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Padua in the Exploration of the Universe

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Padua in the Exploration of the Universe Cesare Barbieri Department of Astronomy University of Padua 23 September 1999 Conference held on the occasion of the 31-st ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Padua in the Exploration of the Universe


1
Paduain the Exploration of the Universe
  • Cesare Barbieri
  • Department of Astronomy
  • University of Padua
  • 23 September 1999
  • Conference held on the occasion of the 31-st
    Annual Meeting of the Division for Planetary
    Sciences of the American Astronomical Society

2
Introduction
  • The aim of this conference is to provide a short
    history of the astronomical studies in Padua, and
    a brief (and necessarily incomplete) account of
    the present situation and foreseeable
    developments. I wish to thank the many colleagues
    who helped with the documentation.

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
3
Index
  • A brief history up to 1950
  • The modern epoch Giuseppe Colombo, Leonida
    Rosino , Nicolo Dallaporta
  • Italy joins ESA and ESO
  • Observations, theories, space missions
  • Cerenkov light, gravitational waves
  • A panoramic on the future
  • Conclusions
  • To know more

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
4
Padua
  • City
  • University, Astronomical Observatory, Research
    Institutes
  • Accademia de Ricovrati (1599) ? Accademia
    Galileiana Patavina di Scienze Lettere e Arti
  • Bishops, Colleges
  • ...

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
5
A Brief History - 1
  • Pietro dAbano (c. 1250 - c.1315)
  • teaching of the ptolemaic system
  • Giovanni Dondi dallOrologio
  • (1318 - 1389)
  • the astrarium a mechanical model of the
    ptolemaic system

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
6
A Brief History - 2 Galileo Galilei in Padua
(1592 - 1610)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
7
A Brief History - 3
  • LAccademia de Ricovrati (1599)
  • (Accademia Galileiana Patavina di Scienze
    Lettere e Arti)
  • Geminiano Montanari (1633 - 1687)
  • Comet Halley
  • St. Gregorio Barbarigo (1625 - 1697)
  • the professors
  • the Specola of the Seminario
  • the printing house
  • the laboratory of physics

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
8
A Brief History - 4
  • Giuseppe Toaldo (1719 -1797)
  • the Specola (decree of the Republic of Venice,
    1761), meteorology, (extra-solar planets)
  • Giovanni Santini (1787 - 1877)
  • cometary orbits, Cataloghi Padovani of stellar
    positions, Lezioni of Astronomy and Optics
  • Giuseppe Lorenzoni (1843 - 1914)
  • astronomical photometry and spectroscopy,
    geodesy

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
9
The Specola of Padua (1767)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
10
A Brief History - 5 The Mathematicians
  • Gregorio Ricci Curbastro (1853 - 1925)
  • Tullio Levi Civita (1873 - 1941)
  • Tensor Calculus and General Relativity
  • Mechanics

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
11
A Brief History - 6 Bruno Rossi (1905 -
1993)Antonio Rostagni (1904-1988)
  • The Institute of Physics (1938)
  • The East - West asymmetry of cosmic rays
  • Cosmic rays observations using balloons

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
12
A Brief History - 7Giovanni Silva (1882 -
1957)The Astrophysical Observatory of Asiago
(1942)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
13
A Brief History - 8Geodetic Astronomy
  • the polar motion and the International Latitude
    Service
  • the contribution to the Carloforte station
    (founded in 1899) Ciscato, Bianchi
  • Soler, Boaga, Tomelleri

G. Ciscato
E. Soler, Rector
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
14
The Modern Epoch
  • Giuseppe Colombo
  • Leonida Rosino
  • Nicolo Dallaporta
  • Italy joins the European Space Agency and the
    European Southern Observatory
  • The space telescopes, the Center for Space
    Activities (CISAS)
  • Cerenkov light and gravitational Waves

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
15
Giuseppe Colombo(1920 - 1984)
  • Celestial Mechanics, rotation of Mercury, space
    navigation
  • the GIOTTO mission and the InterAgency
    Consultative Group
  • space geodesy

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
16
Leonida Rosino (1915 - 1997)
  • The Schmidt telescopes and the Cima Ekar
    Observatory
  • variable stars, Novae and Supernovae
  • open and globular clusters
  • diffuse and planetary nebulae
  • the Corso di Laurea in Astronomy

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
17
Nicolo Dallaporta
  • Evolution of the Solar System, Stars and Galaxies
  • General Relativity
  • Theoretical Cosmology
  • The Anthropic Principle
  • Science, Metaphysics, Faith

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
18
Telescopes and their Instrumentation,
Observations, Theories and Models, Space
Missions
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
19
The Observing Station L. Rosino at Cima Ekar
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
20
The 3.5 m National Telescope Galileo (TNG)
Active Optics
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
21
The TNG - Adaptive Optics
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
22
Detectors, Instrumentation,Controls, Data
Archives
  • Image Intensifiers, photon counters, solid state
    devices,
  • OIG (the visual camera for the TNG), SARG (the
    high resolution spectrograph for the TNG)
  • Data archives Guide Star Catalogue II, ...

From the first CCD for the 182 cm (1984) to the
OIG TNG (1998)
SARG and a first comparison spectrum
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
23
Solar System - 1
  • Meteorites
  • Lunar Sodium
  • Asteroids and Comets

Iron meteorite
Acqueous Alteration in the spectra of asteroids
H2O in Kohoutek comet
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
24
Solar System - 2
  • Sodium in the Giovian system and in comets
  • Pluto

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
25
Solar System - 3 Formation
models of planetesimal accumulation and
formation of planetary embryos in the
terrestrial region
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
26
Extra-solar Planets, Low Mass Stars
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
27
Stellar Evolution - 1
  • The final destiny of stars depends on the
    initial mass of the central core

Supernovae
Abscissa central temperature Ordinate density
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
28
Stellar Evolution - 2 Open Clusters
Evolution of the stars in an open cluster
including the so-called overshooting process
the cluster turns out to be older than in
previous theories.
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
29
Globular Clusters - 1
  • NGC 6397 the cluster with the smallest distance
    modulus

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
30
Globular Clusters - 2
  • Pal 1 the youngest globular cluster in the
    Milky Way (about 8 billion years)

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
31
Globular Clusters - 3The Bulge-halo Connexion
An H-R diagram in the near IR of the galactic
bulge, down to stars of mass 0.15 Mo
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
32
Planetary Nebulae
H?
O III
N II
3D Tomography in different spectral lines
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
33
Variable Stars
  • Flare stars, binaries
  • Cataclismic variables, evolution and connexion
    with solar actvity
  • Simbiotic stars

M57 - TNG
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
34
Novae
  • In the Milky Way
  • In M31 and in M33

Novae as extra-galactic distance indicators
absolute magnitude as function of the decline
rate. Dashed line theoretical track as
function of the mass of the White Dwarf.
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
35
Supernovae -1
  • Discovery and classification

SN 19991 - The discovery with OIG-TNG
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
36
Supernovae - 2 Search of SNs Associated to Gamma
Bursts
Supernova 1998bw associated to the Gamma Burst
GRB 980425
The discovery, the light curve, the spectum
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
37
Supernovae - 3 The High Redshift SNs
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
38
Relativistic Astrophysics - 1SS 433
Pulsar in the Crab
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
39
Relativistic Astrophysics - 2 The Structure of a
Black Hole
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
40
Galaxies - 1
  • Morphology, rotation curves, dark mass
  • Theoretical models of elliptical galaxies

Growth of the apparent dimensions of M87 from
1932 to 1969 thanks to the improvements in image
acquisition and analysis
Tidal Effect of a dark halo
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
41
Galaxies - 2
  • Elliptical galaxies halos, anisotropies,
    triaxiality
  • Counter-rotation between gas and stars

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
42
Stellar Populations in the Galaxies of the Local
Group
Phoenix, a nearby galaxy resolved in stars the
blue ones are young stars overimposed to an
older population
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
43
Theoretical Synthesis of Spectra of Normal
Galaxies
Comparison between observations (upper lines) and
theory (lower lines)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
44
Active Galaxies the Nuclear Region
Optical jet of the Radiogalaxy (also a BL
Lac) Pks 0521-365 from ground and space a) jet
plus galaxy b) only jet
compact emission at 0.3
HST
ESO -NTT
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
45
NGC 6240 An Active Galaxy with Violent Star
Formation
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
46
Two Clusters of Galaxies at an Intermediate
Redshift
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
47
Quasars
Optical variability of 3C 345
The luminosity function of bright QSOs
The Ly-alpha forest
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
48
The Formation of Cosmic Structures
  • Numerical Simulation of a large cluster of
    galaxies having a mass of 1015 Mo/H and a scale
    of 6 Megaparsec, made with a parallel
    supercomputer Cray T3E

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
49
The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect and the Hubble
Constant H0
Direct measurement of the distance scale in the
Universe
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
50
The Spectrum of the Extragalactic Background in
the Far InfraRed
The background radiation between 10 and 1000
micron is dominated by a population of galaxies
strongly evolving with the cosmic time. Therefore
the vision in the optical band of the primordial
Universe is severely limited.
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
51
The European Giotto Mission
  • The Halley Multicolour Camera
  • The nucleus of Halleys comet

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
52
The European Hipparcos Mission Astrometry at the
Milliarcsec level
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
53
UVCS on the Solar Heliospheric Observatory
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
54
HASI the Instrument for Titans Atmospheric
Structure
  • In flight on the Huygens probe of the Cassini
    spacecraft toward Saturn and Titan

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
55
Cerenkov Light and Gravitational Waves
  • Cosmic Rays, CLUE and future expansions
  • Gravitational Waves

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
56
Projects for the Future
  • Wide field prime focus for the telescopes VST,
    LBT and TNG
  • The European missions Rosetta, Mars Express,
    FIRST/Planck
  • Earth Surveys from space
  • and (hopefully)
  • astronomical instruments on the International
    Space Station
  • Missions to Mars e Mercury
  • The European Astrometry Mission Gaia
  • Astrobiology
  • The UltraLarge Telescopes

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
57
The Prime Focus for the Large Binocular Telescope
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
58
The Near-IR Prime Focus of the TNG
Spectral range from 1.0 to 2.5 micrometres with a
HgCdTe sensor
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
59
The European Mission Rosetta
(2003-2013)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
60
The European Mission Mars Express (2003)
  • The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) for the
    study of the atmosphere and of the soil of Mars

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
61
The European MissionFIRST/Planck (2007)
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
62
GAIA - The Future Mission for Microarcsec
Astrometry
Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
63
Public Outreach
  • Catch the Stars in the Net!
  • www.pd.astro.it/stelle.html
  • Voyage in the Cosmos
  • (the exibition of 1997, in the Internet and a
    CD-Rom)
  • Impacts
  • (in the Internet since 1999)

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
64
Exhibitions
  • Halley and Giotto (1985 - 1986)
  • From Galileo to GALILEO (1996)
  • That Night on the Moon (1999)

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
65
Conclusions
  • High visibility in the world-wide community
  • Possible future expansions
  • - the new frame of the Istituto Nazionale di
    Astrofisica (INAF)
  • - consolidation of the structure of Space
    Activities

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
66
To Know More
  • www.pd.astro.it
  • cisas.unipd.it
  • www.dei.unipd.it
  • www.infn.it

Cesare Barbieri, 23 September 1999
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