  • Guiding students to engaging and rewarding
    reading experiences can be a very complicated
    task. Yet, the more we learn about the
    individual guidance of teachers to literacy
    experience is a vital part of every childs
    reading development. The following chapters
    provide ideas for implementing individual reading

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • Introduction
  • As with the many reading-related metrics already
    available test scores, percentiles, readability
    formulas, and the like- there is always the
    danger that we can begin to think of measuring
    student reading ability to be like measuring
    rainwater in a tube. Because the numbers we work
    with have the appearance of hard, objective
    facts, we begin to think of reading comprehension
    as something tangible that exists in a readers
  • LEXILES along with other assessment tools
    should be considered an approximation of the
    students ability. They cannot replace the
    experienced teacher as a judge of appropriateness
    of material.

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • The Teacher as a Guide
  • While especially true for emerging readers,
    students at all levels need the teacher to serve
    as a literate, experienced guide who can help
    them negotiate the many decisions that must be
    made when choosing a text, whether for learning
    or sheer enjoyment.
  • . . . The process of selecting books and
    supplementary materials is best done as a shared
    process, the teacher serving as a guide to help
    students find the texts that reflect their
    interests and meet their developmental needs.

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • The Reader
  • Background of Experience
  • Knowledge of Subject
  • Vocabulary
  • Developmental Level
  • Purpose and Motivation

Factors to Consider
  • The Text
  • Consistency with students background and reading
  • Format of the Book
  • Concept Difficulty
  • The Works Organization
  • Authors Purpose
  • The Context
  • Reading Setting
  • Task Given free reading vs. research
  • Objectives and Outcomes stated and unstated
    expectations for reader

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • The Challenge of Matching
  • By listening to students read aloud, an
    experienced teacher can spot the more advanced
    readers as well as the less proficient among the
    class. Indeed, the intuition born of personal
    experience will always be the teachers first and
    most important tool for guiding students.
  • However . . . . as objective as one may try to
    be, the possibility for biased or mistaken
    judgments exists. . . . . Research shows that
    teacher judgments of the relative difficulty of
    textual materials can vary by as much as six
    grade levels (Jorgenson, 1977).

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • FOR EXAMPLE While the books below may be
    commonly placed in the same grade level grouping,
    their Lexile levels vary more than one might

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 900L Every Living
Thing 1000L A Connecticut Yankee in King
Arthurs Court 1050L Puddnhead
Wilson 1130L The Prince and the Pauper 1600L
Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • The Apples and Oranges Problem
  • Grade level test scores are based on norms of
    student achievement readability formulas are
    based on mathematical equations that model
    language difficulty. In short, there is no
    really relationship between a grade equivalency
    determined from a test score and one determined
    from a readability formula. Even though both
    appear to be giving the same kind of information,
    both are based on entirely different
  • As such grade equivalent scores are best
    interpreted solely as an indication that a
    students performance was above or below average,
    and not as a reliable measure of student

Table of Contents
Chapter 2Matching Readers and Texts
  • The Benefits of Lexiles
  • Introduces a single, common scale that can be
    used to refer to both student ability and text
  • Easy to understand and universally applicable to
    any test or reading assessment.
  • Permits us to consider multiple indicators as we
    judge a students reading ability and development.

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
  • What are Lexiles?
  • Lex- refers to words (lexicon.)
  • -iles refers to percentile or a comparative unit
    of measurement.
  • We use a standard unit with fixed units so that
    it doesnt change with every reading (no stretchy

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
  • What Does It Measure?
  • Semantic Difficulty
  • Word Difficulty
  • Frequently encountered words are the easiest.
  • If we know how frequently a student has been
    exposed to a word we can derive a difficulty for
    each word.
  • Originally derived from a body of over 5,000,000
    words sampled.
  • Testing has shown the validity of this predictor.

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
What Does It Measure?
  • Syntactic Difficulty
  • Reading researchers have found that the best
    predictor of the difficulty of a sentence is its
  • Longer sentences tend to be more complex or
  • Longer sentences push the readers short term
    memory to hold more information.

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
  • By looking at both traits, a set measure of
    difficulty for a text can be derived. A text high
    on one scale but low on another may score lower
    overall because of its area on the graph.

Syntactic Difficulty
Symantec Difficulty
Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
Using the same scale
  • We can measure a students syntactic skills and
    semantic skills.
  • By using the same scale to measure a texts
    difficulty and a students ability, Lexiles form
    a clean comparison.

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
The Open Range
  • Lexiles describe a range of reading ability for
    each reader 100 points below their score and 50
    points above.
  • This range shows the area at which a text becomes
    too easy and thus boring, or too hard and thus
  • At the students score, the student should be
    able to grasp 75 of the texts meaning.

Table of Contents
Chapter 3The Lexile Framework A Common Metric
  • By knowing the students range, we can adjust
  • By guiding students to texts that push them to
  • By selecting texts which allow students to access
  • And by adjusting to suit other problems which
    might detract from student understanding.

Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • Introduction
  • An absolute scale for reading ability is needed
    to successfully match students reading skills to
    difficulty of text and to track the growth of
    students comprehension abilities.
  • A. The Lexile Framework does this better than
    any other testing format because Lexiles are
    divided into regular intervals similar to
  • B. Each Lexile unit is a standard measurement
    of text difficulty and/or student reading
    competence. (p. 33)

Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • True Score Theorem
  • A. Combination of students true ability and
    actual score
  • B. Measurement errors
  • 1. difference in testing procedures
  • 2. testing bias
  • 3. physical well being of student

Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • True Score Theorem
  • C. Difference between students ability and his
    score is the estimate of error which can identify
    the range in which the students true score is

When a student takes an assessment that is
targeted to his reading level , then the
standard error of measurement is minimized. (p.
35) D. Multiple observations and then a
comparison of the results can minimize the error
of measurement. LEXILES CAN DO THESE!!
Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • How Lexiles Measure Text
  • A. Word Frequency
  • 1. Word frequency in Lexile Analyzer, not in
    specific text.
  • 2. Over 200 million words in corpus of Lexile
  • B. Sentence Length/Complexity
  • 1. More clauses
  • 2. More information
  • 3. Relationships between the bits of
  • 4. Load on short term memory.

Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • How Lexiles Measure Text

C. Lexile Framework inserts these two
measurements into an algebraic equation to
determine the difficulty of the selected
text. D. Anchor Points 1. Thermometer
freezing and boiling points 2. Lexiles seven
first grade primers and Grolier Electronic
Encyclopedia. 3. Lexile 1/1000 of the
difference between these two anchor points. 4.
Lexile Scale starts at 200 to prevent frequent
occurrences of negative values.
Table of Contents
Chapter 4Why Lexiles Work
  • Conclusion
  • A. The Lexile Framework will work on most
    texts, the only exceptions being poetry, lists,
    and noncontinuous texts.
  • B. The Lexile Framework is still only an
    estimate of students comprehension ability and
    reading skills, but it is the most accurate
    testing format available.

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Basic Rule of Thumb
  • A students Lexile measure represents the level
    at which the student can read with 75
  • This measure defines 100 Lexiles below and 50
    Lexiles above the students measure.
  • Use text lower in the students Lexile range when
    reading situation is more challenging.
  • For unsupported independent reading, avoid texts
    that are above the top end of the students
    Lexile range whenever possible.
  • In all reading situations, use the Lexile scale
    as an accurate and easy way to communicate
    abilities, text difficulties, and goals for
    reading comprehension growth and achievement.

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Stages of Reading Development
  • It takes most people 20 years to reach the
    highest stage
  • of reading development.
  • Pre-reading stage birth to age 6
  • Associate words and sounds
  • Identify rhymes and alliteration
  • Acquire basic phonemic awareness
  • Begin to understand that words come in
  • parts and those parts are used to form words
  • Stage One 6 7 year-olds
  • Association of letters to the corresponding parts
    of spoken words
  • Notice subtle differences between
    similar-sounding words
  • Able to use knowledge to decode words not seen

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Stage Two 7 8 year-olds
  • Fluency
  • Reading familiar books
  • Rereading encourages fluency
  • Learn to use decoding skills
  • Competence and confidence comes from rereading
    familiar words
  • Note Proper development through this stage
    requires rereading many easy and familiar texts
    as well as functional and recreational reading
    during other parts of the school day.
  • Stage Three 9 11 year-olds
  • Read for learning and exploration
  • Read new information for assigned and
    self-selected purposes
  • Read to acquire and synthesize information from
    multiple sources
  • Begin to acquire individual tastes and

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Stage Four Junior High / High School
  • Reading to learn, to enjoy, to accomplish
    academic work. Reading to do.
  • Critically analyze texts.
  • Further develop reading interests
  • Stage Five College Level and Beyond
  • Mature reading
  • Moves from concrete reading to understanding the
  • Assesses and evaluates information
  • Motivated by own purposes and tastes
  • Increases efficiency for career purposes and the
    breadth and depth of their reading experiences
    and tastes

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Using Lexiles to Adjust for Stages 1 2
  • Adjustments for recognizable words
  • Students should focus on materials at about 50L
    below personal Lexile measures
  • Shared reading or reading aloud is VERY important
  • Adjustment for familiar texts
  • Read aloud to an interested and supportive adult
  • Needing rereading experiences with familiar texts
  • Adjustments for Stages 3 and Beyond
  • Automaticity
  • Occurs when a readers cognitive load shifts from
    sounding out and recognizing words to reading for
  • Attention High School and Middle School Teachers
    Readers who have not yet reached automaticity
    REGARDLESS OF THEIR AGE need to be targeted
    somewhat differently than more mature readers.

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Teaching Older Readers for Independent Reading
  • After grade 3, students are expected to be
    unglued from print . . . In other words, the
    readers attention should be focused on
    understanding the text . . . Not sounding out
  • By 4th grade, students are reading for learning
    the new . . . the main purposes of reading are
    to acquire new information, explore new
    viewpoints, and develop an understanding of the
  • When we target readers with a range of Lexiled
    books, we distinguish between targeting Stage 1
    and Stage 2 readers and targeting readers who
    have passed the threshold to Stage 3 and beyond
  • Note As children move to higher stages of
    reading development, the content complexity
    grows. As the complexity grows, the child needs
    to have a broader and deeper expanse of
    knowledge and background to understand the
    technical and content specific vocabulary.

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Adjusting for Text Characteristics
  • Know the Lexile measures for the texts you want
    to use
  • Also use where one finds the
    Lexile Library
  • Adjusting for Format and Genre
  • Clues that influence a students expectations
    about a text is difficult
  • Lack of illustrations
  • Length of book/article
  • Density / type size
  • Topic / genre / author
  • Supporting Tough Texts
  • Know the Lexile measure of the text
  • Supply greater amounts of vocabulary and concepts
    as the text gets higher from the students
  • Give instructional support BEFORE the reading
    activity takes place

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Strategies That Cause Students to Make
  • Readers are liable to be more alert and engaged
    in the text when they can transform the text from
    the authors words into those of the reader
  • Translate or retell what one has read with the
    text available
  • Recall / retell without looking back at the text
  • Rewrite / summarize with the text available
  • Summarize without consulting the text
  • Outline with and without available text
  • Represent the text in a student constructed
    graphic organizer / illustration with the text

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Instruction on Authentic Texts and Tasks
  • Ways to achieve some level of relevance in school
  • Teaching methods / materials that are closer to
  • ways that REAL interests are built and language
    is learned
  • Construct an environment that excites interest
    and has
  • life-like or problem-based orientation
  • Create instructional conversations authentic
  • between people
  • Strategies, Not Skills
  • Teach students to use strategies such as
    self-monitoring or self-fixing
  • Encourage students to take responsibility for
    their own reading and learning needs
  • Use question types that match instructional
  • (See Blooms Taxonomy or Marzanos Dimensions of
    Thinking and Dimensions of Learning)

Table of Contents
Chapter 5Why Lexiles Work
  • Adjustments for the Reading Content
  • Reading / Language Arts Program
  • Group Reading and Guided Reading
  • Special Education Reading Programs
  • Home Reading / Summer Reading Programs

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Introduction
  • With a recent shift in emphasis from fiction to
    expository text come additional challenges for
    the reader to overcome.
  • Many of these texts, while developmentally
    appropriate based on their content, often contain
    material at a readability level beyond the
    readers Lexile range. For example, these
    content-based texts often contain specialized
    vocabularies and explain complex concepts.

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Using the Lexile Framework Throughout the
  • In general, assign texts at or below the
    students Lexile measure when factors make the
    reading situation more challenging, threatening,
    or unfamiliar. Use texts at or above the
    students Lexile measure to stimulate challenge
    and growth, or when you will be adding support
    such as teaching background concepts,
    pre-teaching vocabulary, or facilitating
    post-reading activities, such as reading
    discussion groups.

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Determining the Match Between Students and
  • Obtain the Lexile measures for the texts you wish
    to assign.
  • Rank the materials you wish to assign by Lexile
  • Write down the current Lexile measures for your
    students, again ranking them by Lexile measure.
  • Compare the ranges of the Lexile measures to the
    student measures. How well do they correspond?

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Teacher Read Aloud with Commentary
  • Because it is easier to listen than read,
    learners understand new material better when they
    use their listening vocabularies.
  • While reading, the only time the teacher pauses
    is to make comments about the material, selecting
    hard words to explain or new concepts to relate.
  • This method works best if kept short about ten
    minutes or so.
  • Post-reading activities help to consolidate

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Handling Content Density and Concept Overload
  • A team of researchers, Lloyd and Mitchell (1989)
    came up with three research questions which are
    the same questions content teachers need to
    consider when planning instruction
  • 1. How important is the concept to the
  • 2. How completely is the concept developed in
    the text?
  • 3. What level of prior knowledge do students
    need in order to be able to understand the
  • If the concept is not covered clearly and
    thoroughly in the text, then you will need to
    support the textbook with additional instruction.

Table of Contents
Chapter 6Lexiles in Content Reading
  • Reading Beyond the Textbook
  • The content teacher can circumvent these
    potential problems by relying more on
    supplemental materials for instruction. In
    addition to the more common supplements
    (newspapers and magazines to update students with
    current information), researchers strongly
    recommend using literature novels, biographies,
    autobiographies, storybooks, and other works of
    fiction and nonfiction throughout the
    curriculum (Anderson, 1996)

Table of Contents
Chapter 7Lexiles in the Media Center
  • Media Center is the Center of Literacy Education
  • Rich reading environment
  • Guide students to appropriate reading experience
  • Readability of texts
  • Better accessibility
  • Empower students to play a more self-directed
    role in
  • reading development
  • Targeting Students in the Media Center
  • Use same targeting procedures as in the classroom
  • Media Specialist and Teacher need to be a team
  • Collaborate on Lexile Range of individual
  • Collaborate to develop special collections to
    support class reading assignments
  • Collaborate on intervention strategies for
    students who need extra guidance
  • Replace grade-equivalent leveling with Lexile

Students should be familiar with their Lexile
Table of Contents
Chapter 7Lexiles in the Media Center
  • Book Labeling
  • Label Books with Lexile Measures
  • Help students find books of interest at their
    appropriate reading level
  • Provide information on individual books as well
    as magazines
  • Apply metacognitive awareness to selection
    process along with other motivating factors
    author, genre, information needs
  • Note Media Specialists and Teachers worry about
    labeling books. Sometimes this can be a
    barrier to intellectual freedom. It may appear
    that certain books are off-limits to some
  • If Lexile labeling is done sensitively and
  • it overcomes many concerns generated by

Table of Contents
Chapter 7Lexiles in the Media Center
  • Collection Development
  • Media Centers Collection of Appropriate Reading
    Levels for the Student Population
  • Media Specialist can analyze how well the current
    supply of reading materials fits the
    comprehension needs of the student body.
  • Using the Lexile Framework allows the specialist
    to develop a collection of books to meet the
    needs of all the students.
  • A media specialist can tell whether the
    collection of books is too challenging for its
    current population, too easy . . . or just right.
  • A well-rounded distribution of books will include
    easier books for leisure reading to more
    challenging material for study and exploration.
  • The role of the media center has changed. It is
    no longer a place where books are housed . . .
    .but an extension of the classroom. Just as
    adults like choosing books themselves, so do
    students. With the Lexile Framework System in a
    library, students will be better able to chose
    the right book for their reading level.

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • In general, reading management systems use
    quizzes to assess comprehension and produce
    reports containing a variety of information.
  • RMSs started in the late 80s
  • Characteristics
  • Multiple choice quizzes for comprehension
  • Provide immediate feedback
  • Award points based on length and difficulty
    (points can be used for extrinsic motivation)
  • Both on-screen and printable reports
  • First became popular because of student interest
    with computers, as well as incentive activities

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • Accelerated Reader
  • First marketed under Read Up
  • Most widely used through the 90s
  • Over 25,000 fiction and nonfiction titles
  • Quizzes have 5 10 questions with multiple
    choice responses
  • Point value based on book length and readability
  • Drawbacks
  • Exclusive grade equivalent leveling
  • Readability formulas have changed over the years,
    creating inconsistencies
  • Although responses are random, each quiz for a
    book has the same questions (limits retake
    options and makes cheating more possible)
  • Fact-based questions fail to stimulate
    higher-level thinking
  • No provision for teachers to customize quiz
    length, passing score, point level, etc.

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • The Electronic Bookshelf
  • The first program widely available
  • Very similar to Accelerated Reader
  • Differences
  • Quizzes provide three responses instead of four
  • Responses are drawn randomly for each quiz
  • Provides some protection against cheating
  • Permits student retakes
  • Highly customizable

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • Reading Counts
  • In 1998, Scholastic acquired the Electronic
    Bookshelf and upgraded it to create Reading
  • Characteristics
  • Multiple choice quizzes with 4 responses
  • Randomized item bank
  • Questions include inference and maid idea
    questions as well as basic recall
  • Includes book leveling in Lexiles, along with
    traditional grade leveling
  • Program can print stickers for Lexile labeling of

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • Online Reader
  • Most recently created management program
  • Uses Lexiles as readability scale
  • Has many features of other computerized programs
  • Focuses on periodical articles instead of trade
  • Has library of over 350 selections
  • Quiz items include fill-in-the-blank as well as
    multiple choice

Table of Contents
Chapter 8Using Lexiles with Reading Management
  • Basic Lexile Procedure for Reading Management
  • Student competency range if student can answer
    at least 75-80 of the questions with accuracy
  • Below 75 - The teacher should intervene to
    determine book difficulty
  • Over 100 - Time for teacher intervention to
    encourage more challenging reading

Table of Contents
Chapter 9Using Lexiles to Communicate with
Parents and the Community
  • Lexiles provide a common language with which to
    communicate with parents and the community.
  • Lexiles provide a way to compare a students
  • performance to textual difficulty instead of to
    their peers.
  • Educators can give examples of specific texts to
  • to illustrate the students reading proficiency.

Communicating with Parents
Table of Contents
Chapter 9Using Lexiles to Communicate with
Parents and the Community
Techniques for Parent Communications
  • Reading Folders/Portfolios
  • List of books within the students Lexile range.
  • Documentation of reading assessments.
  • Reading form to record reading done at home.
  • Written record of titles that students have read.
  • Student writing.
  • Simple explanation of the Lexile Framework.
  • Open House
  • Poster board displays.
  • Samples of lexiled texts.
  • Take-home sheets that explain the Lexile
  • Report Cards
  • Include students lexile measure on report card
    with an accompanying information sheet.

Table of Contents
Chapter 9Using Lexiles to Communicate with
Parents and the Community
  • Reading is one of the core skills that is
    expected to be taught at school. and is one
    of the chief factors people examine when they
    assess the quality of schools. (p.87)
  • Community Relationships
  • Involve public libraries and bookstores by
    displaying lexile scales and stocking books that
    the schools are using.
  • Media Relations
  • Use newspapers to explain what Lexiles are and
    how they work.
  • Service Group Presentations
  • Prepare 15 minute presentations to gain the
    support of influential organizations.
  • Business Partnerships
  • Approach business leaders to gain their support
    and involvement in promoting literacy.

Table of Contents
Chapter 9Using Lexiles to Communicate with
Parents and the Community
  • No school stands alone. It is
  • vitally connected with the parents of
  • its students and with everyone in the
  • wider community who depend on the
  • schools success. (p. 90)
  • Communication about the benefits of
  • the Lexile Framework will allow the
  • community to participate in the
  • schools reading success.

Table of Contents
Chapter 10Standard Setting With Lexiles
  • What is a Standard?
  • A useful definition is that a standard is a
    statement about what is valued that can be used
    for making a judgment of quality.

Table of Contents
Chapter 10Standard Setting With Lexiles
  • Using Lexiles to Set Standards
  • Lexiles are not linked to a specific test, but
    can be derived from any standardized test.
  • Lexiles allow you to have multiple indicators
    report a common metric. Instead of having only
    one annual measurement of student ability, you
    can now compile a variety of measurements and
    observations, all converted to the Lexile Scale.

Table of Contents
Chapter 10Standard Setting With Lexiles
  • We teach students to read in the first place
    because we want them to be able to use reading
    successfully as a skill they can apply to their
    lives. Our end-point standards, then, should
    involve texts that people need to read with
    enough comprehension to function in various areas
    of life.

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Chapter 10Standard Setting With Lexiles
  • We could define five such areas of literacy
  • Workplace Literacy
  • Citizenship Literacy
  • Continuing Education Literacy
  • Moral/Ethical/Religious Literacy
  • Recreational Literacy

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Chapter 10Standard Setting With Lexiles
  • Conclusion
  • By grounding the process of standard and
    benchmark setting in the context of real texts we
    want our students to comprehend, and by providing
    us with an absolute scale on which to place both
    students and texts of any kind, the Lexile
    Framework provides a strong foundation for
    setting reading standards.

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Lesson Plans Resources
  • Lexile List of Popular Adolescent Literature
  • Article Matching Readers to Text
  • Lesson Plan Using Lexiles in Research
  • Lexiles of Selected Text Books
  • Reading is Thinking
  • Pre-reading and Cooperative Learning Activities

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